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THE 



litres of tl)e S>atnt0 



REV. S. BARING-GOULD 
SIXTEEN VOLUMES 

VOLUME THE SIXTEENTH 

^ppmtiii Uolumc 



-* 



This Volume contains Two INDICES 
to the Sixteen Volumes of the 
work, one an Index of the Saints 
whose Lives are given, and the other 
a Subject Index. 



First Edition pitblished 1872 

Second Edition , . . . ,, iSqj 

New and Revised Edition, 16 vols. ,, -^9^4 



*- 




Appendix Vol. , Frontispiece.] 



fy^/y 




I 



* 



THE 



ILit)t0 of t!;t g>atnt0 



BY THE 

REV. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A. 



With Introduction and Additional Lives of English 

Martyrs, Cornish, Scottish, and Welsh Saints, 

and a full Index to the Entire Work 



New and Revised Edition 

ILLUSTRATED BY 473 ENGRAVINGS 
VOLUME THE SIXTEENTH 

^ppcntiix Folumc 




EDINBURGH: JOHN GRANT 

31 GEORGE IV BRIDGE 

1914 



-^ 



BX 

63 



Printed by Ballantvne, Hanson &' Co. 
at the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



*t- 



-* 




CONTENTS 



The Celtic Church and its Saints . 

Brittany : its Princes and Saints . 

Pedigrees of Saintly Families .... 

A Celtic and English Kalendar of Saints 
Proper to the Welsh, Cornish, Scottish, 
Irish, Breton, and English People . 

Catalogue of the Materials Available for 
the Pedigrees of the British Saints 



Errata 

Index to Saints whose Lives are Given 
Index to Subjects 



PAGBS 

1-86 

87-120 

121-158 



1 59-326 

327 
329 
333 
3(J4 



1^ 



-* 



VI 



Contcftis 



LIST OF ADDITIONAL LIVES GIVEN IN THE 
CELTIC AND ENGLISH KALENDAR 



n. 


PAGE 


Aaron 


245 


Aclliaiarn . . . . 


2S8 


Afan 


305 


Aidan .... 


177 


Alburga . . . 


324 


Aldate .... 


179 


Alfred the Great 


285 


Alfric .... 


305 


Almcdlia . . . 


258 


Ainacllilu . . . 


325 


Armel .... 


264 


Arnulf .... 


. 268 


Austell .... 


■ 243 


Auxilius . .275 


, 316 



B 

Baithen or Baitan . 232 

Barrwg or Barriic . 317 

Beiino 214 

Birstan 294 

Bodfan 229 

Boethius . . . .321 

Boisil 174 

Bregwyn .... 269 

Brinstan .... 294 

Bristan 294 

Brothen . . . .281 

Brynach Wyddel . 209 

Budoc 321 

Buith 321 

Buriana .... 226 



Cadfan 288 

Cadoc . . . 174, 3-5 
Cadwaladr . . . 280 
Caian 276 



S 



Callwen .... 

Canog 

Caranog orCarantog 

Caron 

Cathan 

Catherine Audley . 
Cawrdaf .... 
Ceadwalla .... 

Ceitho 

Celynin, son of 

Cynyr Farfdrwch 
Celynin, son of 

Helig 
Cewydd 
Cian . . 
Ciedwyn 
Clement 
Clether . 
Clydai . 
Clydog . 
Clydwyn 
Collen . 
Colman 
Conan . 
Conlaeth 
Constantine 
Conval . 
Cowair . 
Creirwy 
Crewenna 
Cristioliis 
Cumine the Wh 
Cungar . 
Curig . 
Cuthbert 



279 
222 

193 



Cwyfan or 
Cwyllog 
Cybi . . 
Cynbryd 



Cwyfen 



te . 



314 
3'9 
213 

287 



287 

310 

245 
321 
287 
197 
265 
288 

294 
287 

22 '\ 

184 
176 

195 
198 

277 
251 
192 
179 
294 

1 86 
301 
236 
285 
230 
168 
279 
197 



'^ 



-* 



Co7itents 



Vll 



s. 


PAGE 

Cynddilig .... 293 


11 


Cyndeyrn 








2S4 


)7 


Cynfab . 








30 s 


11 


Cvnfarch 








272 


11 


Cynfarvvy 








302 


11 


Cynfran 








.30.3 


11 


Cyngar . . 








301 


11 


Cynhafal 








279 


•!■) 


Cynidr . 








216 


11 


Cynllo . 








2 S3 


^^ 


Cynog . 








279 


iy 


Cynwyl . 








217 


1^ 


Cyriacus 








236 


11 


Cywair . 








2SI 


>i 


Cywyllog 








168 




D 


s. 


Dagaeus .... 265 


11 


Dagan .... 


228 


11 


David .... 


187 


11 


Deghadh . . . 


265 


11 


Deifer .... 


193 


11 


Deiniol Car- 






penter . . . 


273 


11 


Deiniol the Youngei 


' 313 




Deiniolen . . . 


313 


11 


Deiniolfab . . . 


313 


11 


Derfel Gadarn . 


207 


11 


Deruvianus . . 


221 


11 


Digain .... 


310 


11 


Dihaer . 




193 


u 


Diheifyr 




• 193 


u 


Dingad . 




287 


It 


Docmael 




• 234 


11 


Doewan 




2S3 


11 


Dogfan . 




252 


11 


Dogmael 




• 234 


i> 


Dogwan 




. 252 


11 


Domneva 




• 309 


11 


Dona . 




293 


11 


Drostan 




• 322 


11 


Dubricius 




• 304 


11 


Dubricius, 


T ran si a 






lion of 


■ • I 


. 228 




Dubtach 








. 280 



FAGE 

S. Dunawd Fawr . . 272 
„ Dunchad .... 201 
„ Dwynwen . . . -175 

„ Dyfan 221 

„ Dyfnan 216 

„ Dyfnog. . . . . 183 
„ Dyfrig, Translation 

of 228 

S.S Dyfrwyr, the . . . 292 



E 

Eadburg .... 235 

Eadfrid 284 

Eadsin 285 

Ealsitha .... 253 
Easterwin . . . .193 

Edbert 266 

Edburga .... 235 
Edeyrn . . . c .168 
Edmund, C. . , . 278 
Edmund, K. M. . .310 

Edwen 297 

Efflam 297 

Egbert 309 

Egelwin . . . .318 

Eigrad 167 

Einion 180 

Elaeth the King . . 303 

Eldad 179 

Elian Geimiad . .170 

Elined 258 

Ellidius .... 259 

Elstan 208 

Enghenedl . . . 278 
Enoder or Cynidr . 216 
. . 170,228 



Erbin . . 
Erfyl . . 
Erme . . 
Ermel . . 
Ermenburga 
Ermengytha 
Ernan . . 
Etheldwitha 
Ethelgiva . 
Ethelhard . 



248 
264 
264 

309 

257 

161 

253 
321 

22 1 



iH.- 



-* 



*- 



-* 



Vlll 



Contents 



S. Ethel noth . . 
„ Elhelwin . . 
„ Eurfyl . . . 
„ Eurgain . . 
„ Eval or Evall 



S. 



Failbhe I. . . . 

Failbhe the Little 

Fergna the White 

Ffagan .... 

Ffinan .... 

Fflewyn . . . 

Finan, or Finian 
the Leper . . 
SS. Fingar and Piala 
S. Finian .... 
„ Fothadh IL . . 
„ Frithebert. . . 
„ Frithestan . . . 



S. Gallgo 

„ Geraint or Geron- 
tius 

Gernioc or Germoe 

Gistlian . . . . 

Gluvias or Glywys . 

Gofor 

Gorwst 

Grace and Probus . 
S. Gredifael . . . . 

Grwst 

Guinock . . . . 

Gundleus or Gwyn- 
llyw Filwr . . . 

Guron or Goran. . 

Gurwal 

Gwen of Cornwall . 

Gwen of Wales . . 

Gwenfaen . . . . 

Gwenfyl . . . . 

Gwenog . . . . 

Gwerir or Guier. . 

Gwethenoc . . . 



SS 



I'AGE 
2S6 
219 
248 
244 
310 



197 
194 
188 
259 
322 
321 

196 
198 
272 
179 

273 



316 

260 
240 
191 
219 
220 

208 
304 

3'8 
21 1 



202 
210 
230 
282 
282 
296 
288 
165 
207 
192 



It 



S. Gwodloew . . 
„ Gwrnerth . . 

Gwryd . . . 

Gwynan . . 
SS. Gwyn and comp 
S. G w y n h o e d 1 

Gwynodl 
„ Gwynlleu 
„ Gwynno 
„ Gwynnog 
„ Gwynnoro 
„ Gvvynws 



or 



PAGE 

211 

210 

293 
322 

287 

288 
287 
284 

2 87 



H 

S. Hychan .... 259 
„ Hydroc .... 220 
„ Hywyn .... 167 

I 

S. Idloes 271 

,, Illog 259 

„ lUut or llltyd . , 249 
SS. hidract and com- 
pany 220 

S. Ismael 235 

„ Isserninus. . 316,318 
„ Ita or Ytha . . .171 

J 

SS. Jacut, Gwethenoc, 

and Creirwy . . 192 
S. Jambert .... 263 

,, Joavan 188 

„ Julius and Aaron . 245 

„ Jurmin 186 

„ Just 264 

,, Justinian .... 320 

„ Justus 303 

,, Jutwara or Jutwell . 252 

K 

S. Katherine Audley . 314 

„ Kay 294 

„ Kea 294 



-« 



*- 



-* 



Contents 



IX 



PAGE 

Kenan 294 

KennothaorKevoca 195 
Kentigierna . . . 169 

Kevern 305 

Kieran 192 

Kigwve or Kywa . 180 



S. Leonore 
Levan or Lev 
Lewina . . 
Llechid. 
Lleuddad . 
Llibio . . 
Llwchaiarn 
Llywelyn and Gwr 
nerth . . . 

M 

S. Mabenna . . . 
„ Mabyn .... 
„ Machan . . . 
„ Machraith. . . 
„ Machudd . . . 
„ Macwaloc . . . 
„ Maei or Mahael 
„ Maelog. . . . 
„ Maelrubh . . . 
„ Maelrys . . . 
„ Maethlu . . . 
„ Maildulf or Maidulf 
„ Malo . 
,, Manaccus 
,, Marcella 
„ Marchell 
,, Marnanor Marnock 
„ Marnoc or Marnan 
,, Materiana. . . . 
„ Mathernus or Mad- 
ron . 
„ Maudez 
,, Maughan 
„ Mawes . 
„ Mawganor 
„ Mechell 
VOL. XVI. 



246 
231 
254 

319 
172 

187 
169 

210 



276 
276 
277 
161 

305 
176 
22 I 
326 
215 

325 
213 

304 
281 
271 
271 
188 
283 
210 



. . . 306 
. . .277 

• • -306 

Meugant 277 

• • -305 



SS 



Medana .... 308 

Meigan 277 

Meirion . . . .179 
Melangell or Mona- 

cella 225 

Melanius .... 296 

Melor 162 

Merewenna, V. Rum- 

sey 221 

Merewenna, V. Mar- 

hamchurch . . 263 
Meriadoc .... 231 
Merin or Meiryn . 167 
Meugant .... 277 

Mevan 238 

Minver or Mene- 

freda 314 

Moloc or Mo-luoch 240 
Monan or Moinen . 188 

N 

Nectan 238 

Nidan 278 

Non or Nonnita . 189 
Nothelm .... 282 
NwythonorNoethan 283 



S. Pabo Post Prydain 302 

Padarn 289 

Pandvvyna .... 268 
Patrician .... 316 
Paul, BishopofLdon 195 
Paulinus . . . 
Peblig or Publicius 
Peithian . 
Peulin .... 
Plegmund . 
Probus and Grace 



S. 



311 

248 
176 



1 1 



258 
208 



R 



Rhediw 303 

Rhian 194 

Rluiddlad . . . .271 
Rhwydrys .... 287 

b 



-* 



Co7itents 



-^ 



PAGE 

S. Richard Rolle . . 277 

„ Rioch 182 

„ Robert 202 

„ Ronan 180 

„ Rumon, Roman, or 

Ruan .... 165 
„ Rumwold .... 269 
„ Rychwyn .... 233 

S 

S. Sadvvm Farchog . 317 

„ Samson . . . .254 

„ Sa\vyl Benuchel . . 172 

„ Scothin 161 

„ Secundinus . . .316 

„ Seiriol 162 

„ Senan 194 

„ Sennan or Senanus 233 

„ Sidwell or Sativola. 258 

„ Sigfrid 267 

„ Solomon or Selyf . 241 

„ Stinan 320 

„ Sulien or Silin . . 270 

T 

S. Talarican .... 286 

„ Tanwg 280 

,, Tathan or Tathajus 324 
„ Tecwyn or Tegwyn 274 
„ Tegla or Theckla . 229 

„ Teilo 181 

„ Tenenan .... 253 
„ Ternan orTorannan 233 
„ Teyrnog or Tyrnog 207 
„ Thomas k Becket . 326 

» TriUo 234 

„ Tuda 183 

„ Tudglyd .... 228 
„ Tudno 230 



PACE 

Tudur 281 

Tudy 274 

Tugdual . . . .318 

Turgot 206 

Twrog 243 

Tybie 176 

Tydecho .... 322 

Tydfyl 268 

Tyfaelog . . . .187 

Tyfei 202 

Tyfrj'dog . . . .160 
Tyssul 177 

U 

S. Ulched 168 

„ Ust 264 

„ Uvellus 310 

V 

S. Veep, Wymp, or 

Wennapa . . . 246 
„ Veho or Vougo . .234 
„ Voloc or Macwoloc 176 

W 



Walstan 
Wennapa . 
Wilfrid II. . 
Wilgis . . 
William . . 
Winoc or Guinock 
Winwaloe . . 190, 
Withburga 
Wulfhilda . . 
Wymp . . . 



246 
217 
177 
22 ^ 
21 1 
217 
251 
272 
246 



S. Ytha 171 



■y< 



* * 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
AND MAPS 

[Battlefields in the Maps are tnarked by Crossed Swords, and Abbeys by a +'\ 

Map of Britain in 580 a.d Frontispiece 

Map of Britain in 750 a.d to face p. i 

Map of Cornwall in the Sixth Century, 
showing Brecknock - Gwentian and 
Irish Colonies „ 16 



Map of Ancient Wales 



32 



Plan of Early Celtic Monastic Settle- 
ment ON Skellig-Michael, Co. Kerry „ 64 

Map of Brittany, after the Migrations 

FROM Britain .. 86 

Saint Gwen-Teirbron and her Three 

Sons, Monument in Brittany . . „ 192 

GwELY Melangell — RocK Bed of S. Mel- 

angell ., 224 

Tomb of S. Pabo .\t Llanbabo ... „ 302 



*- 




Appendix Vol., p. i. ] 



-* 




Lives of the Saints 



THE CELTIC CHURCH AND ITS SAINTS. 

HE earliest inhabitants of the British Isles were 
those who in the sub-glacial period used rude 
chipped and flaked tools of flint and of bone ; 
a people long-headed, tall, of a gentle and 
patient disposition, if one may judge by their remains. 
Whether they lingered on till the arrival of the dusky short 
race we call Ivernian, Iberian, or Silurian, we have no 
means of saying with any approach to certainty. But 
there still remain along our western coasts, at the Land's 
End, in Pembrokeshire, in old Strathclyde, in the Western 
Isles, men and women with long faces, and dark hair and 
eyes, of a handsome type, fondly supposed to be relics of 
Spaniards cast ashore from the Armada, who may with 
greater justice be regarded as survivals of the earliest type 
that occupied the British Isles. 

But the race that prevailed was short of build, probably 
sallow, and with beady eyes. It is that which at a 
remote period covered the whole of Gaul, the north of 
Germany, the south of Sweden, and which arrived in 
Europe by the valley of the Kuban, north of the Caucasus, 
from the East. This people, which, wherever possible, 
erected megalithic monuments, symbols of its endurance 

VOL. XVI. A 



* 



-* 



*- 



-* 



Lives of the Saints. 



through all time, is the first of which we can speak with 
any degree of confidence. It was a race of inextinguish- 
able vitality. It is still largely represented in Wales, and in 
Ireland, and in Lancashire. It has become the dominant 
type in Aquitania, if not throughout France. Pure and 
unalloyed, or nearly so, it remains in the Berber ; dress 
a Kabyl in a French blouse, and he will not be dis- 
tinguishable from a native of Guienne. The Portuguese 
also represents the same race. The language spoken by 
this people was probably agglutinative ; like the Basque, it 
had not attained to that development in which inflection is 
found. 

At some remote period, certainly not later than a 
thousand years before Christ, a Celtic invasion of Britain 
took place. The great nursery of this mighty people 
seems to have been the Alps. The migration which 
came into and occupied Britain was afterwards termed 
Goidelic. The Goidels possessed themselves of the whole 
of Britain and a portion of Ireland. They subdued, but 
by no means exterminated, the dusky race they found in 
possession. They imposed on them their Aryan tongue, 
but themselves adopted the religion and usages of the 
subjugated race. 

How far the Goidels occupied Wales and South Britain 
is matter of dispute. Such an authority as Dr. Rhys 
holds that they completely subdued the Ivernians through- 
out Wales and Devon and Cornwall. This opinion is 
based, I believe, mainly on the Goidelic form of the in- 
scribed stones there found. The place-names, however, 
bear hardly a trace of Goidelic idiom. The Goidel said ken 
for head, whereas the Brython said pen. With the former 
five was (O.I.) coic, and the latter pump ; with the former 
each, a horse, the latter ep. Dr. Guest has given reasons 
for holding that the Volcse of Southern Gaul, the Belgae 



-ijr 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 3 

of the Netherlands and Gaul, south and west of the Rhine, 
and the Fir-Bolgs of Ireland, were one with the Goidels. 

In Scotland, north of the Antonine Wall, the Ivernians 
lived on unsubdued under the name of Pict, but with a 
large infusion of Goidelic blood. We find plenty of traces 
of Goidelic kens there, as we do in Ireland. 

In or about the fourth century B.C. the whole of Europe, 
and indeed Asia Minor as well, were convulsed by another 
migration of Celts, whom the Alps could no longer contain. 
This was the Gallic wave, which in our island has taken 
the name of Brythonic. This wave overflowed all that 
portion of Gaul which lies between the Rhine and the 
Seine, and crossing into our island conquered the Goidel, 
who now acquired this name, expressive of contempt, as 
signifying the savage.^ The new-comers were armed with 
weapons of iron, whereas those whom they subjugated were 
furnished with arms of bronze, bone, and stone. 

Driving the Goidels before them, the Britons advanced 
till they reached the western sea, thrusting a wedge into 
Wales, and constituting the basis of what was afterwards 
known as the kingdom of Powys. 

Some must have crossed into Ireland, where they 
established themselves in what are now the counties ot 
Wicklow, Wexford, and Carlow. Both Goidel and Brython, 
or Gael, spoke a language closely akin, but partly owing to 
separation through centuries, and partly through the altera- 
tion of Goidelic through contact with the Ivernian, there 
was a notable difference between the tongues when they 
met. In Wales, especially in the south, the Silurian, non- 
Aryan, tongue prevailed till the Roman conquest, and in 
Pictland till some centuries later. 

The Britons occupied the entire east of Britain to the 
wall uniting the Firth of Forth with the Firth of Clyde. 

1 Givyddel from Gwydd, trees ; gwyddeli, bushes ; gwyddelig^ sylvan, savage. 
* . 



*- 



Lives of the Saints. 



This wall did not of course then exist, but later on it 
marked the limit of their conquest. They held the sea- 
board from the Sohvay Firth to the mouth of the Dee, and 
their tribe of the Ordovices, as already stated, had pierced 
the heart of Wales, and held the major portion of the 
coast of Cardigan Bay. At first they did not extend in 
the south-west, into Somerset and Dorset, but were able 
gradually and surely to roll back the natives or to enslave 
them. 

The great cradle of the Celtic stock had been the high- 
lands of the Alps, where, in a densely wooded region, there 
had been no need to use stone for building enclosures 
and houses. The custom grew up to live on platforms 
above the lakes, constructed of wood and on piles, and 
upon these platforms to plant clusters of hovels made of 
wood and wattle. 

When the Goidelic branch arrived in Britain and in 
Ireland, and was brought into contact with the earlier 
race, that was emphatically one of builders, it viewed with 
amazement their achievements in the erection of megalithic 
monuments, and although subjugating them, acquired their 
civilisation and habits of life and religion. To a late 
period, even to Christian times, these Goidels constructed 
dwellings and forts after the pattern acquired from the 
Silurians, and to this day bee-hive huts in Wales are called 
" the hovels of the Goidels." 

But the Britons were in a far higher condition of civilisa- 
tion when they appeared on the scene in our island, as 
were the Gauls when they arrived in what we now call 
France. They knew how to make iron weapons, and 
they had acquired such dexterity in the construction of 
timber dwellings, and in palisading, that they felt no dis- 
position to adopt the methods of the Goidels. The 
fortresses they erected were not mainlv of stone, but were 



*- 



-.J. 



^- 1^ 

T/ie Celtic Church and its Saints. 5 

earthworks crested with a stockade ; and their houses, 
halls, and eventually their churches, were all constructed 
of wood. 

It was the same with their religion ; they exhibited no 
inclination to accept that which belonged originally to the 
Ivernians, and which had been adopted by the Goidels. 
Gauls and Brythons had advanced from mere spirit worship, 
the cult of the dead, to the worship of elemental deities. 
They burned their dead, but did not make for them rude 
stone cists, set up circles, nor construct dolmens. 

In one particular, and in one only, were the Ivernians 
their superiors — this gifted race had always been one of 
builders. They not only erected gigantic monuments 
for their dead, but were able to construct stone circular 
habitations for themselves, and to throw up around them 
great stone fortifications. From them their Goidelic con- 
querors had acquired the art. But the Brythons would 
none of it. They showed to the last a really astounding 
incapacity to build. Accustomed on their platforms above 
the lakes in Switzerland to live in wattled hovels, they 
brought with them extraordinary skill in plaiting and 
weaving, and contented themselves with dwellings made 
of wattles ; and for protection they threw up earthworks, 
and crested them with interwoven work of palisades and 
willow wands. The exquisite interlaced work that orna- 
ments their monuments and decorates Irish manuscripts 
is due to this hereditary love of lattice. 

The Roman conquest of Britain was mainly one of the 
Brython, at least at first ; but after Agricola's defeat of the 
Silurians, Roman civilisation penetrated into Wales, where 
the conquerors worked the gold mines whence the Silurian 
had for long derived the most precious metal. 

It may be suspected that the Romanised Britons lost 
most of their vigour, as they did of their independence, 

* ^ 



6 Lives of the Saints. 

when they received a veneer of Roman culture. The 
imperial system, if it had not destroyed, had weakened that 
tribal cohesion under hereditary chiefs which was the 
form of national organisation to which they had developed 
when the iron hand of Rome smote them and arrested the 
natural and logical growth of their free institutions in 
accordance with the genius of the race. The people were 
forced by three centuries of Roman domination to obey 
the governor sent them from abroad, and not their native 
chief. And when the Roman legions were withdrawn, that 
organisation which would have mustered them and com- 
pacted them to form a front against the enemy was but 
a shadow of what had once been a reality. Buffeted on the 
east by the Saxons, on the north by the Picts, exposed 
on the west to the Irish Goidels, they were no longer in 
a position to help themselves. 

Julius Caesar had invaded Britain in 55 B.C., and again 
in the ensuing summer ; but really nothing was done to 
subjugate the island till Aulus Plautius was despatched to 
it in A.D. 43, at the head of four legions and Gallic auxili- 
aries. Under Ostorius Scapula, a.d. 50, further advance 
was made, but the Silures and the Ordovices held out, and 
it was not till after nine years of warfare that the gallant 
Caradoc, prince of the Silures, but of Celtic origin and 
family, was finally defeated and taken. Suetonius Paulinus, 
in A.D. 58, was appointed, and after three years of success- 
ful warfare reduced Mona, the stronghold of the Druids. 
But the man who finally established the dominion of the 
Romans in the island was Agricola, who governed it from 
78 to 85. 

Britain enjoyed comparative tranquillity under the 
Roman rule till the decline of the Empire. 

The incursions of the Picts from Caledonia was pro- 
bablv due to their eastern coast being itself infested with 

15& ^ 



^- 



-© 



Tke Celtic Church and its Saints. 7 

piratical attacks of Saxons, and settlements in their land. 
The Picts broke over the wall, and swept the helpless 
country with fire and sword. The Irish Gwyddel Ffichti at 
the same time gave great trouble. They were not pirates 
only, carrying off slaves, but colonists as well, and they 
took possession of North Wales; others again penetrated 
to, and established themselves in, Brecknock. 

At the same time that the Britons became Romanised 
they were also Christianised. When, about a.d. 208, Ter- 
tullian wrote " against the Jews," he declared that the 
Gospel message had been conveyed to the boundaries of 
Spain, to the many tribes of the Gauls, and into the dis- 
tricts of the Britons inaccessible to the Romans. By this 
he doubtless meant that it had penetrated beyond the wall 
among the Picts of Alba, and beyond the Romanised 
Britons among the " savages " of Western Britain. His 
testimony is confirmed by Origen in 239; and later, about 
246, Origen speaks of the British Church as small and 
weak, " for very many in Britain," he tells us, " had not 
yet heard the word of the Gospel." 

Oratorical although these passages may be, we are not at 
liberty to reject them ; for that they are too precise. And, 
indeed, that there should be truth in the statement is by 
no means improbable. The Roman legions were recruited 
from every part of the world, and among the soldiers were 
many who believed in Christ, and who would act as mis- 
sionaries wherever sent. Soldiers transplanted from Asia 
Minor, which in the third century was filled with flourishing 
churches, would be settled in Britain for many years. A 
cohort drawn from Spain, where the faith of Christ had 
obtained root and had spread, was, we know, quartered for 
half a century on the frontier, in defence of the wall against 
the inroads of the Caledonians, and the soldiers married 
there and had families. 



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8 



Lives of the Saints. 



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Indeed, it would be incredible, knowing as we do how 
Roman cohorts were drafted from all parts, and knowing also 
what a nursery of martyrs the army was, that Christianity 
should not have been introduced by its means into Britain 
at an early period. The only martyrs of whom reminis- 
cence remains were Alban of Verulam, Julius and Aaron 
of Caerleon, and Amphibalus of Redbourn, near S. Albans, 
Nennius, in or about 858, names Alban, but makes a 
geographical mistake, for he describes the Thames as flow- 
ing near Verulam. This, however, does not invalidate his 
testimony, for he had not been in that portion of England 
which was the scene of the martyrdom, and maps were not 
accessible in those days. Alban suffered in 303, at a place 
which in time was so surrounded with Saxons that no Briton 
could go near it. The tradition lingered on, but venera- 
tion for the site ceased. Bede, who died in 735, knew 
of the martyrdom ; he heard of it from the British of 
Strathclyde, Nennius probably from Wales. 

It has been pointed out that the names of Aaron and 
Julius, as also of Amphibalus, are foreign, and have no 
equivalents in Welsh. 

The sites of the martyrdom of the two former were 
marked from an early age at Caerleon, and it is significant 
that on the height above that ancient metropolis a martyriiim 
to S. Alban was erected, the traces of which still remain, 
erected doubtless after the Britons had been driven from 
Verulam, when it would seem they took the bones of the 
martyr with them. This, at a later period, led to the 
claim of Caerleon to have been the scene of his passion, 
and not Verulam. It is probable that Aaron and Julius 
were soldiers belonging to the second legion, which was 
quartered at Caerleon, or Isca Silurum. It is very diffi- 
cult to suppose that a cult should have grown up out of 
nothing in a place where tradition remained strong, and 



^- 



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The Celtic Church and its Saints. 9 

from which the hold of the Briton was never wholly 
relaxed. 

Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine, disapproved 
of persecution, and from his time to about 368 there is no 
record of anything taking place in Britain. At that date 
Magnus Clemens Maximus, a Spanish soldier, served in a 
campaign against the Picts. According to Welsh accounts 
he was given a command in Wales, where he ruled with 
great humanity, and was much liked. He married Elen, 
daughter of Eudaf (Octavius), prince of Ewyas, or part of 
Monmouth and Hereford, and by her he had three sons, 
saints, so that, doubtless, he was a Christian. To Elen is 
attributed the remarkable road, the Sam Helen, that runs 
through Wales. A fourth son of Maximus and Elen, Con- 
stantine, is not supposed to have possessed distinguished 
sanctity. 

The predilection of the Emperor Gratian for foreign bar- 
barians excited discontent among the legions in Britain, and 
perhaps served them as an excuse for revolt, whereupon 
Maximus was proclaimed emperor in 383. He immedi- 
ately collected all the troops stationed in Britain and crossed 
into Gaul. Gratian was defeated near Paris, and was slain 
when escaping into Italy. Gaul, Spain, and Britain now 
acknowledged Maximus, who exhibited commendable mode- 
ration in the use of his power, and was able to boast that 
his elevation had caused no loss of Roman lives, save on 
the battlefield. He fixed his court at Treves, and there, 
professing his orthodoxy, acquired the disgraceful notoriety 
of being the first Christian sovereign to shed the blood of 
his subjects for holding heretical opinions. This was in 
385, and the case is related in the life of S. Martin 
(November, p. 254). Maximus induced his brother-in-law, 
Cynan Meiriadog, to lead an army of picked British soldiers 
to his assistance, to the number, it is said, of 60,000 men, 



lo Lives of the Saints. 

and these never returned, but settled in Armorica. This 
emigration drained Wales of her best fighting men, and 
paved the way to disaster. 

Maximus, having been defeated by Theodosius the 
Younger, lost his life, along with his son Victor, a.d. 388. 
On the tidings of his death reaching Britain his son Owain 
was elevated to be king, or pendragon, over the native 
princes. At this time the Empire was breaking up, com- 
munication with Britain was intercepted, and in 402 the 
Roman army of occupation in the island was reduced from 
three to two legions, one of which still remained at Isca 
Silurum, or Caerleon. 

Wales had been depleted of her fighting men, at all 
events of British origin, who had gone with Cynan Meiria- 
dog to Brittany in support of Maximus, a.d. 385, and as 
Gildas informs us, " they never returned." But this was 
not all. " A few years later," says William of Malmesbury, 
" a certain Constantine (the Tyrant), likewise seduced by 
the title of Emperor, drew away with him to the Continent 
the few soldiers who remained in the isle of Britain. But 
these two usurpers, toys of fortune, perished by a violent 
death, one in the reign of Theodosius, the others by order 
of Honorius. Of the troops that had followed them, one 
portion was cut to pieces, and the other took to flight, and 
found refuge among the Continental Britons." 

This Constantine the Tyrant was a common soldier in 
the Roman army stationed in Britain. In 407 these troops 
rebelled, and chose Constantine to be emperor, for no 
other reason but for the fact that he bore the venerated 
and royal name of the great emperor. He carried his 
legions over into Gaul, and was recognised in nearly every 
province before the year had elapsed. He was ably assisted 
by Geraint, or Gerontius, a Briton, probably from Dyfnaint, 
of the royal family there. There can be little doubt that 



T/ie Celtic Church and its Saints. 1 1 

he took with him levies from Britain. Owing to disappoint- 
ment and disagreement Gerontius, in his turn, revolted 
against Constantine, but was deserted by his men, and fled 
to Spain, where he killed himself. To some extent it was 
due to this drain of fighting men from Britain that the 
country was left a prey to the Gwyddel Ffichti, or Irish 
Picts, as well as to the Picts of Alba and to the Scots, 
who poured over the undefended wo.U, Niall of the Nine 
Hostages, at the head of a host of Irish, occupied Gwynedd, 
or North Wales, also the district of Menevia, and what was 
later Cardigan and Pembrokeshire were occupied. Another 
Irish rover, Anlach MacCormac, settled with a body of his 
Goidels in Brecon, and took to wife a native princess, by 
whom he became the father of Brychan, the famous king 
of Brecknock, the father of a family of saints that founded 
churches alike in Wales and Cornwall. Another of these 
adventurers, Coroticus, carried off S. Patrick to sell him 
as a slave in Ireland. Some think he was captured at 
Boulogne, others that he was taken from Dumbarton, and 
others again claim him as a native of Wales. 

In the same way, colonies of Goidelic Picts from Ireland 
descended on the coasts of Cornwall and Devon, and 
established themselves there, not only appropriating the 
temporal sovereignties, but appropriating as well the reli- 
gious jurisdiction, forming, in fact, military and ecclesiastical 
settlements in the peninsula. It is to this Irish Goidelic 
invasion that are due, if I mistake not, the inscribed stones 
in Wales and Cornwall that have legends in non-Brythonic 
forms. 

This invasion of the Irish Picts introduced a number of 
saints into the kalendars of Wales and Cornwall. But it 
did more than this, it familiarised Welshmen and Cor- 
nish men and Devonians with the great saints of Ireland. 
But more than this even, it caused the British Church 

^ -^ 



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12 



Lives of the Saints. 



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to be the mother of the Irish Church, which in time 
gave birth to that of Scotland, and then to that of Nor- 
thumbria. 

The wretched and incapable Honorius, who died in 427, 
withdrew the legions from Britain, and abandoned the 
natives, who had been enervated by the sway of Rome, to 
become the prey to foreign foes. 

One might have supposed that in the three centuries 
during which the Britons had been under Roman rule they 
would have observed the methods of construction of the 
Romans, have noted their discipline, and that at least they 
would have at once combined to rebuild the walls of the 
fortified cities, and to discipline their armies on the model 
of the Roman legions. But they did nothing of the sort. 
They had acquired little of Roman art, nothing of Roman 
discipline. In defending themselves against Pict and Scot 
they reverted to native and primitive methods. There is 
not a shadow of evidence that they repaired the broken 
walls, or erected others on the models they had before them. 
Their warfare was conducted in as ignorant and ineffectual 
a manner as if they had learned nothing from the legions who 
had been in their midst. The explanation is this. A large 
number of the ablest-bodied men of Britain were annually 
enrolled and sent abroad to act as legionaries in countries 
far removed from Britain, to which they never returned, 
consequently the Britons in Britain received no military 
education. Moreover, their native political institutions 
were struck with paralysis. The tribal chiefs were for two 
or three centuries left as mere headpieces, through whom 
the poll-tax could be levied, but who had lost all but the 
mere semblance of power. 

When the Saxons and Angles arrived on our coasts they 
were in the same stage of political evolution in which the 
Britons had been when subjugated by the Romans. They 



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->J< 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 



13 



at once, with rapidity, advanced from this inferior stage 
of organisation to one higher, out of the tribal condition 
into national cohesion ; and this was at the time when the 
unfortunate Britons were recovering from political paralysis, 
and revivifying institutions that had been formal and lifeless 
for at least two centuries, and which, when re-animated, 
placed them on that inferior stage of organisation from 
which the Teutonic invader was emerging, his develop- 
ment having suffered no arrest. Already, before the in- 
vaders landed, the tribal system among them was yielding 
everywhere, and the Teutons were coalescing into articulate 
nationalities, as Allemanni and Franks, under kings. When 
the hordes reached British shores, in the face of the enemy 
defending their homesteads, they also drew together ; and 
Bede shows them to us in his day as grouped into the 
three great kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex. 
The unhappy Britons, numbed by the oppression of Rome, 
could not cope with them, for theirs was the disorganisa- 
tion of the tribal stage pitted against the organisation ot 
national life. 

The first arrival of the Jutes in Britain was in a.d. 449, 
when they were invited by Vortigern, the British over-king, 
to assist him against the Picts and Scots. They encamped 
in Thanet, aided the Britons in more than one campaign, 
but owing to a dispute over pay and rations broke with 
those who had invited them, and in 455 crossed the 
Wantsum, that separated the islet from the mainland of 
Kent, and surprised the Britons and defeated them. They 
proceeded to sack Durovernum, now called Canterbury, 
and crossing from the Stour valley into that of the 
Medway, again defeated the Britons at Aylesford and at 
Crayford, and drove them within the walls of London. 

The indignation and resentment of the Britons found 
vent against the wretched Vortigern, who had opened the 



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-* 



*- 



H 



Lives of the Saints. 



-* 



door to a worse enemy than Pict or Scot. A revolr 
ensued, in which the command of the British defenders 
was wrested from him and put in the hands of AureUus 
Ambrosius, a Romanised Briton, and Vortigern died 
apparently of a broken heart, overwhelmed with contempt, 
in 464. Aurelius, called by the Welsh Emrys Wledig, 
met, however, with very little better success against the 
invaders. 

In 477 Saxon war-bands under Ella landed in Selsey, 
and rapidly won the entire coast of what has since been 
called Sussex. In 491 ensued the siege of Anderida, a 
centre of the great iron industry. The Britons maintained 
a stubborn defence, and when finally the town fell the 
Saxons " slew all that were therein, nor was there hence- 
forth one Briton left." 

Other Saxons landed on the low muddy shores of the 
Colne and Maldon estuary and thence proceeded to attack 
and destroy Camalodunum, now called Colchester, a double 
city, one portion British, the other Roman ; but, doubtless, 
since the Roman legions had withdrawn, the native Iceni 
had entered and occupied the stately and well-built Roman 
city, and had deserted their embankments and wooden 
houses at Lexden. The reduction of Essex followed. In 
480 landed the Angles, and they speedily overran what is 
now called Norfolk and Suffolk. Within thirty years the 
whole of what had been called the Saxon shore was in the 
hands of the invaders. The Angles now proved the most 
active, energetic, and terrible enemies of the Britons ; they 
seized on and occupied Lincolnshire, and established them- 
selves on the Wolds of Yorkshire and in the valley of the 
Swale. They thrust farther north, and at the beginning 
of the sixth century established themselves on the Tweed. 
In 547 Ida set up the kingdom of Bernicia, and placed 
his stronghold at Bamborough. In 550 the Mid- Angles 



*- 



-* 



* — 

The Celtic Church and its Saints 1 5 

attacked and destroyed Ratte, now called Leicester, and 
began to spread and establish themselves in the Mid- 
lands. 

In the meantime Saxons had arrived in Southampton 
Water and conquered the open country, of which Venta, 
the present Winchester, was the capital. But the enemy 
were not invariably successful ; a victory at Mount Badon, 
the present Badbury, in 520 revived the spirits of the Britons. 
In 530 the Isle of Wight was occupied by the Jutes. The 
West Saxons, staggered for a while by their defeat at 
Mount Badon, resumed the offensive, and in 556, by the 
victory of Barbury, made themselves masters of Wiltshire. 
Turning east they now advanced upon Verulamium and 
London, and reduced both about the middle of the sixth 
century. 

It was not till 577 that the West Saxons set their faces 
to the setting sun and menaced the flourishing and opulent 
cities of Gloucester, Bath, and Cirencester. The overthrow 
of Deorham in the same year was the most tragic in the 
early history of our land, for not only did it entail the loss 
of these three important towns and centres of civilisation, 
but it broke the continuity of the line of defence of the 
Britons, and isolated those of Wales from their brethren in 
Devon and Cornwall. 

This miserable defeat was the most fatal the Britons had 
endured, and thenceforth their power of resistance was 
enormously weakened. It marked, moreover, a stage in 
the conquest. 

Hitherto the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes had been little 
better than a horde of Iroquois, murdering, plundering, 
destroying. Without any appreciation of art, culture, any 
of the refinements of life, like wild beasts, they had ravaged 
the land, finding pleasure only in destruction. From 577 
thev began to consider whether it were not as well to 

* ^ 



attempt construction. They settled and established home- 
steads. 

At this point we may pause to inquire whether the entire 
population disappeared before their swords, as did every 
city and sign of a nobler and better life. 

Both Freeman and Green believe that it was so. The 
latter says of the conquest, that it was an effacement of the 
Briton from the soil. Such as were not slain were driven 
to flight. The conquest " of France by the Franks, or 
that of Italy by the Lombards, proved little more than a 
forcible settlement of the one or the other among tributary 
subjects, who were destined in a long course of ages to 
absorb their conquerors. French is the tongue, not of the 
Frank, but of the Gaul whom he overcame; and the fair 
hair of the Lombard is all but unknown in Lombardy. 
But almost to the close of the sixth century the English 
conquest of Britain was a sheer dispossession of the con- 
quered people ; and so far as the English sword in these 
earlier days reached, Britain became England, a land, that 
is, not of Britons, but of Englishmen." ^ 

This is, I venture to think, an over-statement. It is true 
that everywhere with ruthless savagery the Teutonic invaders 
destroyed all with which they came in contact that pro- 
claimed a higher civilisation ; in Yorkshire, as in Sussex 
and in Hampshire, everywhere the old towns were burned 
and left as heaps of ruin, and the invader refused to live 
in houses of stone, and within walls. That he was every- 
where ferocious in his cruelty is also true ; but that he was 
so blind to his interests as to slaughter or drive off men 
who, as serfs, might till the soil for him, and so insensible 
to beauty as not to become enthralled by the charms of 
the British damsels, that cannot be believed. What did 
take place was that all the chiefs and nobles, all those 

1 Green, "The Making of England," ed. of 1897, i. 154. 



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Appendix Vol., p. i6.] 



1 



* — »i« 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 17 

owning lands and exercising authority, withdrew before 
the invader, but not without desperate resistance ; and that 
the serfs and the women of a captured camp became a 
prey — the former continued as thralls under the new 
masters, and the latter remained as concubines and wives. 
If we may judge by the analogy of the Norman and Angevin 
conquest of Wales, then the invaders would have found allies 
among dissatisfied and envious British princes, who would 
side with the common foe to wreak vengeance on another 
Celtic chief for some petty slight, or to gain some poor 
advantage, and this would lead to closer ties and fusion of 
blood. And that at the very time when the Saxon invasion 
took place the Britons were torn by internecine feud, is 
matter of history. 

It is not easy to explain the persistence of Celtic names 
of rivers, mountains, and valleys in any other way than by 
assuming that there remained on the soil a certain pro- 
portion of the older inhabitants. The physical features 
retain their Welsh designations ; it is the settlements of 
the new-comers that bear German names. ^ 

But in a sense, what Mr. Green and Mr. Freeman assert 
as to the complete expulsion of the Britons may be true. 
The Brythons, who had overrun Britain, were the con- 
querors, and remained as lords and princes; whereas the 
Goidel, with a deep, dark tincture of Silurian blood, was 
still on the land, but as a serf. As a serf he remained 
under changed masters, and it is this that accounts for the 
patches of dusky skin, the dark hair and eyes, that are 
found in various parts of England. 

Although the invader conquered everywhere, he found the 
conquest difficult. Every foot was contested, and that stub- 
bornly. " It is this indeed which, above all, distinguished 

1 The very names of the Northumbrian kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira are 
British : Brynaich. highland ; and Deyfr, lowland. 

VOL. XVI. B 

^ »fl 



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i8 



Lives of the Saints. 



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the conquest of Britain from that of the other provinces of 
Rome. In all the world-wide struggles between Rome and 
the Germanic races no land was so stubbornly fought for 
and so hardly won. In Gaul the Frank and the Visigoth 
met little native resistance save from the peasants of Brit- 
tany and Auvergne. No popular revolt broke out against 
the rule of Odoacer or Theodoric in Italy. But in Britain 
the invader was met by a courage and tenacity almost equal 
to his own. So far as we can follow the meagre record ot 
the conquerors, or track their advance by the dykes and 
ruins it left behind it, every inch of ground seems to have 
been fought for. Field by field, town by town, forest by 
forest, the land was won ; and as each bit of ground was 
torn away from its defenders, the beaten men sullenly drew 
back from it to fight as stubbornly for the next." ^ 

Before the advance of the barbarian Christianity dis- 
appeared. Churches were burned, priests butchered. And 
yet sacred sites were still cherished. The church of Faulk- 
bourn, in Essex, would not be dedicated to S. Germanus of 
Auxerre unless it had been so before the Saxon invasion, 
and the recollection had hung about the charred ruins till 
Essex became Christian again. 

In 580 the invaders had formed the Bernician kingdom, 
that occupied from the Firth of Forth to the Teviot, the 
range in which rises the Tweed, and the present counties 
of Northumberland and Durham. To the west was the 
British realm of Strathclyde. South of the Tees to the 
Humber was the Angle kingdom of Deira, reaching only 
so far west as to where the land begins to rise. There, in 
what is now the most intelligent, industrious, and densely 
peopled portion of Yorkshire, the West Riding, was the 
British kingdom of Elmet, and west of the Pennine Chain 

1 Green, op. cit. i. p. 142. Compare Nicholas: "The Pedigree of the English 
People," 5th ed. 1878. 



> A- 



-^ 



was the British Cumbria, that comprised not Cumberland 
and Westmorland only, but also Rheged, or Lancashire. 
The West Saxons had indeed reached the Severn, but from 
the Parret to the Frome the entire western peninsula was in 
the hands of the West Welsh. 

Happily these cut-throats, having mastered a half of 
Britain, now fell on each other. Each of the great king- 
doms of Kent, Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex in turn 
sought to become paramount, and each for a while suc- 
ceeded. The invaders were actuated by a blind instinct. 
They strove after unity, and that unity could only be 
effected by the subjugation of the rival kingdoms. In 
their strife with one another the assistance of the Briton 
was called in. Thenceforth there was no extermination of 
the native. At the worst he was dispossessed of his lands, 
and turned from a chief into a tenant. It is probable 
enough that in our easternmost counties, as Sussex or 
Essex, in Norfolk and Suffolk, there may be but the 
smallest element of British blood present, perhaps hardly 
any; but this is certainly not the case with the Mid- 
lands ; it is not in any degree that of the west of England, 
where the British race remains, from Cumberland to Devon- 
shire, with only an infiltration of Saxon and Angle blood. 

In 583 the West Saxon CeawHn advanced up the Severn 
valley and utterly destroyed Uriconium (Wroxeter) under 
the Wrekin. He happily met at Faddiley with such a 
severe check, that he was forced to retrace his steps. 
Faddiley is near Nantwich. Although Ceawlin had ravaged, 



burnt, and murdered in his course up the Severn valley, 
he did not settle, and any Saxons left behind would 
assuredly have met with scant mercy at the hands of the 
outraged inhabitants of a once smiling basin, turned by 
the barbarians into a scene of devastation. 

One of the most beautiful of ancient Welsh poems is the 



I 



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20 



Lives of the Saints. 



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lament of Llywarch Hen over the death of Cyndylan, son 
of Cyndruyn, the prince who fell at Uriconium, the 
White City. 

" Cyndylan's Hall is not pleasant to-night 
On the top of Carreg Hytwyth (Shrewsbury Castle), 
Without lord, without company, without feast ! 

Cyndylan's Hall is gloomy to-night 
Without fire, without songs, — 
Tears are the trouble of my cheeks I 

Cyndylan's Hall pierces me through to see it, 
Without roof, without fire — 
Dead is my chief, — myself alive ! " 

We cannot sufficiently realise that the Anglo-Saxon in- 
vasion was everywhere the crushing out of a civilisation 
vastly ahead of their own, to replace it by utter barbarism. 
After the retreat of Ceawlin in 584 he remained inert till 
591, when his nephew, Ceol, assisted by the Britons, met 
and defeated him in a great battle at Wanborough, near 
Swindon, and Ceawlin was obliged to fly, and two years 
later died in exile. 

After such a defeat Wessex remained in a state of weak- 
ness and prostration, from which it did not recover till, in 
643, Cenwalch became king. He resumed the conflict 
against the West Welsh, and in 658 drove them across the 
Parret. 

In 688 the redoubted Ina was king, and in 710 he 
attacked the kingdom of Dyfnaint, and planted Taunton 
as a border fortress against the Britons of the West. 

After the battle of Deorham in 577, and the fall of 
Bath, Gloucester, and Cirencester, the enemy had occupied 
the Somerset low lands as far as the Mendip Hills and the 
marshes of the Axe below Weston-super-Mare ; but a long 
spit of land, some fifty miles in length, had remained in 
the hands of the Britons. It extended to Cricklade, and 



*- 



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lit ^ 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 21 

was protected on the west by a branch of the Wansdyke, 
that stretched from Malmesbury to the Mendips. Their 
tongue of country was not very wide; it reached to the 
Sehvood Forest, to Devizes, and Calne. The population 
here was entirely British, but this was now brought into 
subjection. The difference in the manner of conquest at 
this period is seen in the way in which Ina treated Glaston- 
bury. This had been founded in 601 by a British king; 
and when Ina occupied it he re-endowed the shrine, and 
allowed it to continue as a sacred centre to English and 
Britons alike. 

We must now consider shortly the new factor of Chris- 
tianity that had appeared to mitigate the savagery of the 
Anglo-Saxon, and to give to his conquests a character less 
one of extermination than that it had previously worn. 
The whole of Northumbria, and indeed Mercia as well, 
received the Gospel from the Celtic Church, through 
missions from lona, itself a station of the Irish Church, 
which had Christianised both Scots and Picts. In 635 
S. Aidan fixed his bishop's stool or see in the island-penin- 
sula of Lindisfarne, on the Northumbrian coast, and with 
the assistance of Oswald, the king, converted Bernicia and 
Deira. When Aidan died in 651 his mantle fell on S. 
Cuthbert. The only portion of England that acknow- 
ledged the Roman obedience were Kent, East Anglia, 
and Wessex; but in 664, by the Synod of Whitby, the 
Northumbrian and Mid-Saxon Churches were brought into 
conformity with Roman usages ; and Archbishop Theodore 
by his progress through the land between 669 and 677 
brought the entire Anglo-Saxon Church to acknowledge 
the supremacy of Canterbury. 

It was not possible for the Northumbrians, owing their 
Christianity to the Celtic clergy, to behave ruthlessly to 
the Britons professing the faith they had received, and 



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22 



Lives of the Saints. 



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although in battle there was much slaughter, there were no 
further massacres of the population, supposing these had 
been, in the way assumed. 

About 620 Edwin of Northumbria crushed the British 
kingdom of Elmet, of which perhaps Leeds was the chief 
city, and advanced to the sea at Chester, whence he sailed 
to subdue Anglesey and Man. But against Edwin, Penda, 
king of the Mercians, rose to wrest from him the over- 
lordship of Wessex and East Anglia. Assisted by Cad- 
wallon, king of the Britons, Edwin was defeated and slain 
in the battle of Hatfield, 633. 

It was not till the second half of the eighth century that 
Devon was conquered, but not completely subjugated, for in 
813 Egbert was engaged in hard fighting, and, as the Anglo- 
Saxon chronicle says, " he laid waste West Wales from 
eastward to westward." In 823 a decisive battle was fought 
at Gavulford (now probably Galford), a place on the Roman 
road from Exeter into Cornwall, where the hills close in to 
nip the road between them ; the place along the whole line 
which is the most suitable for defence. Extensive earthworks 
mark the site, in the parish of Bridestowe. In 835 some 
Danish vessels entered the Tamar, and the Britons, uniting 
with them, attempted to recover the lands overrun by the 
West Saxons. Egbert collected an army, and a battle was 
fought at Hengesdon, on the Cornish side of the Tamar, in 
which the allies were routed. The last relics of the in- 
dependence of the Domnonian kingdom disappeared after 
Athelstan's visits to West Wales in 926 and 928. On 
the former expedition he reduced the king, Howel, to 
submission, and on the next he expelled the British from 
Exeter. 

In the meantime the northern Welsh had been pressed 
back into their mountains, the kingdom of Powys was 
reduced, and the prince was constrained to abandon 



*- 



-* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 23 

Pengwern (Shrewsbury) and set up his castle at Mathrafal. 
At the close of the eighth century Offa, king of the 
Mercians, threw up his dyke from the Dee to the Wye to 
restrain the Welsh. 

We must now look at Wales itself, and see what had 
been its condition from the fifth century. 

The original population had been Silurian, probably 
throughout the whole country, but the Ordovices, a British 
tribe, had pierced it, and had reached the sea in Cardigan, 
and thence had sent colonies into Ireland. To a consider- 
able extent the Silurian aborigines had become fused with 
the Goidels. This became more pronounced as the Irish 
Picts invaded both north and south. These latter became 
masters of Gwynedd and of the Pembrokeshire peninsula. 
They struck farther inland and occupied Brecknockshire. 

At the beginning of the fifth century Cunedda Wledig, 
chief of a body of horsemen defending the Roman wall, 
either because driven south by the incursions of the Picts, 
or invoked by the Britons of Wales, sent a force under the 
command of his sons to free North Wales from the Irish 
Goidels who oppressed it. This they succeeded in doing, 
and thereupon settled themselves in the lands they had 
freed, and carved it into principalities for themselves. 

But the Cunedda family not only founded the reigning 
house, but also furnished the Church with numerous saints. 
In the sixth century Maelgwn, a descendant of Cunedda, 
gained supreme power not only over Wales, but also Strath- 
clyde. A century later another accession of saints came 
from the same district, the descendants of Coel Godebog, 
who settled in Wales and spread over it as evangelists and 
apostles. They seem at first to have planted themselves in 
Ergyng or Archenfeld, but thence moved to Anglesey and 
Bangor. 

From Southern Wales the Irish Goidels were not dis- 

*- ^ 



24 



Lives of the Saints. 



lodged. In Brecknockshire the Irish Brychan was able to 
justify his holding of the sovereignty on the plea of descent 
from the ancient Welsh princes through his mother. He 
died about 450, and from him issued a mighty family of 
saints. He, or some of his family, must as well have 
established themselves in Cornwall, for we find there also 
a number of saints belonging to the same stock. 

Clydwyn, son of Brychan, is reported to have established 
his sovereignty over Menevia. 

Somewhat later we find Cynyr of Caer Gawch, a petty 
chief in Menevia, of British ancestry probably, married to 
Anna, daughter of Vortimer. An illicit connection of his 
daughter with a son of the house of Cunedda led to -the 
birth of S. David, and to the establishment of another 
saintly tribe. 

The connection between Britain and Armorica had been 
uninterrupted from an early age. In 316, as we have 
seen, Cynan Meiriadog had led his army of picked men 
from Wales, and had established himself in Brittany.^ 

The advance of the Saxons, and the rolling back of the 
Britons, caused great numbers to fly to Armorica, and 
this immigration continued with few interruptions for two 
centuries. 

The whole of the Breton peninsula, once occupied by 
the Coriosolites and Osismi, had been so ravaged by 
Frisians, and so exhausted previously by fiscal exactions 
and the revolt of the Bagaudae, that it was almost denuded 
of population. About Vannes the original Gaulish popu- 
lation remained, as about Nantes and Rennes. The 



*- 



1 The Breton historians throw doubt on Cynan Meiriadog, and assert that he 
landed at the mouth of the Rhine, and settled there. Undoubtedly there was a 
British colony there, but the Welsh genealogies are very precise concerning Cynan 
having settled in what is now called Brittany. There are no Breton records of 
anything like the date of Cynan. Armorica included the whole north coast of Gaul 
from the Morini westward. 



-^ 



>^ . Ijl 

T/ie Celtic Church and its Saints. 25 

districts of Nantes and Rennes had been subjected to the 
Franks, and Vannes owned a loose submission. Procopius 
says that in the sixth century swarms of colonists from 
Britain, men with their wives and children, came into 
Armorica, " the most desert country of all Gaul." These 
migrations assumed large dimensions in 450, 512-14, and 
between 561 and 566. 

The author of the Life of S. Winwaloe says, " The 
sons of the Britons crossing the British sea landed on 
these shores at the period when the barbarian Saxons 
conquered the isle. These children of a loved race estab- 
lished themselves in this country, happy to find repose 
after so many griefs. In the meanwhile, the unfortunate 
Britons who had not quitted their country were decimated 
by plague. Their corpses lay without sepulture. The 
major portion of the isle was depopulated. Then a small 
number of men who had with difficulty escaped the sword 
of the invaders abandoned their native land to seek 
refuge, some among the Scots, though enemies, the rest 
in Belgica." Ermold Nigellus, circ. 834, in a poem 
addressed to Louis the Pius, says, that when they arrived 
they were received by the Gauls in friendly fashion, 
because they were Christians. 

Eginhard, who wrote at the beginning of the ninth 
century, says also, " When Britain was invaded by the 
Angles and Saxons, a large portion of the inhabitants, 
crossing the sea, occupied the districts of the Veneti and 
Coriosolitae, at the extreme limit of Gaul." 

There would seem to have been three main colonies. 
One occupied the north coast of what is now the depart- 
ment of Finisterre, and this was called Lyoness or Leon. 
Another and larger colony took possession of the land 
from Morlaix to the little river Couesnon, which now 
divides lUe-et-Villaine from La Manche. All this dis- 



•x*- 



26 



Lives of the Saints. 



trict they called Domnonia. A third swarm took root 
in the land south of the Monts Noires, from the Brest 
roads to the mouth of the Elle', on which is Quimper, and 
extending back to the river Oust. This was Cornouaille. 
In process of time these British settlers got a considerable 
footing in the territory of Vannes, so that the bishop 
Regalis complained to the Frank king, Guntram, that 
he was shut in by the Britons, and held by them as a 
prisoner.'^ 

The districts of Nantes, Rennes, and Retz were not 
British, and only by degrees did Vannes fall under their 
domination, the city last of all. 

The diocese of Vannes was not founded before the 
latter part of the fifth century. It was not till the 
Council of Tours in 465 that S. Paternus was appointed 
to plant a church in Vannes, and he was obliged to fly 
and abandon the attempt. He died shortly after, away 
from his recalcitrant flock, among the Franks. Modestus, 
his successor, who attended the Council of Orleans in 
511, did what he could to advance Christianity among 
the Veneti, but as the author of the Life of S. Melanius 
tells us, the people at the time were almost all pagans. 
The diocese of Rennes was not founded till 439, and 
there the people were hardly at all converted till the time 
of S. Melanius, Counsellor of Clovis in 511, who not 
only brought his own diocese to nominal Christianity, but 
also did something towards converting the Veneti. Such 
being the case, there can be no question but that the rest 
of Armorica was pagan, and that it owed its Christianity 
solely to the British immigrants, who brought with them 
their bishops and monks, their hturgy and their religious 
peculiarities. Armorica was in nothing indebted to the 
Frank Church, and we can quite understand the surprise 

1 Greg. Turon. x. lo. 



*- 



-* 



with which the Breton Church heard of the claims of 
Tours to supremacy over it. In the dioceses of Nantes 
and Rennes the churches are dedicated to saints of the 
Roman kalendar, to Gallo-Roman heroes of the faith, 
SS. Clarus, Donatianus, Hilary, Similian, Rogatian, Julian, 
Martin, and the like. But the moment the ancient 
frontier into Brittany is passed, with the exception of such 
churches as are of later dedication to saints known 
through the Gospels and Acts, all are British, common 
to Wales and Cornwall, or of British ancestry — Paulus 
Aurelianus, Gildas, Samson, Briock, Gerrans, Sulien, Teilo, 
Oudoc, Sec. A well qualified writer, M. de Courson, 
librarian of the Louvre, says : " I have had under my 
eye a very exact list of the ancient parishes of Brittany, 
with the names of their native saints, drawn up by the 
late Count de Blois de la Calande. Now, all the names, 
with the sole exception of that of S. Eligius, who had 
become popular through his relations with S. Judicael — 
all the names, I say, belong to British saints." ^ 

Unhappily, in their newly acquired lands, as in the old, 
the Britons could not combine. They were engaged in in- 
ternecine strife till Nominoe, in the middle of the ninth 
century, not only formed of the confederacy a powerful 
kingdom, but extended the limits of Brittany to include 
Nantes, Rennes, and Retz, and the Duchy retained these 
acquisitions till the Revolution of 1789. 

It may well be understood that the new settlers brought 
with them their clergy and monks, their native tribal organi- 
sation and religious customs, and that they entirely re- 
jected the claim pertinaciously made by the Archbishop of 
Tours to have jurisdiction over Brittany. 

But if I am not much mistaken, the colonies of Lyoness, 
of Domnonia, and of Cornouaille in Armorica, remained 

1 " De Courson : La Britagne du s"' au la'^ Sitcle," Paris, 1863, p. 169. 



28 Lives of the Saints. 

for a while under the native princes of Dyfnaint. There 
was incessant drift to and fro. Arthur is represented as 
having visited these settlements, and as having committed 
the government during his absence to his cousin Hoel. 
This was probably the Hoel Mawr of Breton legend, in 
537 king of Domnonia. 

This Hoel the Great was the Riwal of the legend of 
S. Melor; he was married to Alma Pompsea, daughter 
of Budic, king of Cornouaille. He it was who murdered 
Melyan, his brother-in-law, and his nephew, Melor. Riwal 
is Rhi-Hywel, or Hoel the Lord or Prince. It was probably 
owing to his usurpation that Tewdrig, the other son of 
Budic, remained in his principality of Cornwall, where he 
fell on and killed some of the Irish colonists who came 
to settle in Pengwaeth, the Land's End district, and has 
left his trace in legend as a persecutor of the saints. 

It was due to the violence of Hoel the Great that his 
brothers, Amwn Ddu, father of S. Samson and S. Tathan, 
Pedredin, father of S. Padarn, Gwyndaf Hen, father of S. 
Mewgan and S. Malo, and Umbrafel, father of S. Maglorius, 
fled for their lives and took refuge in Wales about 537. 

In 545 Hoel died, and was succeeded by his son, Hoel 
Vychan, or the Little, when again a dynastic convulsion 
occurred. His brother, Canao, murdered him, and would 
have killed his other brother, Macliau, had not the latter 
hidden himself and then escaped to Vannes. This was in 
547 or thereabouts, and Canao maintained his position as 
Prince of Breton Cornouaille till 555, when Judual, son of 
the murdered Hoel, backed by Childebert, and supported 
by his cousin, S. Samson, at the head of levies of immi- 
grants and discontented Bretons, defeated Canao and 
killed him. Samson and Judual had, in fact, headed 
another migration of British. These were fugitives from 
the West Saxons after the battle of Barbury Hill and the 



)J(- 



(J( — ^ 

The Celtic Church a?id its Saints. 29 



occupation of Berkshire and the Thames valley. Some 
of these settled in L^on. The lead was taken by chiefs 
from Gwent. Macliau, who was Bishop of Vannes, seized 
on the opportunity to drive away Tewdric, his nephew, the 
youthful son of Budic II., king of Cornouaille, and possess 
himself of his inheritance, which he retained till Tewdric 
was old enough and strong enough to return, stir up an 
insurrection, and kill the bishop and one of his sons, and 
recover Cornouaille. 

It will be seen that through the constant intercourse 
between Brittany, Cornwall, and Wales most of the saints 
of the former, down to the seventh century, are intimately 
associated with the two latter. Cornwall and Wales were 
the natural places of refuge of the princes of each genera- 
tion at the periodical outburst of fratricidal ambition on 
the death of each prince. And when S. Samson and S. 
Padarn, and S. Winwaloe, and other saints of Armorican 
origin established settlements in Cornwall, it was not only 
for a pious motive, but so as to be near at hand when the 
opportunity offered to make a rush for the mainland to 
recover their inheritances, and in the event of being worsted, 
of having an asylum in which to take refuge.^ 

Having thus sketched the history of the Britons from 
the Roman conquest, and having indicated, as far as is 
known, the ethnology of the population, we will turn back 
to follow the fortunes of the Christian Church among the 
Celts of Britain. 

There can hardly be a doubt that the Church received 
her organisation, her orders, and her liturgy from Gaul, 
and not directly from Rome. 

The Gallic liturgies, supposed by many to have had an 
Ephesine origin, and to have come through Lyons and 

1 Owing to the importance of the early history of Brittany and to the great diffi- 
cuUy in elucidating it, I have appended a summary as a separate article. 

i^ — * 



30 Lives of the Saints. 

Aries, with far greater probability derive from Milan, the 
original liturgy of which was largely Oriental, and against 
the authority and diffusion of which Rome had at one time 
to fight even to maintain its own. 

A curious story was introduced into the revised lists of 
the Roman pontiffs to the effect that Lucius, a British 
king, had sent to Pope Eleutherius for missionaries to in- 
struct his people in the faith. There is nothing improbable 
in such an appeal, when the Britons looked to Rome for 
her cohorts to defend them and for articles of luxury ; but 
the evidence is suspicious. It is not to be found in the 
earliest list, and was foisted in at a later period, apparently 
with deliberate purpose to give to Rome a claim over the 
independent Church in Britain, as her spiritual mother. 

The external framework of the Empire formed the die 
into which was run the Christian Church as it left the 
hands of the Apostles, and it took shape and hardened into 
a diocesan system corresponding to the political organisa- 
tion of the Empire. 

Among the semi-Romanised Britons, no doubt to some 
extent this system had prevailed, but only to a very limited 
degree. The Romans do not seem to have interfered more 
than was needful with the national organisation, which was 
tribal. They left the land in the hands of the tribes, to be 
divided as was customary among them, and to be under 
their several chiefs, caring only to exact from them homage 
and tribute. When the Christian Church was established in 
Britain there were doubtless bishops in the several cities, 
such as London, York, and Caerleon, also perhaps at 
Carlisle. But to what extent they exercised jurisdiction 
over dioceses we do not know. The territorial system was 
strange to the Celt, and if the bishops were Britons, as is 
probable, they also almost certainly exercised an ill-defined 
authority. 

^ . ij, 



The Celtic Chu7'ch and its Saints. 31 

In Africa, in Asia Minor, and in Italy, every town had 
its bishop, and such bishops held spiritual jurisdiction over 
the district that was under the civil governor residing in 
the town. The two jurisdictions were conterminous. 

But a different state of affairs prevailed among the Celts. 
Their organisation was not territorial, but tribal. Each 
tribe indeed occupied a district, and it was under a chief. 
It was governed by a council of its householders, but in 
war was subject to the absolute rule of its chief. The 
government was at once democratic and monarchical. 
Land was held by the tribe, and was distributed among 
the members by the chief, aided by the council, and was 
re-parcelled as occasion arose. In return for the land, the 
clansmen owed him allegiance and military service. Each 
clan constituted an integral whole, and was independent 
of every other clan; and although several might be allied 
in customs, blood, and language, yet they acknowledged 
no bond. This was the great defect in the entire system. 
There was no nation, only an assemblage of tribes, each inde- 
pendent of the other, cohering temporarily, and the cohesion 
dissolved by the merest trifle. All peoples pass through 
certain stages of social and political growth, and after having 
made mistakes, rectify them and develop their innate great- 
ness and characteristic virtues. But the Briton was not given 
the chance. His political education was arrested by the 
Roman conquest. It was again retarded by the Saxon 
invasion. 

The tribe followed the chief as a swarm follows a queen 
bee. An individual not belonging to it was treated as an 
alien, who might be robbed and murdered with impunity. 
A member of another tribe was necessarily a stranger and 
an enemy. 

When the number of heads of families in a clan increased 
to such an extent that the chief could no longer find them 



-* 



32 Lives of the Saints. 

lands, there remained no resource but migration or war 
against a neighbour; but the obUgation on the chief to supply 
land ceased after the lapse of a certain number of genera- 
tions. Then a swarm went off, conquered for itself a new 
home, and settled till it also outgrew its bounds. The prac- 
tical result of this system was twofold : in the first place, it 
destroyed independence in the individual, who considered 
it his due to be furnished with lands by his chief; and in 
the second place, it produced chronic war among the tribes, 
and prevented united action against a common foe. 

The law of gavelkind prevailed. Every princeling, if 
he had a dozen sons, on his death, left his authority and 
his command over land to be parcelled out and subdivided 
into twelve. Consequently rivalries, jealousies, internecine 
quarrels prevailed, and were made use of by the common 
enemy, and the folly of infinitesimal subdivision was not 
perceived till too late. 

When Christianity appeared among the Celts, who did 
not live in the towns, and had not been citizenised and 
divested of their native character, it was compelled to assume 
an attitude and to adopt methods consonant with the Celtic 
constitution. The only possible mode in which it could 
make way was by winning the consent of the chief of the 
clan. No tribesman could profess Christianity without the 
permission of his chief, whom he was bound to obey in 
religious matters as in military. Consequently the first 
missionaries at once applied to the chiefs of the tribes, and 
if they did not convert them, they induced them to sur- 
render to them a patch of land on which to settle. The 
inducement was fear. The chieftains feared the new 
medicine-men, and trembled lest their curses should prove 
more efficacious than the blessings of the Druids. The 
princes conciliated these new sorcerers with grants of land, 
in the hope that their incantations, in consort with those 

* i^ 



AisrciENT 
A\^ALES. 



i ^ -0 <S 20 26 50 ^i/es 



NOR 
YWERBDOX 




CaerGaw- 






6rrvl. 



Appendix Vol., p. 32.] 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 33 

of the Druids, would render themselves invulnerable in a 
fray, and the tribe victorious in all its aggressions. 

When the missionary had obtained a plot of land, he 
threw up an embankment enclosing a circular or oval 
space, and planted a stockade on top. Within he erected 
huts : if among Brythons, of wood and wattle ; if among 
Goidels, of stone, circular, and these accommodated the 
population that accrued to him — slaves given by the chief, 
outlaws seeking refuge, bastards who had no claim on 
the tribal inheritance. Thus originated the Tribe of the 
Saint, a population subject to the missionary as chieftain, 
but also owing military service to the head of the secular 
tribe. 

By slow degrees the Druids fell into disrepute, and their 
land and serfs were usurped by, or granted to, the saints. 
Thus it came about that side by side with the Tribe of the 
Land was to be found the Tribe of the Saint. 

Moreover, the missionary settlements soon outgrew their 
bounds, and swarmed, as did the members of the Tribe 
of the Land, when not repeatedly thinned by war. Con- 
sequently we hear of the early saints wandering about in 
an apparently aimless manner, but always seeking to found 
fresh colonies, usurp lands that had been granted to the 
discredited medicine-men, found new churches, and extort 
fresh grants. 

These saintly establishments were counterparts of such 
as were secular. They consisted of households comprising 
men and women, and they multiplied naturally. All the 
householders looked to the saint as their head, just as in 
the secular tribe all the members looked to and obeyed 
the chief. 

But the members of the ecclesiastical tribe were not 
wholly independent of the head of the secular tribe ; they 
still owed to him military service, whether laymen or clergy. 

VOL. XVI. c 



*- 



-* 



34 



Lives of the Saints, 



Even in Ireland the women were not exempt. Doubtless 
the ecclesiastics were called out to curse the enemies of the 
chief, and if their curses proved ineffectual, they suffered 
deprivation. 

In Ireland it was not till 804 that monks and clergy 
were exempt from bearing arms against the foe of the 
chief, and then they by no means relished their release. 
Women were not relieved of their obligations to arm and 
fight in the ranks till the Synod of Drumceatt (a.d. 500), 
and then only on the urgency of S. Columba. 

Moreover, just as one secular tribe fought another, be- 
cause of some quarrel between the chiefs, or because one 
wanted the lands of the other, or out of mere wantonness, 
so was it with the religious tribes. The monks regarded 
themselves as bound together into one tribe under an 
abbot, and they envied other monastic settlements. In 
672 a battle was fought between the rival monasteries of 
Clonmacnois and Durrow, and Dermot Duff, leader of the 
men of Durrow, fell before the monks of Clonmacnois, 
together with two hundred of his followers. In 816 no 
less than four hundred men were slain in a battle between 
rival monasteries. In 700 the clergy of Ireland attended 
their synods sword in hand, and fought those who differed 
from them in opinion, leaving the ground strewn with 
corpses. S. Columba stirred up a fratricidal war between 
the men of the South and those of the North of the clan of 
Neill merely because he was not allowed to retain a copy 
of a book he had made, and this cost the Meath men no 
fewer than three thousand slain. If we may trust Gildas, 
British churchmen were not much better. 

In time the chiefs themselves founded religious settle- 
ments and placed over them sons, sometimes in orders, 
sometimes not, so that ecclesiastical as well as political 
supremacy might be in their families. 



-* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 35 

" In Ireland," says Dr, Todd, " the land granted in fee 
to S. Patrick, or any other ecclesiastic, by its original 
owner, conveyed to the clerical society, of which it became 
the endowment, all the rights of a chieftain or head of 
a clan; and these rights, with the rights of the secular 
chieftains, descended in hereditary succession. The con- 
arb, or co-arb, that is to say, the heir successor of the 
original saint who was the founder of the religious society, 
whether bishop or abbot, became the inheritor of his 
spiritual and ofificial influence in religious matters. The 
descendants in blood, or founder's kin, were inheritors of 
the temporal rights of property and chieftainship, although 
bound to exercise those rights in subjection or subordina- 
tion to the ecclesiastical co-arb." ^ 

At lona, out of eleven immediate successors to S. 
Columba, there was but one who certainly did not belong 
to his family, and one other, of whose parentage we have 
no information. Phelim was bishop and chief of Cashel 
in the middle of the ninth century. In 850 he fell upon 
Armagh, slaying priests and bishop wherever he caught 
them. The kingdom of Munster was held by chiefs who 
combined the ecclesiastical with the secular power, and 
were bishops as well as princes. Armagh was a hereditary 
bishopric for eight generations to 1129. It is often 
asserted that these archbishops were lay intruders, but 
this is disputable. To hold the saintship and bequeath 
it to a son was quite in order, according to Celtic ideas. 
In Wales the same principle prevailed ; bishoprics, canon- 
ries, and parochial benefices passed from father to son, 
or were retained in one family for generations. Where 
an ecclesiastic had, say, four sons, he divided the ecclesi- 
astical inheritance among them, for each had a right to 
his share if born after his father had become bishop or 

1 Todd, " S. Patrick," p. 149. 



*- 



i 



*- 



36 



Lives of the Saints. 



-* 



priest, but if he had been born earlier, then he had no 
claim on the ecclesiastical inheritance. Giraldus Cam- 
brensis mentions one benefice that was held by two 
brothers, one a layman, the other in orders. Benefices 
in Wales and in parts of England with more than one 
rector, as, for instance, Tiverton, which had five till quite 
recently, owe their origin to this custom. 

Should the tribe of the saint be without a head, and 
there was no one available in the family of the chief of the 
land to take the place of saint, or chief of the ecclesias- 
tical tribe, then some one not of his blood was appointed 
to be the saint; but if so, he was required to give securities 
that he would resign his saintship as soon as there was one 
of the prince's family qualified to assume it. 

How splendid and influential the position of the saint 
or head of an ecclesiastical settlement was, may be judged 
from the " Life of S. Cadoc." The author thus describes 
his power at Llancarvan. " He daily fed a hundred 
clergy and a hundred soldiers, and a hundred workmen 
and a hundred poor men, with the same number of 
widows. This was the number of his household, besides 
servants in attendance, and esquires and guests, whose 
number also was uncertain. Nor is it strange that he was 
a rich man and supported many, for he was abbot and 
prince." 

When the chieftain of the land did not absorb also 
the chieftainship of the ecclesiastical tribe, then continual 
friction existed between the head of the land and the head 
of the Church ; the former not only exacted military service 
from the members of the ecclesiastical establishment, but 
also an annual tax and contributions in kind. If the tax 
were not paid, he distrained and carried off the cattle of 
the saint, who had no other means of redress than to curse, 
and this he did freely. If any disaster followed, this was 



ijt- 



-« 



-* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 37 

at once attributed to the virtue of the curse ; and on the 
whole, the spiritual heads got their own way. S. Beuno 
cursed a chief, and he dissolved into a puddle ; S. Cadoc 
cursed his servant because he was clumsy in lighting a fire, 
and the flame leaped forth and consumed the man ; some 
men who offended him had their beards and half the hair 
of their head removed, and the ears of their horses sliced 
off. Men on whom the curses of the saints fell were 
drowned, smothered in bogs, turned into stone, melted 
into lumps of wax, stricken with lightning. Even after S. 
Cadoc was dead, the corpse roared like a bull because the 
coffin was jostled. 

The first stage in Ireland, Wales, and perhaps Scot- 
land, was that indicated above, where the ecclesiastical 
tribe contained the professional believers, that is to say, 
the saint and those who owed to him tribal allegiance, 
that allegiance extending to the profession of his re- 
ligion. In this stage the stockaded settlement contained 
men and women, households of those dependent on the 
saint ; all working for him and for themselves, and paying 
a tribate in kind and service to the chief of the clan of 
the land. But when the faith spread and was universally 
professed, then the condition of affairs was altered. All 
the members of the clan could not pass into the saintly 
tribe, nor would the chieftain of the land tolerate the 
saintly tribe becoming too populous and powerful. A 
readjustment of arrangements took place. Either, as in 
Armagh, the chieftain constituted himself ecclesiastical 
head, and so resolved the double tribe into one under one 
head, temporal and spiritual at once, or else, and that 
more commonly, he withdrew from the tribe of the saint 
all its lay retainers, and the establishment resolved itself, 
or was compulsorily resolved into, a monastic society, 
comprising only clerics and monks, into which no women 



*- 



38 



Lives of the Saints. 



-* 



were admitted ; or the saintship was given to a daughter 
of the ruling house, with sisters and monks and bishops 
under her. When we read of the great monasteries of 
Bangor Iscoed, Bangor in Ireland, Llancarvan, Llantwit, 
Clonmacnois, &c., with their thousands of monks, we 
hear of them in their second stage. Nevertheless, the 
hereditary principle remained in force, and the superior, 
the abbot, or saint was almost always of the family of the 
founder. 

A peculiarity of this arrangement was that ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction was in the hands of the abbot or saint, who 
might be a layman, but who was very often not a bishop. 
Not only so, but where the headship was in the hands of 
a woman, she exercised jurisdiction over the entire district 
occupied by the tribe to which she belonged. In this case 
one, perhaps a dozen, in some cases a score, of bishops were 
members of the community, ranking just above the cellarer, 
exercising no jurisdiction, but kept in stock for the purpose 
of ordaining and consecrating in obedience to the orders 
of the abbot. The union of jurisdiction with the special 
grace of power to confer orders is a matter of ecclesiastical 
arrangement only, and in the Celtic Church did not exist, 
except perhaps among the Romanised Britons. 

The term " saint " was applied at first very much as is 
the later term " religious " now. It signified no more 
than that the saint was the head of the religious tribe, 
and it may be, and probably was, applied indiscriminately 
to these heads, irrespective of their moral fitness for their 
position, or their conduct as ecclesiastical chiefs. 

When the Bollandists began to compile the Acta Sanc- 
torum they were vastly perplexed how to deal with the 
thousands of Celtic saints of whom they read. For 
instance. Bishop Gerald of Mayo was related to have 
ruled over 3300 saints — in this case saint meant no more 



*- 



>i<- 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 39 

than monk. In the isle of Bardsey as many as 20,000 
saints were said to have laid their bones. The BoUandists 
say : " The Irish would not have been so liberal in canon- 
ising dead men in troops whenever they seemed to be 
somewhat better than usual if they had adhered to the 
custom of the Universal Church, and given that honour 
to martyrs only." 

But the BoUandist writer did not understand the case. 
It was not one of canonisation at all, but of alteration in 
the signification of a word. The Apostle spoke of the 
saints at Corinth and Ephesus, but some of these were 
exceedingly immoral persons. A " religious," as a Latin 
would term him, would by a Celt in those days be de- 
signated a " saint." In the second stage the term came 
to be limited to founders of settlements and churches. It 
may be remarked that only noble and princely families 
produced saints, for indeed none not well born could 
become head of an ecclesiastical tribe. At the same 
time, it is observable that a very discreditable origin is 
given to a good many Celtic saints; that was due to the 
fact of the headship of a religious settlement being given 
as a means of provision for a princely bastard. 

If a woman of one tribe went astray with a member 
of another tribe, her child had no rights in her tribe, none 
in that of the father. But if that woman was, as in the 
case of the mothers of S. David and S. Kentigern, of 
a princely house, then their fathers or brothers found a 
means of providing for these illegitimates by making them 
saints. It has caused perplexity to account for the number 
of children attributed to some of the founders of saintly 
families. Brychan is given twenty-four sons and twenty- 
five daughters, in all forty-nine children, and of these half 
were saints. The explanation is that these saints were of 
the kin of Brychan, and so were appointed to monasteries 



*- 



*- 



40 



Lives of the Saints. 



or ecclesiastical settlements that fell to his share by right 
of conquest. When a prince looked about him to settle his 
family he brought up so many to be warriors and the rest 
to be saints. 

It has provoked some comment that nearly all the saints 
of the Welsh Church were foreigners, i.e. members of in- 
vading and conquering families. The three saintly families 
of Wales were respectively those of the Irish Brychan, con- 
queror of Brecknock, the Pict Cunedda, who invaded Wales 
from the north, and of the Northern Caw, who came from 
Albany. The fact was that these invaders turned out the 
native chieftains from their headship in the land and in the 
Church, and gave all places of authority to their own children 
and clansmen. 

To return once more to the separation that prevailed 
in the Celtic Church between jurisdiction and the episcopal 
office. A territorial distribution and jurisdiction over a 
see was given to bishops because the Roman civil organi- 
sation showed the way, but where, as in the Celtic world, 
there was a different sort of organisation, that which was 
tribal, with now shrinking then expanding confines, the 
Church had to accommodate herself to those conditions 
with that elasticity which belongs to her. In the Celtic 
world the tribe was the only constituted entity, and the 
land changed hands as the tribes fought and wrested soil 
from one another ; not for ages were the boundaries fixed. 
But in the Roman world the districts were mapped out, 
and the people subjected to rulers over these districts, to 
whatever race or clan they might belong. 

The ecclesiastical jurisdiction was first of all in the hands 
of the founder, a missionary saint, but then it passed by the 
principle of heredity to whoever represented him in blood, 
or to the nearest of kin to the chief of the land. 

At Kildare, S. Bridget had bishops under her direc- 



*- 



* 



tion and orders. So had S. Ninnoch in Brittany. In 
lona, S. Columba in priest's orders ruled over Bishop 
Etchen. 

There was no parochial system; there could be none 
when the land was parcelled up and distributed among 
different members of the tribe every few years. The 
ecclesiastical foci were the settlements of the saints. 
These were permanent, for the land about them was in 
the permanent possession of the saint for the time being. 
When a member of a religious establishment became rest- 
less or restive he went off, taking with him some like- 
minded saints, and established a new settlement. 

When the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes first invaded Britain 
they almost exterminated the British people ; those whom 
they did not enslave they drove back to North and West. 
Apparently the Church of Romano - British had been 
hitherto fully occupied with the conversion of the peoples 
of the same race elsewhere. If we hold that S. Patrick 
came from Strathclyde, then the conversion of Ireland 
was due to it ; certainly so also was that of the Goidelic 
peoples in the North and West. After Ireland was 
brought to the faith by Patrick it relapsed, and its recon- 
version was due to Welsh missions. Hosts of saintly 
evangelists, moreover, sallied forth from Ireland a little 
later and overran Western Europe, England, Scotland, 
Brittany, France, Alsatia, Lorraine, and penetrating into 
Bavaria, Rhaetia, Helvetia, Germany, and even Italy, 
founded settlements after the native type. All that part of 
the British Isle now called Scotland owed its Christianity 
to the mission of Columba from Ireland ; so did the great 
Northumbrian Church, where the invaders of German blood 
were brought to the worship of Christ through the missions 
from lona. Wales, Cornwall, were Christian long before 
Augustine was born. *' By armies of monastic mission- 



*- 



*i*- 



42 



Lives of the Saints, 



aries," says Mr. Haddan, " and next by learned teachers — 
first attracting pupils to Irish schools from all Christian 
Europe north of the Alps and the Pyrenees, and next, by 
sending forth men to become the founders of schools, 
or monasteries, or churches abroad — the churches of St. 
Patrick and S. Columba stand out, from the sixth century 
forward, as the most energetic centres of religious life and 
knowledge in Europe ; the main restorers of Christianity 
in paganised England and Roman Germany ; the reformers 
and main founders of monastic life in Northern France ; 
the opponents of Arianism, even in Italy itself; the origi- 
nators in the West of the well-meant, however mistaken, 
system of the Penitentials ; the leading preservers in the 
eighth and ninth centuries of theological and classic culture, 
Greek as well as Latin ; the scribes, both at home and 
abroad, of many a Bible text ; the teachers of psalmody ; 
the schoolmasters of the great monastic schools ; the 
parents, in great part, as well as the forerunners, of Anglo- 
Saxon learning and missionary zeal ; the senders forth of 
not the least bright stars among the galaxy of talent gathered 
by Charlemagne from all quarters to instruct his degenerate 
Franks, . . . down to the very Normanising of the Celtic 
Churches in the entire British Isles in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries." ^ 

1 Haddan: "Remains," p. 260. I subjoin an incomplete list of the monasteries 
or centres of mission work founded by these Irish evangelists on the Continent : — 

In France : Irish foundations. — Remiremont, Lure, Besanijon, Romain-Moutier, 
Bezieres, Brezille, Cusance, S. Ursanne,Jouarre, Reuil, Rebai.x, Faremoutier, S. Maur- 
les-Foss^s, Lagny, Moutier-la-Celle, Hautvilliers, Moutier-en-Der, S. Salaberga, Fon- 
tenelles, Jumieges, S. Saens, Luxeuil, Anegray, Fontaines, Peronne, Toul, Araboise, 
Beaulieu, Strasburg. 

In Brittany : Welsh foundations. — Dol, Rhys, S. Brieuc, Landewennec, Trecor, 
Aleth, Plaz, Baulon, Penpont, Suliac, Pentual, Castel Paul, &c. 

In the Netherlands.— Namur, Waulsort, Liege, Gueldres, Hautmont, Soignes, 
Malines. 

In Germany and Switzerland. — Hohenau, Erfurt, EfTenheim, Schuttern, Wiirz- 
burg, Memmingen, Mainz, Cologne, Ratisbon, Constance, Reichenau, S. Gall, 
Bregenz, Rheinau, Dissentis, Seckingen. 

In Italy. — Bobbio, Taranto, Lucca, Faenza, and Fiesole. 



*- 



-* 



^- 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 43 

Maccald, a native of Down, became Bishop of Man in 
the fifth century, S. Donan was the apostle of Uig, S. 
Maelrubb, of Skye. In fact, the Christianising of the whole 
of the north-west of Scotland and the adjacent isles was 
due to S. Coluniba. Irish monks pushed as far as the 
Faroe Isles and Iceland. S. Brendan thrust his vessel 
towards the setting sun, seeking lands to conquer for 
Christ. S. Aidan, the apostle of Northumbria, whose 
diocese extended from the Humber to the Firth of Forth, 
was an Irishman from lona. Diuma, the first bishop of 
the Mercians, and his successor, Ceallach, were both Irish- 
men. S. Fursey, another, preached the Gospel in Suffolk. 
Mailduff established a mission centre among the West 
Saxons. S. Bega laboured in Cumberland. From the 
beginning of the sixth century they overspread Europe, 
and Irishmen for their distinguished piety were elected to 
fill sees even in Italy. 

The Celtic Church had other peculiarities beside that of 
dissociating jurisdiction from the episcopal office. It ob- 
served Easter on a different day from the Latin Church, 
but this was due to an error occasioned by its isolation, 
very similar to that in which the Eastern Church is now 
involved from the same cause — adhering to an antiquated 
system of calculation. In reckoning the date of Easter, 
every year, the Roman Church had followed the Jewish 
cycle of eighty-four years, while the Alexandrian Church 
used the metonic system of nineteen years. This led to 
great inconvenience, and in the year 387 some observed 
Easter on March 21st, others on April i8th, others again 
on April 25th. This became intolerable, and Pope Hilary 
employed Victorinus to frame a new cycle, which was 
thenceforth followed in the Latin Church. But the in- 
vasions of barbarians had cut off" the Celtic Churches 
from communication with the rest of the Christian world. 



«-- 



*- 



44 



Lives of the Sainis. 



-* 



so that they were ignorant of this change, and continued 
to follow the old Jewish cycle, as observed at Rome 
and in Gaul previous to the change, of which they had not 
heard. 

Nothing could exceed the indignation and disgust of 
Augustine and his followers when they ascertained that the 
British Church observed Easter on a different day from 
themselves. Instead of inquiring into the cause, and deal- 
ing gently by argument with the bishops and abbots of 
Britain, they heaped on them epithets expressive of loath- 
ing, termed them Quartodecimans, which they were not — 
but an ugly name answered their purpose — and denounced 
them as schismatics and heretics. 

This unhappy miscalculation about Easter proved a 
grievous cause of weakness in the Celtic Church, for those 
of her saints who travelled to Gaul or Italy were forced to 
admit that their native Church was in error, and returning 
home formed a party which laboured for the abandonment 
of the old computation. 

Another peculiarity was the tonsure assumed by the clergy. 
Cutting the locks in a certain fashion was a symbol of 
belonging to a tribe, just as puncturing the ear marks a 
horse turned loose on downs as the property of certain 
owners. 

An illustration occurs in the life of S. David. His 
missionary work was bitterly opposed by the Irish settler 
Boia, the remains of whose castle are still traceable half, a 
mile below S. David's, on the Allun. But more hostile to 
the saint than the chief was his wife. In order to pro- 
pitiate the gods and induce them to destroy the saint, this 
woman resolved on a sacrifice. The best and most 
efficacious that could be offered would be a child of her 
womb, but she had none. Therefore she called to her a 
daughter-in-law named Dunawel, retired with her into a 



*- 



»J< >Jf 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 45 



hazel grove, placed the girl's head on her lap that she 
might cut and braid her hair, such an act betokening 
adoption into the family. Then the woman with a sharp 
knife cut her throat, and offered the expiring life to 
the gods. 

The peculiar shaving and shearing of the hair adopted 
by the Celtic clergy betokened their adoption into the 
family of God, the ecclesiastical tribe. 

This peculiarity was also laid hold of by Augustine and 
his followers, and denounced in furious terms as the ton- 
sure of Simon Magus, as the badge of perversity and 
diabolical heresy. 

There were other differences, as that episcopal consecra- 
tion was administered by a single bishop instead of by 
three, as decreed by the Council of Aries ; but as Gregory 
the Great had told Augustine that in case of need he might 
dispense with coadjutors in the conferring of episcopal 
orders, this point would not have been pressed had not 
Augustine and the Latin missionaries gone out of their 
way to find occasion against the native Church. In fact, 
these points served as excuses for insulting and repudiating 
the Church of the Britons. Augustine was angry to find 
that he had been forestalled, and that there was an Apos- 
tolic and Catholic Church of at least three centuries' growth 
in the island, which he had entered figuring as its apostle. 
He might, indeed, have swallowed his spleen had he found 
the British bishops ready to cast themselves at his feet and 
become his humble henchmen. As they would not con- 
sent to this, he and his Latin clergy, and their successors, 
covered them with obloquy. 

At the bottom of all the differences lay the independence 
of the Celtic Churches, which owed no allegiance to the 
Papal chair, had organised themselves, expanded, and evan- 
gehsed, had manifested extraordinary vigour, and produced 



-* 



46 



Lives of the Saints, 



-* 



great sanctity in their independence. There was a robust- 
ness and healthiness about their churches that the Latin 
missionaries did not rehsh. In episcopal constitution, 
derivation of orders from the Apostolic fountain-head, in 
unity of doctrine, in liturgical forms, the Celtic Churches 
were one with the Catholic Church throughout the world, 
whether Eastern or Western. They were ready to acknow- 
ledge a certain primacy in the Roman see, as S. Colum- 
banus said, later, " next to Jerusalem," but such a half 
admission would not satisfy those who were, before all 
things, missionaries to extend the Papal authority. 

Every sort of false accusation, malignant insinuation, and 
open outrage was offered to the ancient British Church. 
Its orders were ignored, its ministrations flouted, the 
orthodoxy of its prelates disputed. 

Those British Christians who visited Rome, or were for 
a while in Gaul, returned intensely Romanised, and threw in 
their lot with the anti-national party, much as some young 
clergy of the present day after a visit to the Continent 
return enamoured with some fantastic ceremony they have 
witnessed abroad and endeavour to thrust it on their 
reluctant congregations at home, and who maintain that 
what is done in Latin churches must be right. 

The temper of mind in which the Celtic bishops and 
abbots regarded the Popes may be judged from the letters 
of S. Columbanus. The position assumed by him towards 
the Pope substantially amounted to this : an acknowledg- 
ment of the Bishop of Rome as a true bishop of the 
Church of Christ, but as one having no jurisdiction over 
himself; and a claim to criticise freely, and from the inde- 
pendent standpoint of an equal, the character and conduct 
of the Roman pontiff. 

The language which he addressed to Boniface IV. is not 
that of a subordinate to a sovereign in the Church, but is 



*- 



* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 47 

couched in terms of great freedom. He laments over the 
infamy that attaches itself to the chair of S. Peter in con- 
sequence of the miserable squabbles that rage in Rome. 
He warns the prelate not to forfeit his dignity by per- 
versity, for his power depends, says he, on his maintaining 
right judgment in all things, for that only such an one can 
be regarded as a holder of the keys of heaven who opens 
the doors to the good and shuts to the bad. He exhorts 
the Pope to cleanse his see from error, for it would be a 
lamentable thing for the Apostolic See to lapse from the 
Catholic faith. He upbraids the Roman Church for 
making exaggerated claims to authority and power other 
than what was possessed by other Churches, and he allows 
to the see of Rome a high position of honour, second only 
to that of Jerusalem. 

If this were the general relation in which the British 
Churches stood to the Papal See, no wonder that Pope 
Vitalian, in 667, wrote to King Oswy to choose an arch- 
bishop for Canterbury who should root out the tares from 
the whole island, alluding thereby to the clergy of the 
National Church. 

The peculiarity in the observance of Easter was aban- 
doned by the Church in the south of Ireland in 634, by 
the Northumbrian Church in 664 ; the Britons of Strath- 
clyde submitted in 668, the northern Scots in Ireland in 
697 ; in 704 a Roman party was formed in lona itself. The 
British of the eastern portion of the West Welsh in Devon 
and Cornwall accepted the Roman computation in 710. 
The change took place in Wales between 768 and 777. 
Llandewennec, in Brittany, retained the Celtic tonsure 
till 817. 

There exists at Canterbury a copy of a letter written by 
Kenstec, or Kenstet, bishop-elect of the Cornish Britons, 
in which he professes his obedience to the see of Canter- 



* 



*- 



-* 



48 



Lives of the Saints. 



bury, then ruled by Ceolnoth, who was archbishop between 
833 and 870. 

In 884 a Saxon see was constituted at Exeter, with 
jurisdiction given by Canterbury over Cornwall. 

In 905 the Pope having complained to King Edward 
the Elder and to Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
that the great see of Wessex had been vacant for seven 
years, Edward and Plegmund together divided the see 
into five : Winchester, Framsbury, Sherborne, Wells, and 
Crediton, and to Crediton were assigned three estates in 
Wales, i.e. Cornwall, to be under the authority of the 
Bishop of Devon, because hitherto the Cornish had been 
without awe of the West Saxons. The bishop was of 
course a Saxon, Eadulf. Moreover, an order was made 
that the bishop should pay an annual visit to Cornwall " to 
extirpate their errors, for formerly they resisted the truth, 
and did not obey the apostolical decrees," that is to say, 
they clung to their traditional observances and to the 
independence of their Church, all which was hateful in 
the eyes of such men as Plegmund. An interesting letter 
by Archbishop Dunstan has been recovered, in which he 
says that the Cornish had their own bishop, Conan (Cunan), 
and that he lived in the reign of Athelstan, 925-940. 
But under Edred, 945-955, there was another, Daniel, 
whose bishop's stool was at S. Germans. But Edgar 
bade Dunstan consecrate Wulfsige, a Saxon, whose signa- 
ture remains in 980 and 988. The Cornish see seems to 
have been transferred from S. Germans to S. Petrocks 
(Bodmin) some time after Daniel's consecration, and was 
iDrought back in 981. The Cornish see of S. Germans 
was extinguished, and jurisdiction over the West Welsh 
was given to the Saxon bishop of Crediton, 1042, and 
was transferred to Exeter in 1050. 

The method adopted by the Saxon kings, partly in their 



*- * 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 49 

own interest, partly in that of Rome, was to quell all 
religious as well as political independence in the Cornish, 
and this policy was pursued also by the Danish and Norman 
kings. The process followed was this : First^ the British 
bishops and clergy were subjected to a torrent of abuse 
as heretics and schismatics, till they yielded their pecu- 
liarities and adopted the correct Easter computation, the 
Latin tonsure, and territorial in place of tribal organisa- 
tion in the Church. Secondly, Saxon bishops were intruded 
in place of native Cornish rulers. Then, thirdly, the epis- 
copal throne was withdrawn from Cornwall wholly, and 
placed, first in Crediton, then in Exeter, away from all 
association with Celts; for, be it recalled, Athelstan had 
expelled the British from Exeter. And this was done with 
Papal approval, for it was the stifling of ecclesiastical inde- 
pendent life in the Celtic race in the Domnonian peninsula. 
This will be more apparent when we give the list of 
bishops as far as is known : — 

Kenstec, Bishop at Dinnurrin, in Cornwall, submitted to Canter- 
bury, 833-870 ; a Briton. 

Eadulf, Bishop (Saxon) at Crediton, was given three manors in 
Wales beyond the Tamar — a foothold among the pure Britons, 
905. 

CONAN, Bishop at S. Petrocks (Bodmin), 931-940 ; a Briton, but 
retained much about the court of Athelstan, and apparently 
more there than in Cornwall. 

Daniel, Bishop at S. Germans, 945-955 ; probably a Briton. 

Athelstan, an intruded Saxon, 955-959. 

CoMOERE, Bishop at S. Germans, 959-966 ; probably a Briton. 

WULFSIGE, an intruded Saxon, 966-988. 

Ealdreu, an intruded Saxon, 993-997. 

BuRHWOLD, an intruded Saxon, 1002-1020. 

Lyving, Saxon Bishop of Crediton, having already three manors 
in Cornwall, now obtained the abolition of an independent 
Cornish bishopric, and the subjection of the whole of Corn- 
wall to the see of Crediton, 1026-1038. 

Leokric, 1046-1071, had the see of Crediton, together with juris- 
diction over Cornwall, removed to Exeter. 
VOL. XVI. D 

* ■ i^ 



»f<- 



50 



Lives of the Saints, 



* 



Not till 1877 was a bishop's stool restored to the West 
Welsh, with Truro as the cathedral, and not yet has a 
Cornishman been given the pastoral staff to hold spiritual 
rule over his brother Cornishmen. 

In Wales a somewhat similar process was pursued. 
Elbod, or Elfod, Bishop of Bangor, in 768 induced North 
Wales, and in 777 South Wales, to adopt the Roman 
Easter; and the process of transforming the organisation 
of the Church from one tribal into one that was in con- 
formity with the Latin usage, proceeded gradually. 

It was possibly due to Armorican influence that the 
Welsh Church abandoned its peculiarities. As Mr. Borlase 
happily puts it, " We can readily imagine that the natives 
would adopt changes from their brethren in Armorica, while 
the Saxons might strive in vain to force them upon them. 
The Briton was stubborn and unbending, and he is so to 
this day. He might be led, but he would never be driven. 
His'errors, if they were errors (and this we may be quite sure 
he did not admit), would be dearer to him than an ortho- 
doxy enforced by the conquerors, and thereafter to be worn 
by him as one of the badges of his vanquished race." "^ 

In 871, on the death of Einion, Bishop of Menevia, 
Hubert, a Saxon, was intruded upon the throne of S. 
David, and again a Lambert, consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in 874, unless, as Haddan and 
Stubbs suppose, Lambert and Hubert are identical, in 
which case the delay in consecration was probably due to 
the resistance of the clergy to having an alien forced on 
them. At the same time another Welsh see was filled with 
bishops consecrated at Canterbury, Llandaff, to which first 
Cymelliauc and then Lliliau were ordained. 

According to the book of Llandaff, some bishops of that 
see and also some of S. David's were consecrated by the 

1 "The Age of the Saints," Truro, 1893. 



*- 



Ij,,_ _ ^ 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 5 1 

Archbishops of Canterbury at the close of the tenth cen- 
tury ; but the statements are in a condition of such hopeless 
inconsistency, that it is advisable to reject them. 

In its struggle for independence the archiepiscopal see 
of S. David's claimed its rights as derived from Jerusalem, 
and the story was invented that S. David had been con- 
secrated and given supremacy over the British Church by 
the Patriarch and successor of S. James of Jerusalem. By 
this assumption the see of S. David pitted S. James against 
S. Peter. But although it is possible that S. David may have 
visited Jerusalem, it is not probable that he was there con- 
secrated. It was not till the Norman conquest of Wales 
that the independence of the Welsh Church came to an end. 

Let us look now for a moment at the Celtic Church 
in Brittany. This, as we have seen, was intimately re- 
lated to that of Wales. S. Sampson, abbot and bishop- 
chieftain of Dol, was a man partly of Welsh, partly of 
(\.rmorican descent, but of wholly Welsh education. 

In Brittany there was no territorial Episcopacy ; the bishop 
or abbot was head in ecclesiastical matters of the tribe or 
clan to which he belonged. 

The trace of this remained till late in the different con- 
stitutions of the bishoprics which were purely British and 
those which were Gallo-Frank. In the former the pre- 
lates were sovereign chiefs within their episcopal cities, 
independent of the political chiefs, kings, and dukes. 
This was because the founders had been granted these 
lands on which to establish their ecclesiastical colonies, 
and they continued to enjoy the privilege, which was con- 
sonant with Celtic ideas. 

When Latin ideas began to prevail, then the tribal 
property became territorial, both among lay chiefs and 
among ecclesiastical chiefs, and the diocesan organisation 
of Brittany began to assume shape. 



-* 



►J< 



52 



Lives of the Saitifs. 



In Brittany proper there were bishops at Aleth, Dol, 
Ledn, Treguier, these in Domnonia. Cornouaille was 
ruled by a bishop, whose see was sometimes at Quimper. 
Vannes belonged off and on to Brittany, and especially to 
Cornouaille, according as Breton or Frank influence 
prevailed. The Breton clergy and bishops were wholly 
independent of the Franco-Gallic Church; and the arch- 
diocese of Tours could only assert a claim on the grounds 
of a pretended consecration of S. Corentin by S. Martin. 
Nantes and Rennes bowed before the crozier of Tours, 
but the other sees stubbornly refused allegiance. 

In 846 a very able man, Nominee, of whose origin we 
know little, succeeded in becoming duke and then king over 
all Brittany. He resolved on wresting his country from its 
loose allegiance to the Frank crown, and at the same time 
on putting an end to the claims advanced by the Arch- 
l;ishop of Tours to jurisdiction over the Armorican bishops. 
He constituted bishoprics at S. Brieuc and S. Rabutual, 
and revived that of Dol, and endeavoured to elevate Dol 
into an archiepiscopal see for all Brittany. By this he 
separated the Breton from the Frank Church, or to be 
more exact, maintained its independence, which it con- 
tinued to assert for another three hundred years. All the 
attempts made by Popes Nicolas I., John XII. and XIII., 
and Leo IX. to oblige the Archbishop of Dol to submit 
to the Latin Church and acknowledge the Archbishop of 
Tours were as ineffectual as were the previous denuncia- 
tions of the Councils of Toul and Rheims in 859 and 
1049. It was not till Gregory VII. occupied the throne 
that this schismatical or independent province could be 
reduced to obedience, and not till 11 72 that the arch- 
Ijishopric of Dol submitted to become a suffragan see. 

As early as 566, in a Council held at Tours, a canon 
had been launched against the Celtic clergy, forbidding 



*- 



-* 



* — 

The Celtic Church audits Saints. 53 

" the consecration of any bishops in Armorica, whether 
they be Britons or Romans (that is to say, Gauls), without 
the consent of the metropoHtan or his co-provincials, under 
penalty of exclusion from the communion of the other 
bishops, till next Synod." This shows that in the sixth 
century the usage in Brittany was much as it was in Ire- 
land, Wales, and Scotland, for bishops to be consecrated 
in large numbers, and regardless of their having any sees. 

It was doubtless during the struggle to uphold the 
jurisdiction of Dol after 846 that the legend of Sampson 
of Dol having received the pall was invented. 

We will now take a brief glance at Scotland. 

In North Britain the Saxon kingdom of Bernicia ex- 
tended to the Firth of Forth, but the only settled bishop- 
rics were those of Lindisfarne and Witherne, the latter of 
English foundation, and entirely antagonistic to Celtic 
peculiarities. Lindisfarne was captured for the Roman 
party by Wilfred from the Celtic Bishop Colman, and the 
monasteries were ravaged by the Northmen. Conse- 
quently the National Church in North Britain rapidly 
became one in complexion and character with the Latin- 
ized Church of Northumbria, and the only possible 
representatives of the earlier foundation were the Culdees, 
Cultores Dei, anchorites or soUtaries, who kept up some 
of the peculiarities of the Celtic Church. 

At lona a schism had taken place in 704, and rival 
abbots co-existed there till 772, each at the head of a party 
of monks, one set observing the Celtic Easter, the other the 
Roman Paschal computation, and butting with their vari- 
ously tonsured heads at each other in angry controversy. 
But on the death of the Abbot Suibhne the conformity of 
the whole monastery of lona to the Latin rule was estab- 
lished. National customs, however, died hard. When 
S. Margaret, a Saxon princess, with ingrained Latin pro- 

^ _ >J< 



clivities, married King Malcolm III., in 1069, she supposed 
it was her mission to extinguish the last embers of inde- 
pendence in the Scottish Church. She laboured against 
four customs that still prevailed : — 

1. The commencement of Lent on the first Monday in 
Lent instead of on Ash Wednesday — a custom that prevails 
at Milan to the present day. 

2. The non- reception of the Eucharist on Easter Day. 
In this particular, Celtic custom has prevailed in the 
Latin Church, where at present the Easter communion is 
made on Maundy Thursday uistead of on the Feast of the 
Resurrection. 

3. Labour on the Lord's Day — a manifest abuse. 

4. Strange, that is to say, Celtic, customs at Mass. In 
fact the old Celtic liturgies of Galilean origin, and belong- 
ing to the Ephesine or Milanese family, and not to the 
Roman, were in use still. S. Margaret's biographer informs 
us that " In some places among the Scots there were 
persons who, contrary to the custom of the whole Church, 
had been accustomed to celebrate Masses by some bar- 
barous rite, which the Queen, kindled with God's zeal(!!), 
so laboured to destroy and bring to naught, that thence- 
forth there appeared no one in the whole race of the Scots 
who dared to do such a thing." 

It was due far more to her zeal in thus suppressing 
independent usages in the Church than to her real or 
supposed virtues, that she has obtained canonisation at 
Rome. What this " barbarous rite " was we shall see 
somewhat later. 

But although S. Margaret may have secured open sub- 
mission, she could not completely extinguish the lingering 
love of and adhesion to the traditions of the Fathers. Fifty 
years later, in the reign of King David, we learn from the 
Chronicle of the Picts and Scots that the Culdees, " in a 



*- 



-* 



^ __ 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 55 

corner of their Church, which was very small, were wont to 
celebrate their own office after their own fashion." 

This was the final spark, and it went out. In Scotland 
accordingly " the old Celtic Church came to an end, leaving 
no vestiges behind it, save here and there the roofless walls 
of what had once been a church, and the numerous old bury- 
ing-grounds, to which the people still cling with tenacity, 
and where occasionally an ancient Celtic cross tells of its 
former state." ^ — " Thus ended the struggle for indepen- 
dence, after it had continued for more than a century and 
a half. Wales, at the beginning, was the head of a great 
and powerful Celtic confederacy ; at the end, it was almost 
alone. A party in Hy (lona), and, perhaps, also the 
Breton clergy, remained faithful to the last to the cause of 
Celtic independence, but Wales had no other allies. The 
Church of Ireland had so entirely turned against it that 
by its canons it had put restrictions upon the ministrations 
of such clergy as came from Britain, and had condemned 
their churches for separating from the Roman customs and 
from the unity of Christendom. The prolongation of the 
struggle only completed the isolation of Wales ; and though 
by its submission to Rome it again entered nominally into 
fellowship with the rest of Western Christendom, it was long 
separated in feeling from the English Church and the 
churches of the Continent, and it never quite regained the 
old connexion with its Celtic brethren. It had lost alike 
its headship and its colonies." ^ 

But it lost more than this ; it was by degrees deprived 
of its native vigour and independent genius ; and although 
when the Norman conquest of Wales took place the clergy 
were all Welsh, yet the constitution had become stereotyped 
into the approved diocesan, territorial shape, and had ceased 

1 Skene, "Celtic Scotland," vol. ii. p. 417. 

2 Newell, " History of the Welsh Church," p. 133. 

^ __ — * 



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56 



Lives of the Saints. 



to be tribal. Moreover, the old Celtic monastic institutions, 
in which the religious activities of the British had been 
focused, had fallen into decay. Then came the Norman 
invasion under Robert Fitzhamon, 1091, and the subjuga- 
tion of the south of Wales, which was speedily studded with 
strongholds, and the iron hand of the Norman thenceforth 
held the people down. On the death of Griffri, Bishop of 
S. David's, the clergy elected Daniel, son of a [ former 
bishop, Sulien, to the vacant see; but King Henry I. put 
him aside "against the will and in contempt of all the 
scholars of the Britons," and thrust upon them Bernard, 
a Norman, not even at the time in priest's orders, who was 
required to make formal profession of canonical obedience 
to the see of Canterbury, in order to bring the Welsh 
Church completely under Norman and Roman control. 

This is, perhaps, one of the grossest cases of royal inter- 
ference with the canonical rights of the Church that is on 
record, at least in England. The prelate imposed on a 
diocese, unanimous in refusal, by the mere will of a king, 
was pitchforked into priestly and episcopal orders in one 
day. 

Already in 1092, Hervey, a Norman, but of Breton 
parentage, had been forced on the see of Bangor ; the see 
of S. Asaph had been subjected to the same violence; 
another Norman, Urban, had been imposed on Llandaff. 
Hervey maintained his position by force of arms only, 
actually fighting against the sheep of his pasture at the 
head of a band of soldiers. At last the outraged Cymry 
could endure this no longer ; they rose and expelled him 
in 1 107. Pope Pascal's sympathy was with him, regard- 
ing him as a martyr to the cause of Roman supremacy. 
He was consoled with the see of Ely. 

Thenceforth every bishopric was filled with nominees of 
the Norman and Angevin kings, men who knew nothing of 



*- 



-* 



the language and customs of the Welsh people ; elections by 
the Chapters, if in favour of native candidates, were ignored 
or quashed; and the lands of the Church were ruthlessly 
torn away from the tribes whose clergy they had supported 
to enrich Norman and English abbeys. Thenceforth no 
Welshman was eligible for a see or an abbacy, even at last 
for a parochial cure. " The policy of the English Govern- 
ment was to degrade the Welsh, and not to encourage the 
ordination of any Welshman, as none were considered 
worthy of a place of trust. So arose an alien Church, sup- 
ported by alien clergy ; and not the least of the feelings 
of the Welsh against the Church was that a body of men 
who were supported by Wales, and who ought to be, before 
all things, Welsh, were all foreigners, and no Welshman 
could be legally admitted a member of the body. Orders 
were to the Welsh a closed door. . . . The clergy, though 
not Welsh, became more and more tolerant of the Welsh, 
and while in name Latin, with them local ideas largely 
prevailed. The Celtic customs still lived in spite of the 
fact that nominally they were superseded by the Latin." ^ 

One more effort to obtain a semblance of independence 
was made later, in 1 198-1203. The Norman bishop, 
Peter de Leia, was dead, and the Chapter nominated for 
the royal sanction Gerald de Barri and three others. 
Gerald was grandson of Nest, daughter of Rhys, king of 
Deheubarth, the most beautiful woman of her age, and he 
inherited from her personal beauty and an intense love 
for Wales and the Welsh. Precisely for the reason that 
he was Welsh by birth and partly Welsh by lineage he was 
unacceptable to the King and the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. John, Richard being dead, refused to ratify the 
election of the Chapter, and Gerald appealed to Rome, but in 
vain; the King and Archbishop could bring more from their 

1 Bund, "The Celtic Church in Wales," p. 499. 



->.'i 



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58 



Lives of the Saints. 



pockets in bribes than the Archdeacon of Brecon. For 
five years Gerald contested the matter, passing between 
Wales and Rome, and only abandoned the struggle when 
he found that his purse could no longer sustain it. When 
he yielded, from that day the see of S. David's was forced 
to bow under the sypremacy of Canterbury. " Many and 
great wars," said the Prince of Powys, " have our Welsh- 
men waged with England, but none so great and fierce as 
his who fought the King and the Archbishop, and withstood 
the might of the whole clergy and people of England, for 
the honour of Wales." 

But, indeed, it was a hopeless struggle ; for the Pope was 
as little likely to relish the independence of S. David's, as 
the King of England and the successor of S Augustine at 
Canterbury. 

Giraldus describes to us the sort of men who were sent 
to fatten on the ecclesiastical benefices of the Welsh. The 
Norman bishops forced on the reluctant Church came there, 
pasci lion pascere, to stuff themselves, and not to pasture 
the flock. Amongst them was one who always promoted 
the most incapable among his relatives, alleging that the 
capable ones could get along without his aid, but the others 
would starve. He tells how a priest brought to his dio- 
cesan a hundred eggs, " ova," but by slip of the tongue said 
"oves," sheep, whereupon the prelate forced the man to 
be as good as his word and furnish him with a hundred 
sheep. And, indeed, the Norman and English clergy thrust 
into the parishes were not only ignorant of Welsh, but also 
of Latin. One preaching on S. Barnabas' Day, spoke of 
his virtue and repentance, and of how in his early life he 
was a robber, supposing him to be Barabbas. Another, 
on the Feast of S. John before the Latin Gate, informed 
his congregation that he was the man who had brought 
Latin into Britain, for anle was " first," poriam was " he 



*- 



-* 



* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 59 



brought," Latinam, " the Latin tongue," — and " into Eng- 
land or Britain " was to be understood. He tells how the 
Norman bishops alienated the lands to members of their 
families, how they lived as absentees from their dioceses, 
committing the temporal cares, that is, the extortion of money, 
to unprincipled officials, and how hungry and disreputable 
English adventurers trooped into Wales to snap up the 
ecclesiastical benefices as fast as they fell vacant. The 
Norman invaders plundered the parishes to enrich abbeys 
they had founded, and introduced a host of foreign monks, 
disreputable, indolent, and vicious. Giraldus tells stories 
of their conduct, how they were sent out to live in cells 
singly, where they at once took to them female companions. 
" Go back to my abbey ! " said a monk to friendly advice ; 
" I had rather go to hell." Gerald tells of one whose 
conduct was so scandalous that the castellan of Milford 
threw him into prison, and his " amica " was set in the pil- 
lory. But beside their incontinence, of which, says Gerald, 
melius est silere quam loqni, their drunkenness and gluttony 
were proverbial, and they were perfectly unscrupulous as 
to the way in which they extended their possessions — by 
moving landmarks at night, by cajoling dying persons 
to make bequests, and, he might have added, by forging 
donations of estates. 

It was the policy of the crown and the barons to im- 
poverish the Church, lest the Welsh spirit should gather 
head in the parish churches. They therefore gave away 
great tithes and glebe to the monasteries, some in Nor- 
mandy, some in England. When the Cistercian and other 
abbeys were founded in Wales they were filled with men 
of foreign extraction, and proved English fortresses in the 
midst of the land. These monasteries were sponges suck- 
ing in the endowments of the Church. Let us take an 
instance or two. Cynwyl Gaio has annexed to it Llansawyl, 

1^ —q^ 



* — 

6o Lives of the Saints. 

a daughter church. The area of the parish is 36,437 acres, 
and is something Hke fifteen miles across. There must be 
a curate kept, and for vicar and curate the gross receipts 
were ^^274, now, at reduced value, ^180. Formerly there 
were some eight churches or chapels, now only two. Or 
again, Cynwyl Elvet and Abernant have the acreage of 
19,560, and there are two churches, two clergy to be main- 
tained, and the value is, gross, ^^^224, actually under ^150. 

The Welsh in the Middle Ages had to support an alien 
clergy, alien monks, as well as alien feudal lords. So 
entirely was the Welsh Church expropriated for the benefit 
of the English, that even so late as the reigns of the Lan- 
castrian Henrys no Welshman might be educated so as to 
qualify him to hold an ecclesiastical benefice, and so com- 
pletely trodden under and despised were the Welsh people, 
that an Englishman who married a Welshwoman lost all 
his rights as a freeborn Englishman. These atrocious 
laws were only in part repealed under the Tudor sovereigns. 
One might have anticipated that when a Welshman came 
to the throne of England he would have done something 
to give to his native land and the people of his fathers 
some of that for which they had aspired for centuries. It 
was not so. The policy of Henry VIII. was to complete 
the union of England and Wales, politically and ecclesi- 
astically. The confiscation of the property of the monastic 
houses led to no improvement whatever. The monks did 
hold services in the numerous chapels on their lands ; but 
now the land that was confiscated was given to zealous 
servants of the king among the laity, and the thousands of 
chapels fell into ruin, and the parochial clergy remained in 
indigence. 

The wrong done to the sensitive, religious-minded Welsh 
people sunk deep into their hearts, and a feeling of resent- 
ment was nurtured that was destined to last for long. 

^ _ * 



*— — * 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 6 1 

It is significant to note how entirely the Welsh writers, 
the poets of the Middle Ages, held themselves aloof from 
the Church ; they wrote as though uninfluenced by Chris- 
tianity, and this points to the simmering bitterness that 
filled every native heart. It would seem as though it were 
a law of God that when a great wrong has been done it 
should be redressed, and reprisals taken on the offender at 
some time by the representative of those who had been 
outraged. 

It is surely remarkable that when the Norman Angevin 
house died [out in its male representatives, and when a 
Welshman ascended the throne, that the day of retribution 
should dawn. By the sword of the Norman the Papacy 
had mown down the national Christianity of the Celtic race, 
and with the Welsh Henry Tudor, second of that house, 
the sword was turned to drive the Papacy for ever out of 
domination over the hearts and consciences of Welsh, and 
Scots, and Englishmen. 

In Ireland something of the same course had been 
pursued. The see of Dublin, founded in 1040, alone 
obeyed Rome, and that was founded by the Danes, and 
was totally distinct from the Irish Church. It looked to 
Canterbury, not to Armagh. The other Danish settle- 
ments followed suit, and planted sees at Waterford and 
Limerick under Roman obedience. S. Malachy, steeped 
in Latin notions, contrived the capture of Armagh, but it 
was not till after the conquest of Ireland by Strongbow in 
1170-72 that the Irish Church was reduced to Roman 
conformity. The Papacy had long resented the inde- 
pendence of this Church, and had coveted the opportunity 
for its subjugation. It needed a ready and unscrupulous 
servant. Pope Hadrian IV. found the man he wanted in 
Henry II. He declared that Ireland and all islands con- 
verted to Christianity belonged to the special jurisdiction 



^ _^ 

62 Lives of the Saints. 

of S. Peter, and by virtue of this power he granted Ireland 
to Henry II. of England. The tribute of Peter's pence 
from the conquered island was to be his reward. Henry 
was authorised " to enter the island, to subject its people 
to obedience of laws, to eradicate the seeds of vice, and 
also to make every house pay an annual tribute of one 
penny to the blessed Peter, and preserve the rights of the 
Church of that land whole and entire." 

Thus was a free, vigorous, intelligent people sacrificed 
for a penny a household, to be trampled on, murdered, 
enslaved by Norman adventurers. The bull was granted 
in 1 155. Thenceforth, as Gerald de Barri, who accom- 
panied the invaders, writes, "The clergy (in Ireland) were 
reduced to beggary; the cathedral churches mourned, 
having been plundered by the adventurers of the lands and 
ample estates which had been formerly granted to them 
faithfully and devoutly. And thus," adds Gerald, " the 
exalting of the Church has been fruitful in its spoliation 
and plundering." Of the ministers of the Papal See, the 
Anglo-Norman conquerors, he says — and they were many 
of them his own relatives — " This new and bloody con- 
quest has been defiled by an enormous effusion of blood, 
and the slaughter of a Christian people." 

The sense of wrong done, and rankling for so many 
centuries in Celtic hearts, produced conflicting results 
eventually. In Wales the population was entirely in- 
different to the Reformation. It had been indifferent to 
the Papalised Church because manned by aliens ; it was 
as indifferent to the Reformed Church, because that was 
as unnational as before. They regarded the occupants of 
the thrones of S. David, S. Teilo, and S. Asaph, as also 
those of the churches everywhere founded and named after 
Celtic saints, as aliens ; and when the opportunity came, in 
Nonconformity, sought to found a religion for themselves on 



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The Celtic Church and its Saints. 



63 



-* 



their own lines, in complete independence, and in undying 
hostility to the Established Church. 

In Ireland, on the other hand, with characteristic wrong- 
headedness, the Irish people, because the Reformed Church 
occupied the old benefices, lived on the old endowments, 
held the cathedrals and parochial churches, revolted in 
favour of that Church which had done to Ireland the 
cruellest wrong that could have been inflicted, by selling it 
into the hand of the English king at a penny a household. 

In Wales the Church had been plundered by the 
Normans ; great numbers of the benefices had been re- 
duced to vicarages, that the great tithes might go to 
abbeys ; but the monks did strive to do their duty by the 
people. The country was covered with little chapels in 
every hamlet, at no great distance from one another, in 
which the Word of God was preached, and souls were 
ministered to. But with the Reformation the revenues of 
the monasteries were confiscated, and they were destroyed. 
Thenceforth the parochial clergy were left in comparative 
poverty, with large parishes, a population very scattered, 
and wholly unable to cope with the spiritual needs of 
their people, however desirous they might be of doing so. 
The Welsh national and ecclesiastical organisations were 
never allowed free development. That which was foreign 
to the genius of the people was forced upon them. The 
tribal system is killed entirely ; but they have attempted 
in Nonconformity to set up what is a spontaneous and 
living expression of their aspirations and needs. 

And to a century of Nonconformity Wales owes more 
than to eight centuries of the Church. Welsh Noncon- 
formity has transformed and regenerated Wales. It has 
cultivated both the spiritual and the intellectual powers of 
the people to a most remarkable degree. The Welsh peasant 
of to-day is a head taller, intellectually, than the English 



*- 



■* 



^ — . lj< 

64 Lives of the Saints. 

labourer. He takes his stand beside the Scotchman. 
The Nonconformist ministry has produced men of first- 
rate abihty and true leaders of men; not only so, but 
students passionately devoted to learning. In the century 
of its existence Nonconformity has passed through and 
out of the initial stage of an emotional religion. At first 
it was the appeal to the religious hunger of the unsatisfied 
soul. But all emotional religion is dangerous, as conducive 
to the substitution of feeling for moral obedience. Non- 
conformity in Wales has gone out of this stage, and is 
now cultivating the reasoning faculties of its members. 
The rock ahead on which it may split is Rationalism. It 
may, in its zeal for the cultivation of thought, lose its 
power over the spiritual part of man ; and here it is that 
there is a hope for the Church. That always appeals to 
the devotional instincts of the soul, and when Noncon- 
formity ceases to do that, then the Church will recover her 
old grasp on the Welsh people. But that will only be 
when the Apostolic spirit is revived in her, and when 
place-hunting, astuteness in controversy and in manipu- 
lating promotions and clutching at places, are not prime 
considerations, but rather the turning the hearts of the 
disobedient to the Wisdom of the Just. At Pumsaint, in 
Caermarthen, sleep the five sons of Cynyr, of the race of 
Cunedda, under a rock in the old Roman gold-mines of 
Gogofau. They sleep a magic sleep, till the Spirit of God 
breathes again over the Church in Wales, and an apostle 
sits on the seat of S. David. Four times have they turned 
their stone pillow, and into all four sides have their heads 
worn holes. They have cast aside this bolster and have 
taken another. They have not as yet sat up and begun 
to speak. 

In conclusion, a few words must be added on certain 
peculiarities that characterised the Celtic saints. 

* 




\o 






<u 

a, 



T/ie Celtic Chtirck and its Saints. 65 

It has been said that the Church among the Celts 
passed through stages of development. The first stage 
was that in which the professed Christians lived together 
as a saintly tribe, subject to the saint who was their 
chieftain. The second stage was that of the great mon- 
astic foundations. This was one where women, and such 
as were not monks, were turned out of the caer in which 
the religious lived. The remains of one such monastic 
settlement on a small scale is seen in Skellig Michael, in 
the county of Kerry. Each monk occupied a small stone 
bee-hive hut, and they had little rectangular oratories. 

This was a period in which learning was in great repute, 
and to each monastery was attached a school. The know- 
ledge of Greek was widely prosecuted, and the Latin authors 
were extensively read. " The Irish schools," says Professor 
Stokes — and the same may be said of the Welsh — " de- 
veloped themselves in accordance with their own genius. 
They had one pre-eminent quality, distinguishing them 
from too many of their descendants — they pursued learning 
for its own sake. They did not require to be bribed by 
prizes and scholarships. They conceived, and rightly con- 
ceived, that learning was its own reward. The schools 
had moderate landed endowments, and their teaching was 
apparently free to all, or, at any rate, imparted at a very 
low charge. Bede tells us that the Irish professors were 
in the habit of receiving English pupils, educating, feeding, 
and supplying them with books, without making any 
charge at all. They lived under very simple conditions 
of society. They had no solid halls or buildings ; a few 
wattled huts constituted their college. They taught and 
studied in the open air, just as in the hedge schools of 
former days which Carleton depicts. Yet they had an 
organised system. They had usually a chief or senior 
lecturer. They had professors of law, of poetry, of history, 

VOL. XVI. E 

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66 



Lives of the Saints. 



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and of other branches of education. They had a steward, 
who managed the temporal affairs of the institution." ^ 

It was probably from the East, through that entrancing, 
soul-moving work, the " Lives of the Fathers of the Desert," 
that asceticism found its way into the Celtic Church, and 
at once, with characteristic enthusiasm, the Celtic hermit 
carried it to extravagance. We have indeed only the late 
biographies of the Celtic saints, and we do not know to 
what extent the mediaeval writers exaggerated the austerities 
of the ancient ascetics, but their customs were so odd that 
we can hardly attribute them to mere invention. 

S. Judicael, Ave are told, delighted in standing stark 
naked to his neck in ice-cold water whilst recitino; the 
psalter; Iltyd did the same at midnight, remaining in the 
water till he had repeated the Lord's Prayer thrice ; S. 
Fiech took with him five cakes into solitude, whereon to 
subsist during Lent, and at Easter reappeared with one 
unconsumed. Their austerities bordered on grotesqueness. 
One would sleep among corpses, and suspend himself on 
the points of sickles placed under his armpits ; another 
would keep a stone in his mouth throughout Lent ; and a 
female saint, named Ita, allowed a stag-beetle to gnaw out 
her side. S. Winwaloe slept on nut-shells, and put stones 
for his pillow. But these biographies were composed by 
Latin monks, alien in nationality, out of traditional tales and 
ballads, many centuries after the death of those of whom 
they wrote; and it would appear as though the natives, 
Welsh, and above all Irish, delighted in palming off on 
their interrogators any nonsense that their lively imaginations 
could conjure up. It is amusing, among other things, to 
note how some of the real facts puzzled the writers, and 
how they endeavoured to alter them in accordance with 
their Latin prejudices. 

• 1 Stokes, " Ireland and the Celtic Church," p. 229. 



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The Celtic Church and its Saints. 67 



A peculiar custom in the Celtic Church was that of 
dedication of a church or ecclesiastical colony. According 
to the Roman usage every church must be a shrine over a 
relic, and the church takes its title from the relic preserved 
in it. The Celtic Church had its martyria, but these were 
exceptional. In it, it was customary for a holy man or 
woman who desired to found a llan, to go to the spot and 
continue there in prayer and fasting for forty days and 
nights ; during all that time it was incumbent on him to 
eat nothing save a morsel of bread and an egg, and to 
drink only milk and water, and that once in the day. The 
Sundays were excepted. This done, the place was regarded 
as consecrated for ever. The church thenceforth bore the 
foundet^s name, and it may be pretty certainly, though not 
always, concluded that where a church bears the title of a 
Celtic saint, if of early foundation, it was actually conse- 
crated by that person in the manner described. This 
was not always the case ; at a later period churches estab- 
lished under direct rule of a famous abbey, either of 
S. Teilo or S. David, would be called S. Teilo's or S. 
David's church, not because actually founded by the saints, 
but because erected by those who belonged to the original 
establishment of Teilo or David, and were to be served 
from the monasteries of these saints. 

There was a third stage in the development of the 
Church in Celtic countries, and that was when the secular 
priests and the bishops were independent of the great 
abbeys. Marriage was usual among them ; indeed, always 
had been when under the rule of the ecclesiastical chief or 
abbot. It appears from the Epistle of Gildas that the British 
clergy in his day — the sixth century — did not profess celibacy, 
and until 961 the marriage of the clergy was not only not 
forbidden, but was recognised. A passage in the Dimetian 
Code provides that a son of a priest born before his father's 



* 



^___ — »J« 

68 Lives of the Sai?its. 

ordination has no right to a share in his ecclesiastical 
benefice, but that a son born afterwards would have a legal 
claim thereto, because the first son, not belonging to the 
sacred tribe, would obviously have no claim on tribal rights 
to which his father had not been admitted at the time. In 
the canons, said to have been made at a synod of SS. 
Patrick, Auxilius, and Isserninus, the sixth regulates the 
dress to be worn by the wives of the clergy. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, in the twelfth century, was greatly 
shocked. Benefices passed in many instances regularly 
from father to son, and these even in the cathedral. The 
sons of the canons married the canons' daughters, and the 
cathedral had altogether the appearance of a happy family 
party. He says that under the very shadow of the 
cathedral nurses and cradles were to be seen. The Arch- 
deacon of Bangor, an old man named Jordan, was married. 
Giraldus, at the time administrator of the authority of the 
Papal legate, reprimanded him. The archdeacon dis- 
regarded the notice. Then Giraldus appealed to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who sent him an admonition. On 
receiving this the ai-chdeacon appears to have forgotten his 
dignity, and to have launched into very unclerical language 
at the expense of the archbishop. At length Giraldus got 
the old man removed from his archdeaconry and prebend 
and transferred to a less conspicuous position, whereupon 
Giraldus seized on the vacant dignities for himself. 

He draws a ludicrous picture of the parish priest jogging 
to market, his good woman sitting before and he behind, 
holding on with his arms about her waist. 

But there was an abuse growing out of this, that of the 
benefices becoming family property : Giraldus stayed a night 
in one which belonged to six ecclesiastics of the same family. 

A great deal more credit has been given to Augustine 
and his mission for work done in the evangelisation of 



-* 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 69 



England than they deserve. Augustine's mission came 
after the whole of Celtic Britain and Ireland, and a portion 
of Caledonia, had believed, and that for centuries. It was 
true that where Saxon and Angle arms prevailed, there the 
native British Church had been swept out. But Augus- 
tine's mission was a success for a brief period only, and 
then met with discomfiture. Later on it obtained some 
advantage among the Saxons of Kent and Wessex; but 
Mercia and Northumbria were converted, not by these 
Latin missionaries, but by the missionaries of the Celtic 
Church in lona, and in Wales, Devon, and Cornwall the 
primitive British Church lived on. It had a stronghold at 
Glastonbury, which Ina, the Saxon, respected. In time, 
owing to the persistency, the assurance, and the organisa- 
tion of the Latin Church, it prevailed, but it reaped where 
it had not sowed, and gathered where it had not strawed ; and 
never was the saying more fully verified than in the Latinised 
English Church, " One soweth, and another reapeth." 

With respect to the liturgy of the Celtic Church, 
whether in Ireland, Scotland, or Wales, we have a certain 
amount of material by which we can understand what it 
was as well as what it was not. The material has been 
collected and published by Mr. Warren in his " Liturgy 
and Ritual of the Celtic Church" (Oxford, Clarendon 
Press, 1 871), and it has also been critically investigated 
by him. In what follows concerning this liturgy, I can 
do no more than condense the amount of information 
collected in that admirable treatise. But, in the first 
place, except for the passing wave of Pelagianism, that was 
allayed as speedily as it arose, there was no charge of 
heresy that could be substantiated against the Church in 
the British Isles. S. Hilary of Poitiers in 358 congratulated 
the bishops of the British provinces on " their having 
continued uncontaminated and uninjured by any contact 



*- 



-* 



70 Lives of the Saints. 

with the damnable heresy (of Arius)." Athanasius in 363 
stated that the British Churches had signified to him by 
letter that they adhered to the Nicene faith. S. Chrysostom 
(386-398) declared that "even the British Isles had felt 
the power of the Word, for there also churches and altars 
had been erected. There also, as on the shores of the 
Euxine or in the south, men might be heard discussing 
points of Scripture, with differing voices but not with 
differing belief, with varying tongues but not with varying 
faith." S. Jerome (circa 400) asserted that " Britain in 
common with Rome, Gaul, Africa, Persia, the East, and 
India, adored one Christ, and observed one Rule of Faith." 
Venantius Fortunatus (circa 580) testified to British ortho- 
doxy in the sixth century. Even Wilfrid, imbued with a 
malignant hatred of Celtic Christianity, did not venture to 
deny its orthodoxy. When present in Rome, 680, at a 
council of bishops held in anticipation of the (Ecumenical 
Council of Constantinople in the same year, he asserted that 
the true Catholic faith was held by the Irish, Scottish, and 
British, as well as by his favoured Romanised Anglo- 
Saxon Church. It had therefore been no vain boast of 
S. Columbanus to Pope Boniface in 612, that his Church 
was not schismatical nor heretical, but that it held the 
Catholic faith in its integrity. 

" Had it been otherwise, could British bishops have 
been present certainly at the Council of Aries a.d. 314, 
perhaps at Nice a.d. 325, probably at Sardica a.d. 347 ? 
Could the conferences have taken place at Augustine's 
Oak A.D. 603, and at Whitby a.d. 664, without at all 
events far more serious questions having been raised than 
the form of the tonsure, or the calculation of Easter ? 
Would Wini, Bishop of Winchester, have associated two 
British bishops with himself in the consecration of S. Chad 
a.d. 664 ? Both direct testimony and indirect inference 



The Celtic Chzirch and its Saints. 71 

lead us to conclude with reference to the whole Celtic 
Church what Montalembert allows with regard to primitive 
Ireland, that it was ' profoundly and unchangeably Catholic 
in doctrine, but separated from Rome in various points of 
discipline and liturgy.' " ^ 

So far, then, seems established, that in doctrine the Celtic 
Church in nothing differed from the Roman, Galilean, and 
Eastern Churches. In the matter of Order, there can be 
no doubt that there were bishops, priests, and deacons in 
it, as elsewhere in the Catholic Church. The difference 
was confined to this — that the jurisdiction was not neces- 
sarily in the hands of bishops, but in those of the head of 
the ecclesiastical tribe. 

It was, however, rapidly assimilating its system to that 
prevalent among the English, Franks, and among the Latin 
races. The Celtic Church never believed that the sacred 
commission could devolve save through the imposition of 
hands and invocation of the Holy Ghost, by bishops 
apostolically consecrated. What was peculiar in the 
Celtic Church was that Episcopal consecration could be 
conferred by a single bishop. In Ireland this custom still 
obtained in the eleventh century, and was complained of 
by S. Anselm, writing to the Irish king Tirlagh, in 1074, 
and by Lanfranc, writing to King Muriardach, in iioo. 
By a curious misconception of the canon of Aries, the 
Celtic Church always consecrated three bishops at once, 
but by a single ordaining bishop. There was also this 
difference in the ordination of priests and deacons, that 
in the Celtic Church their hands were anointed; and this 
peculiarity found its way into the York Anglo-Saxon 
Church, for it occurs in the Pontifical of Egbert (732- 
766); it even penetrated to southern England, for it is 
found in the Anglo-Saxon Ordinal of S. Dunstan. 

1 Warren, p. 29. 



*- 



-* 



72 Lives of the Saints. 

There were other slight differences that need not detain 
us. Let us now pass to the liturgy in use in the Celtic 
Church and to the ritual attending it. 

The Liturgy was intitled the Communion of the Altar 
and also the Sacrifice, and the Welsh word for a priest, 
offeirad, is derived from offcrrc, to offer, that is to say, 
sacra offerre or offerre sacrificium. A peculiar feature 
of the altar service was the multiplicity of Collects. 
In the early Roman liturgy there was but one, and the 
custom that now prevails of accumulating the Collects of 
the day and season did not come into use in the Latin 
Church till late. It was one of the charges made by 
Agrestus against Columbanus that he recited several Col- 
lects at Mass instead of only one. Not only was there 
a reading of Epistle and Gospel, but also of a lesson 
from the Old Testament ; but this indeed was a legacy 
from the primitive Church, and traces of it still remain in 
the Roman Missal. 

It was customary to commemorate the departed. 
Diptychs containing the names of the deceased were 
brought to the celebrant, and their contents announced by 
him during the offertory. Then ensued an anthem called 
the " deprecatio," containing an enumeration of the names 
of those departed saints for whose repose the prayers of the 
congregation were requested, and of those by whose inter- 
cession such prayers would be assisted. It is interesting 
to note that the commemoration of the dead introduced 
by the English Reformers into the prayer for all sorts and 
conditions of men occupies precisely the place of the 
Celtic " deprecatio," whereas in the Roman Mass the com- 
memoration of the dead occupies quite a different position. 

The prayer of consecration was said in an audible voice, 
and contained the recitation of the Institution. 

In the ancient Irish Church, after the Consecration, a 

^ ^ 



hymn was sung, " Sancti venite," which called the faithful 
to communion. This hymn, which has happily been pre- 
served in the Bangor Antiphonary, and also in MS. at 
S. Gall, and in the Stowe Missal, has been reintroduced 
by the compilers of Hymns Ancient and Modern, and is 
now again familiar in the British Isles, " Draw nigh and 
take the Body of the Lord." 

The position occupied by the priest was before the 
altar, that is to say, facing the east, and with his back to 
the congregation. Special vestments were in use. S. 
Bridget, we are told, " gave away to the poor the trans- 
marine and foreign vestments of Bishop Condlaedh, of 
glorious light, which he was accustomed to use when offer- 
ing the Holy Mysteries at the altars, on the festivals of our 
Lord and the vigils of the Apostles." 

Among the special vestments of which we have proof 
of existence are these: — i. The chasuble. This was 
circular, with embroidered orphreys, and is so represented 
in the eighth-century reliquary of S. Maedoc, and on the 
Book of Deer, ninth century. 2. On the breast Celtic 
bishops wore the rationale, a sort of breastplate like that 
borne by Aaron and the High Priest under the Jewish 
dispensation. It was made of gold or silver, studded with 
precious stones. It continued in use in many places 
during the Middle Ages — at Corvey, at Salzburg, and at 
Chartres. A Pope is represented at Rheims on the south 
door as wearing one.^ 3. Celtic bishops bore pastoral 
staves, not crooked like those in use in the Middle Ages, 
and in place of mitres had crowns on their heads. 
S. Samson, about 557, dreamed that he saw "three 
eminent bishops adorned with golden crowns standing 
before him." The use of this crown in a modified form 
continued in Anglo-Saxon times until the tenth century, 

1 Bock, Ceschickte der Liturgischen Gewdnder (fiovm, 1859), vol. i. p. 38a. 



-* 



;p ^ 

74 Lives of the Saints. 

when representations of the mitre begin to appear, low 
and two horned, and as such it is seen on the Culbinsgaith 
stone, Shetland, where also the bishops are shown with 
crooked staves. 

The colours in use seem to have been purple for 
ordinary Sundays, and white for festivals. Gildas refers to 
the custom of covering altars in British churches with 
purple palls. The three choirs of saints which appeared 
to S. Brendan were clad in vestments of the most shining 
purple jacinth. S. Cuthbert was buried in a purple 
dalmatic, 687. It will be remembered how largely purple 
enters into the earliest extant specimens of Celtic illumina- 
tion, and Bede alludes to the ease with which a red or 
purple dye could be obtained from shells on the Irish 
coasts, and this explains the preponderating ecclesiastical 
use of this colour.^ 

A very singular usage existed at lona of two or more 
priests being ordinarily united in the Eucharistic act ol 
consecration ; to consecrate singly was held to be the 
prerogative of bishops, or of individual priests specially 
empowered to so consecrate on account of their eminence 
or sanctity. 

Adamnan records how " on one occasion a stranger from 
the province of Munster, who, through humility, concealed 
the fact that he was a bishop, was invited, on the next 
Sunday, by Columba to join with him in consecrating the 
Body of Christ, that as two priests they might break the 
bread of the Lord together. Columba, on going to the 
altar, discovered his rank, and thus addressed him : ' Christ 
bless thee, brother ; consecrate alone as a bishop ; now we 
know that thou art of Episcopal rank. Why hast thou 

1 The general use of red in the Sarum order, and its traditional employment in 
England to this day as the ordinary Sunday colour, points to this early custom. 
Red and purple were indiscriminate colours at one time. 

* 



endeavoured to disguise thyself so long, and to prevent our 
giving thee the honour due to thee ? ' " 

No similar practice existed in any other country, or at 
any other time ; in fact, something exactly opposed to it 
existed in an obsolete rule of the Latin Church, that when 
a bishop celebrated, the priests present should unite with 
him in the words and acts of consecration. Contrary to 
the usage of the Latin Church, the Celtic Church 
employed unleavened bread. Gildas makes this one of his 
charges against it. " The Britons, opposed to all the world, 
hostile to Roman usages, not only in the Mass, but even 
in the tonsure, sheltering themselves under the shadow of 
the Jews." At S. Gall, an Irish monastery in Switzerland, 
unleavened bread was used. It was from the Celtic Church 
that the Anglo-Saxons adopted it. The Roman Church 
did not abandon leavened bread till the tenth century. 

It is hardly necessary to add that in the Celtic Church 
communion was in both kinds. 

There is no trace of a vernacular liturgy. Evidently 
that in employ was one derived from Gaul, and no attempt 
was made to translate it; but sermons were delivered in 
the tongue understood by the people, and the Gospel and 
Epistle were doubtless translated, and possibly there were 
vernacular hymns. There certainly was singing, and we 
are told that when S. Columba chanted his voice could be 
heard a mile away. 

It was customary in the Irish and British Churches to 
distribute the Eulogise, blessed, but not consecrated bread, 
at the conclusion of the liturgy; and this usage once general, 
except in the Roman Church, continues to the present day 
in the Greek and Russian, as also in the Galilean Church, 
where the visitors to, let us say, Notre Dame at Paris, on 
a festival, will be brought the pain bmit. 

Adamnan says that in S. Cainech's monastery at Aghaboe 

^ ^ * 



^ — _ ^ 

76 Lives of the Saints. 



there was a table in the refectory on which the Eulogise 
were cut up for distribution. The same practice existed at 
lona. At Lindisfarne, in S. Cuthbert's time, the blessed 
bread was distributed after Mass. 

The Eucharist was not celebrated daily, but on Sundays 
and Saints' days ; very early "in the morning " by S. 
Columbanus, by S. Gall "at daybreak," by S. Brendan 
" in the very early morning," and an early Mass was 
ordered in the continental Irish monasteries. 

Confession was strongly urged, but it was made in 
public before priesi and congregation, and it was perhaps 
due to this publicity that the custom of making confession 
had died out in Ireland, as S. Bernard asserts, in the 
twelfth century. In the Penitential of Cummine it is plainly 
taught that confession before priest and people was optional, 
" confession to God alone, if there be need for it, is allow- 
able." Absolution was not given, in contradistinction to 
Roman practice, until the penitent had fulfilled his penance, 
and then only by the priest who had imposed it. Bede 
tells the story of a youth who made confession to a priest, 
and on hearing the penance imposed complained of it 
because it was for an indefinite time, and absolution was 
deferred until the priest should see him again. In the 
meantime the priest died, and the youth continued to 
comply with the conditions of penance for the rest of his 
life. The English reformed usage of making a general 
confession before communion, and a general absolution 
being pronounced, is a return to Celtic usage, in so far as 
that both are public. 

The remains of the Celtic liturgy are not numerous. 
There is a Cornish fragment from S. Germans, once a 
cathedral, and it is a Mass of S. German. It is of the 
ninth century, and was composed after the Cornish Church 
had fallen under Anglo-Saxon influence. A Scottish frag- 



^ . _ ^ 



^. * 

Tke Celtic Church and its Saints. yj 

ment has been found within a blank page of the Book of 
Deer, sufficient to show that the Scoto-Pictish liturgy of 
the Columban Church belonged to the " Ephesine," and 
not to the " Petrine," family of liturgies. 

Some Irish fragments bearing the same testimony are 
found in the Books of Dimma (seventh century) and 
Moling (end of the seventh century). The Book of 
Armagh contains another; further and larger fragments 
have been discovered at S. Gall and at Basle. The anti- 
phonary of Bangor not only contains the hymn " Sancti 
venite," but a creed that differs in wording from all other 
forms known to exist, and which had a liturgical position 
found only in the Mozarabic rite. 

But the most complete is the Stowe Missal, that ori- 
ginally belonged to some church in Munster, and was 
carried to Ratisbon about 1130, but has been recovered. 
This Missal does not indeed belong to the Celtic Church 
before it had passed under Latinising influence. It shows 
us that the Roman Canon had been introduced into at least 
partial use in Ireland as early as the ninth century ; but it 
retains certain portions of the earlier national liturgy, and 
this is interwoven with the new introduction. Nor is it 
only the Roman which is present in this interesting com- 
posite Mass ; there are passages in it from Ambrosian, 
Gallican, and Mozarabic rites, suggestive of that period 
of diversity when, as Tirechan wrote in the eighth century, 
" There were holy priests and few bishops " — in the period 
between 572 and 666 — "one hundred in number. . . . 
They had different rules and masses, and different tonsures 
— and a different Paschal festival." And the period preced- 
ing this, he says, from 534 to 5 72, " Was one when there were 
few bishops and many priests, in number three hundred. 
They had one head, one Lord; they had different masses and 
different rules. And they had received a Mass from Bishop 

^ — — — —^— ^ 



78 Lives of the Saints. 

David, and Gildas, and Ca(docus) the Britons." But in the 
first age, from about 440 to 534, he says, "They were all 
bishops, famous and holy, and full of the Holy Ghost, 350 
in number, founders of churches. They had one head, 
Christ ; and one chief, Patrick ; they had one mass, one 
celebration, and one tonsure." 

Such, then, was the Celtic Church in Faith, Order, and 
method of Worship — a Church full of apostolic zeal, fired 
with missionary fervour. 

When the Saxon was master of the land he did not 
relish to have to pay his devotions in a church dedicated 
to a saint of the subjugated and hated race; he could not 
invoke him, for he supposed that the good old Celtic saint 
hated him, and would fight against him in heaven. He 
was therefore desirous of having his church re-dedicated, 
if not to one of his own race, at all events to one of the 
Roman kalendar. And he was warmly supported by the 
prelates, who also detested and denounced the ancient 
British Church as schismatical and heretical. The result 
was that English and Norman bishops swept away the 
names of the founders wherever they could. Only rarely 
was the remembrance of the old saint tough enough in the 
hearts of the people to resist the change. In Devon the 
whole of the south-east was purged in this manner. But 
in North Devon a good many of the ancient founders 
held their own. S. Brendan sheltered under Exmoor ; S. 
Petroc at Anstey ; Thelbridge, dedicated to S. David, was 
tolerated because David had been canonised by Rome; 
Lan Kea was re-dedicated to S. Paul, but is still Land Key ; 
Swimbridge retained an altar to S. Bridget ; Braunton 
would not give up S. Brynach. Two churches of S. Elen 
were spared, Parracombe and Abbotsham, because the 
wife of Macsen Wledig was mistaken for the mother of 
Constantine. Perhaps as a badge of subjection, Heanton 

* •{, 



* 15< 

The Celtic Church and its Saints. 79 

Punshcardon was dedicated to S. Augustine, yet this may 
have been to the saint of Hippo. Tlie Saxon Werbrugh was 
carried to Warbstow, on the confines of Cornwall. S. Curig 
had everywhere to give way for S. Cyriacus, a boy martyr 
of Tarsus ; and S. Julitta or Gwenn, the mother of S. 
Padarn, disappeared behind Julitta, the mother of Cyriacus. 
S. Gwynws became S. Genes, the commedian ; and S. Cyby 
was disguised as S. Cuthbert. S. Hilary of Poitiers replaced 
both S. Elian and S. Teilo. Where the devotion to the 
old saint was too strong to be suppressed at once, an ap- 
proved kalendar saint was coupled with him, in hopes that in 
time he would smother the ancient Celt. Thus S. Stephen 
was joined with S. Mawgan at Mawnan, S. Dunstan with 
S. Manaccus at Lanlivery, and at Lanreath ; S. Non would 
have been changed into S. Mary if the mediaeval church 
authorities could have induced the parishioners of Altarnon 
to accept the change. Yet this substitution was not always 
due to ecclesiastical prejudice. It arose very much from 
the fact that the local saint was so local, and so devoid of 
a legend, that the bishop, when reconsecrating the rebuilt 
church, deemed it expedient to supplant him by some one 
whose story was known. In 1330 Bishop Grandisson of 
Exeter wrote to the Archdeacon of Cornwall complaining 
of the negligence or accidents which had occasioned the 
loss of the records of the lives of many Cornish saints, and 
enjoining that two, or even three, copies of the legends of 
such as remained in the parish churches dedicated to their 
memory should be made and transmitted to Exeter. It 
is, and must be, a matter of bitter regret that the documents 
thus collected, and which would have thrown a flood of 
light on the history of Cornwall, cannot now be traced. 

It has been, and is still, very much the fashion to decry 
the ancient Celtic Church, and to accept Gildas as a true 
witness against it. Thus Professor W. E. Collins, in a 



-* 



»J» — ^* 

80 Lives of the Saints. 

series of lectures on the Early Church in our islands, says : 
" The evidence all points, and points irresistibly, to the 
conclusion that Christianity in Roman Britain was a weak 
thing." And again, " The British Church was in the 
highest degree weak, wanting in initiative, and debased 
both in faith and morals." This may possibly be true of the 
Romano-British Church, but we know really nothing about 
it, because every trace was obliterated by the advancing 
Saxons in blood and fire. That it was true of the Church 
in Wales and Cornwall, and in Ireland, may be greatly 
doubted. We have, indeed, the invective of Gildas ; but 
he was clearly a violent, scurrilous writer, who took a 
delight, like an ill bird, in befouling his own nest ; and 
the reason was that he belonged to the party which was 
anti-national in Church matters — he desired to bring the 
British Church into conformity with that in Gaul and in 
Rome. It is said that Augustine and his successors taunted 
the bishops of the British Church with doing nothing for 
the conversion of the invaders. But we may well inquire. 
Was it likely that the invaders would suffer them ? and the 
Celtic Church later on nobly redeemed the charge ; for, as 
Bishop Lightfoot has said, " Aidan, and not Augustine, was 
the Apostle of England." Bede looked with abhorrence on 
the Celtic Church, yet he was compelled to admit the 
saintly lives of its bishops, and the zeal of its missionaries. 
Aldhelm of Sherborne wrote to Geruntius, Prince of 
Domnonia, in 705, and the "enormities" committed by 
the British believers in Christ he limited to the Celtic 
tonsure, to the wrong keeping of Easter, and to a few 
like trifles. As Mr. Newell says : " The importance of 
Aldhelm's letter does not lie in the conversions it effected, 
so much as in the contemporaneous picture it presents of 
the condition of the Church in Wales. It is evident from 
the language of Aldhelm that the Welsh Christians were pure 

j( ___ 1^ 



*- 



The Celtic Church a7id its Saints. 8i 

in doctrine, and at least so far pure in morals, that none 
of the English Christians could venture to cast the first 
stone against them. They even seem to have laid claim to 
a morality superior to that of the English, which Aldhelm 
is forced to acknowledge, though he deems such holiness 
worthless on account of their state of schism. It does 
not appear that he refrained from offensive charges out of 
courtesy to those whom he addressed ; he rather magnified 
their faults, or, at least, used much plainness of speech, 
so that his testimony to the virtues of the Britons, and 
especially of the Welsh, is the more valuable, as extorted 
from an enemy." 

It would be easy, looking at the horrible picture of the 
Frank monarchs as painted for us by Gregory of Tours, 
to pronounce against Gaul, Woe ! woe ! and deny to the 
Christianity professed by the Franks recuperative power. 
The times were those of violence. The condition in which 
were the Britons was one of discomfiture. Their faults 
were those of their national lack of organisation. But to 
accept what has been said by her mortal enemies against a 
Church which had not the means of replying, is to act on 
the adage, " Give a dog a bad name, and hang him." 

When Gerald de Barri wrote in the twelfth century, 
he admitted the high quality of religion among the Welsh. 
" They give the first piece broken off every loaf of bread 
to the poor; they sit down to dinner by three to a dish, 
in honour of the Trinity. With extended arms and bowed 
head they ask a blessing of every priest or monk, or of 
every person in a religious habit. They covet, above all 
other nations, the episcopal ordination and unction, by which 
the grace of the Spirit is given. They give a tenth of all 
their property, . . . either when they marry or go on 
pilgrimage, or are persuaded to amend their lives." He 
goes on to speak of their kindness to animals. " Hermits 

VOL. XVI. F 



»{. .J. 

82 Lives of the Saints. 

and anchorites more strictly abstinent and more spiritual 
can nowhere be found ; for this nation is earnest in all its 
pursuits, and neither worse men than the bad, nor better 
men than the good, can be met with anywhere." 

The Welsh had their faults — they were passionate, re- 
vengeful, often engaged in fratricidal warfare. Gerald 
condemns their system of ecclesiastical organisation, or 
rather, their lack of it, and the hereditary succession to 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; and he denounces the sin of 
incest common among the Welsh princes, but means by 
this expression no more than marriages within the fourth 
degree, without those contracting it feeing Rome to grant 
them dispensations. 

No Church has been more misrepresented and maltreated 
than has the ancient Celtic Church, yet no Church with such 
small means, and under such difficulties, achieved greater 
things, and did more for religion in Europe. 

It is true that the Celtic races stood on a lower stage 
of political organisation than their several conquerors. 
It is this, and this alone, that explains the conquest of 
Britain by the Saxons. It is this that explains the 
manner in which Wales fell an easy prey to Norman 
adventurers, and that Ireland in like manner was mastered 
by Strongbow and Henry II. 

The Feudal system was a great and grand creation of 
the Teutonic genius under the influence of Christianity. 
It accepted the Christian principle, that every privilege 
involves corresponding duties. No man liveth or dieth 
to himself alone. Each man who received an office owed 
allegiance to him by whom the office was conferred, and 
forfeited it if he neglected the duties it involved. All 
power, all authority devolved from God for certain just 
purposes. Feudalism did much towards the development 
of the sense of duty so strong in the English and German 

* * 



*■ 



The Celtic Church and its Saints. 83 

mind. Moreover, Feudalism compacted all who submitted 
to it into one body, that moved with irresistible and crush- 
ing force against such as were loosely and arbitrarily united. 
In Celtic tribalism was no cohesion based on principle. It 
depended on the arbitrary will, the caprice of chiefs, whether 
they combined or fought independently. 

The characteristic trend of Celtic genius is towards re- 
publicanism, but it is a republicanism that is ready at any 
moment to resolve itself into blind adhesion to a chief 
who knows how to captivate the. imagination. The Celt 
has always loved, and rightly, to have his say on all topics 
connected with his religion, his social and political organi- 
sation, and not only to have his say thereon, but to 
control it. 

Perhaps we have an excellent illustration of the trend of 
the Celtic mind in the outbreak of the French Revolution, 
leading to Imperialism under Napoleon I. This was the 
rising of a great nation, largely Celtic, against the abso- 
lutism of the French monarchy utterly opposed to its 
ideals, to assert those principles which lay deep in its 
heart; and when this was done, and produced wrongs 
great and crying, because suddenly introduced instead of 
having been slowly evolved, in sequence, tested and verified, 
it abandoned itself to absolutism again under another form, 
but only so long as its imagination was impressed by the 
grandeur of Napoleon. 

In religious matters the Celt is an enthusiast ; the love 
and fear of God are perhaps more deeply seated in him than 
in any other race of men. As Sir Roland L. Vaughan- 
Williams has truly said, " Enthusiasm in religion is, I think 
you will agree with me, characteristic of the Welsh, nay, 
more, characteristic of the Celtic race ; and I trust you will 
further agree with me, that another characteristic of the 
Celts is the ardent desire, amounting almost to a passion. 



-* 



* 

84 Lives of the Saints. 

that their institutions, whether civil or ecclesiastical, shall 
have a local character." ^ 

The great defect of the Celt is impatience. He is pene- 
trating in intellect, but he has not the temper that will 
allow an idea to work itself out slowly, modifying itself to 
suit times and circumstances. Here it is that the ass-like 
stolidity and stubbornness of the Saxon nature avails. The 
English mind is not clear, its wit is not trenchant; but 
it is forbearing, patient, and withal resolute. 

In the Christian Church we may well speculate what 
might have been the result had Celtic Christianity been 
allowed to expand and shape itself logically, and in accord- 
ance with the genius of the race. 

We know the Church only under the form she adopted 
consequent on her taking shape in the highly organised 
Roman world, running itself into the moulds already 
formed, and insensibly partaking of the leading Roman 
idea of centralisation, and subjection of every part to the 
authority at the Capital of the World. Such an ideal 
agreed with the inarticulate cravings of the Teutonic mind, 
and the Anglo-Saxon readily lent himself to carry it into 
effect. 

It was the misfortune of the Celt everywhere — in Gaul, 
in Britain, in Ireland — never to be allowed to work out 
his own ideas, to develop his own institutions logically to 
a constituted government on firm basis. Nor was he 
suffered to mould his Church as most convenient to him- 
self. It is quite true that Christ said, " Ye have not 
chosen Me, but I have chosen you" (S. John xv. 16), 
and that all commission and authority must devolve from 
Him ; but this principle may be carried too far, and it is 
so when the Church is regarded as a sacerdotally ruled 
body, in which the laity have no rights except to receive 

1 Transactions 0/ the Hon. Soc. of Cymmrodorion, 1895, p. 17. 



^ ■ — ►?• 

7^/ie Celtic Church and its Saints, 85 

the Sacraments. The revolt against the Latin Church in 
Scotland, in Wales, and in England, as well as that of the 
Huguenots in France, was to a large extent due to the 
Latin organisation being opposed to Celtic ideals. Pro- 
testantism, Calvinistic and Zwinglian, is a new theory, 
sprung from the people, created by the people, and has 
no roots in the past. It was not an outcome of the gradual 
growth of a constitution from small beginnings — first the 
blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear — but 
was a convulsion, like the French Revolution, leading to 
the exaggeration of certain principles, true in themselves, 
but with forgetfulness of correlative principles — the Divine 
origin of the Church, and delegation of authority in God's 
kingdom. 

It is certainly a most hopeful sign, that since the dis- 
establishment of the Irish Church it has re-shaped itself on 
these constitutional lines, which are in complete accord 
with the Celtic spirit. The choice of bishops, the order 
of Church government, ritual and liturgy, are all deter- 
mined by diocesan and general synods, at which clergy 
and laity are represented. The Church thus works as a 
living entity and an active organism, in accordance with 
the processes of natural life; but spiritual life comes not 
from man, but from Him who gives natural life. 

Had the Latin Church not trodden out independent 
Celtic Christianity it is not improbable that in Celtic lands 
the Church would be found alive, vigorous, one with its 
past, different in many particulars from the Latin and the 
Anglican Churches, yet one in faith and one in devolution 
of authority from Christ, through the Apostles; Catholic in 
belief, but with the congregational system developed in a 
way different from that which is parochial, and the episcopal 
order possibly without jurisdiction, the latter reserved to 
synods. We may well suspect that in that event there 

* ^ 



*- 



86 Lives of the Saints. 



would have been no Calvinism in Scotland and no Non- 
conformity in Wales. One fact in the history of the British 
people should never be lost sight of : it is this, " That the 
Celtic Church, unadulterated by foreign influence, was for 
nearly half the whole time which has elapsed since the 
birth of Christ the dominant Church in Wales." ^ 

The late Mr. Green wrote a valuable, but one-sided, work 
on " The Making of England." That making, in his eyes, 
consisted in the expulsion of the Briton, and in the acces- 
sion to mastery of the Latin Church. But surely although 
it may be through the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin Church 
working together that England arrived at political unity, 
yet the imposition of an ecclesiastical system alien to, and 
distasteful to, the Celt bred the after revolt of the spiritual 
life, and the expulsion of the foreign element. Moreover, if 
we look at, not England, but the English, what has been the 
making of the race ? If man be mere flesh, and bread be 
mere dough, then English men are what they are because 
of the great Teutonic invasion. Our Anglo-Saxon forebears 
possessed rare qualities, perseverance, tenacity, and power 
of organisation ; yet the higher qualities in our race, the 
searching intellect, the bright imagination, above all, ideal- 
ism, that straining after what is high and pure, are due to 
the spark of living fire entering the lump of heavy, plodding 
German nature, through contact with the Celt. 

Note. — In confirmation of my view, as opposed to that of 
Freeman and Green, who say that the Britons were exterminated 
by the Saxons, Gildas may be quoted, who says of them, " Some, 
being taken in the mountains, were murdered in great numbers ; 
others, constrained by famine, yielded themselves to be slaves 
to their foes ; others, again, passed beyond the seas." 

1 Sir R. L. Vaughan-Williams : " Y Cymmrodor," 1895. 



* >^ 




BRITTANY. 

After the migrations 
from britain 



Appendix Vol. , p. 86. ] 



-* 




BRITTANY, ITS PRINCES AND SAINTS. 

N the sketch of the Celtic Church and its Saints 
I have spoken briefly of the colonisation of 
Armorica from Britain. But the subject is so 
important, and so httle known, that I purpose 
in the following pages to treat it with more detail. Not 
only does the history of this colony throw some light on 
that of Wales and Cornwall during the fifth and two 
subsequent centuries, but it also serves to illustrate the 
peculiarities of Celtic ecclesiastical foundations. 

The earliest indication of the settlement of British 
immigrants that we have is afforded by the appearance of 
Mansuetus, described as " Bishop of the Britons " at the 
Council of Tours in 461. We might have suspected him 
to be a visitor on his travels ; but we hear shortly after of 
a considerable body settled in Armorica. 

The final conquest of Kent took place in 465, after 
which, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells us, the Britons 
" forsook Kentland and fled with much fear to London." 

This was the occasion of a schism among the Britons. 
The Romanised natives of the cities rose in revolt against 
Vortigern, who had invited over the Jutes, and headed by 
Aurelius Ambrosius, a descendant of the last Roman 
general in the island who had assumed the purple, they 
drove Vortigern into Wales, and undertook the conduct of 
the war against the invader. We may fix the date of the 
first large migration to Armorica as happening in conse- 
quence of this strife among the Britons themselves. But 

87 



*- 



previous to this for some time there was assuredly an influx 
from Devon and Cornwall, as the Celtic political organisation 
required these periodic swarms, or else, inter-tribal war. 

Shortly after the appearance of Mansuetus at Tours we 
learn from Sidonius Apollinaris, in 469, that the Britons 
were already settled on the north of the Loire in sufficient 
numbers to make them important auxiliaries against the 
invading Visigoths. 

In 468 Arvandus, Prefect of Gaul, having involved him- 
self in difficulties, and being discredited at Rome, and 
expecting his supersession, invited the Barbarians to enter 
Gaul, and urged them to attack the Britons on the Loire, 
" as the most useful supporters of the Empire." 

From this it is clear that in 460 the colony was one 
numbering many able-bodied men, and this is confirmed 
by Jornandes, who tells us that Riothimus, chief of the 
Britons, came in a fleet of boats, probably up the Loire to 
Tours, to meet the Visigoths under their king, Euric, and 
was defeated at Deols, near Chateauroux, in Indre, and, 
having been cut off" from his ships, was forced to fall back 
on the Burgundians. 

In what part of the peninsula the first colony had settled 
we are not told, but everything leads to the conclusion that 
it was between the mouths of the Vilaine and the Loire. 

About the same period, perhaps 460, a colony arrived 
on the north coast under one Fragan, which settled near 
where now stands S. Brieuc. Already S. Budoc was 
settled in the island of Lauret, close to the larger isle of 
Br^hat. His story is so utterly fabulous, that it is impossible 
to say whence he came, or when ; but as Fragan committed 
his son to him to be educated, it is clear that he had 
preceded him by some years. 

The colonies settling in Armorica may be grouped into 
three, exclusive of that under Riothimus. One from Gwent 



-* 



-* 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 89 

descended on the north-west coast, where now stands S. 
Pol de Leon, and established themselves under a native 
Gwentian prince, and called their principahty L^on or 
Lyonesse, after Caerleon which they had left. It remained 
an independent state till about 530, when it was united to 
Domnonia. This latter state extended from Leon to the 
river Couesnon. 

At the time the whole interior of Armorica was occupied 
by an enormous forest, and the ancient Roman roads only 
cut across outlying branches, or skirted it. The interior 
was entirely unexplored, and without inhabitants. In many 
places this forest sent down dense coppice along the rivers 
to the sea, to where the winds caught and distorted the trees, 
and forbade further growth. But the wind-swept stony dis- 
trict of Finisterre was treeless; it was a dreary waste of 
bog and stony desert. 

The Domnonian colony issued, as we may suppose, from 
Devon, and the colonists gave to their new home the name 
of that they had left, and were, it would seem, under the 
rule of the same royal house. 

The south-east of the Armorican peninsula received a 
swarm from Britain of men who called themselves Cernau, 
and they made their headquarters at Curiosopitum, now 
Quimper. Here the forest did not extend so greatly to- 
wards the sea, and they were therefore able to settle 
farther inland than the Domnonii of the north. The 
river Blavet divided them from the Gallo-Roman occu- 
pants of the diocese of Vannes. 

The monkish writers in later times converted Cernau 
into Cornavii; and the French called the principality 
Cornouaille. 

Whence came they? The most recent historian of 
Brittany broaches a truly wondrous theory. He finds 
that in the times of Roman domination in Britain a body 



-* 



90 Lives of the Saints. 

of fighting men belonging to the Cornavii, the occupants 
of Cheshire and Shropshire, were engaged to defend the 
wall of Severus, and their headquarters he conjectures to 
have been at a settlement just west of Newcastle called 
Corstopitum. When the Anglo-Saxons and the Picts com- 
bined against the Britons, then he supposes that this body 
of troops — we have not, by the way, the slightest reason 
for supposing that the Shropshire contingent had continued 
there for a hundred years after the mention in the Notitia 
Dignitatum — took to their heels, and then to their boats 
at Chester, and rowed till they had reached Armorica. 
where they founded a new Curiosopitum. The whole theory 
rests on assumptions — that the Cornavii still defended the 
wall, and that Curiosopitum in Brittany was named after 
Corstopitum in Northumberland. 

But curio is, perhaps, merely a Latinisation of Caerau, 
and sopitum is from swp, an agglomeration ; and the name 
was applicable to any cluster of fortified enclosures. 

Nor can these Cornavii have been immigrants from 
Shropshire, as the Severn valley was not invaded till 583 
by Ceawlin, who swept it with fire and sword, and burned 
Wroxeter. But the Cernau of Brittany had already been 
settled there a century before that date. We are much more 
likely to be near the truth if we consider this colonisation to 
have been from Cornwall, and to have been due to the in- 
road made in the fifth century by the combined families of 
Brychan and Gwynnlyw from Brecknock and Gwent, who 
took possession of so large a tract of land in North Cornwall 
and Devon. It must be remembered that a Celtic tribe was 
compelled to send off swarms at fixed periods, for the 
obligations of the chief towards members of his tribe ceased 
with the eighth generation, and accordingly an emigration 
of a cast-off generation was periodically inevitable. There 
had been descents from Cornwall of such founders of new 



►i«- 



* 



-* 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 91 

tribes for some time on the west coast of Brittany, but when 
a great mass of settlers came down on the coast of the 
Cornish peninsula and dispossessed the original owners, 
these latter moved after their brethren in large fleets. It 
is possible that the same cause operated in Devon, and pro- 
duced the founding of Armorican Domnonia. But there 
was another occasion for these colonising ventures. 

Great numbers of Britons fled West from the swords of 
the Saxons into Dyfnaint or Domnonia, which was other- 
wise quite unaffected by the Anglo-Saxon invasion till 
Ceadwalla attacked it in 71 o, and it was not conquered till 
between 754 and 766. The great marshy tract of the 
Parret, the vast bogs about Glastonbury, proved for cen- 
turies a barrier against invasion. But fugitives threaded 
the swamps or crept along the well-fortified high ground 
that walled off Devon on the side of Dorset, and accumu- 
lated in inconvenient numbers in the as yet untroubled land 
of dales and rivers. They could not all be accommodated 
there, and it became advisal)le for the princes to place 
bands of these refugees under princelings of their own 
house, to convey them over the sea to build up an auxiliary 
state in Armorica. 

I have already noticed the accounts given of these 
migrations in the previous article, as given by Procopius 
and Ermold Nigellus. 

Let us now see what was the method adopted in these 
attempts at colonisation. The chief of a band of settlers 
on reaching the Armorican coast formed his plou^ that is 
to say, tribe. The monkish writers translate plou by plebs. 
They formed a stockaded caer, into which they could retreat 
in the event of hostilities with the natives, and in which the 
chief resided. Each family was then granted a trcf, a home- 
stead and land about it, for its maintenance. A hundred 
trefs in Wales forms a cantref ; the number was, however, 



* 



undetermined in a new colony ; but various numbers made 
up a plou, and the land occupied by the immigration was 
called a pou or pagus. After a while this chief sent for an 
ecclesiastic who was a kinsman, unless one arrived as a 
colonist, and he gave to him a piece of territory, on which 
he in turn planted his lann (Welsh llan), that is to say, 
made the sacred enclosure in which he reared his church. 
In Brittany we have plenty of places called PIou, and plenty 
called Lan. The former mark the central station of the 
secular, the latter the church of the ecclesiastical tribe. 

It has often struck visitors to Cornwall that the churches 
are at a considerable distance from the towns, and that not 
through accident of mining settlements starting up away 
from villages, but old established towns, such as Callington, 
three miles from its parish church of Southill, Camelford, a 
peculiarly scandalous case, without even a chapel of ease in 
itj two good miles from its church, Lanteglos; Marazion, 
Penzance, Falmouth, Penryn, Hayle, &c. Most of these 
have been rectified of late years, only Camelford is left 
without a religious centre in its midst. But this is a relic of 
a very ancient condition of affairs, when the secular and 
ecclesiastical tribes were distinct entities, and the llan was 
not, and could not be, in the caer or the plou. The Saxon 
thane liked to have his church by his house, and his priest 
as his chaplain, but in Celtic lands each was largely inde- 
pendent of the other, and the glebe is at this day the relic 
of the ecclesiastical territory about the llan, in which lived 
the tribesmen of the saint. 

As already pointed out, the Breton bishoprics differed 
in constitution from those of the Breton marches, Nantes 
and Rennes, for each of them constituted an ecclesiastical 
principality ; this constitution it possessed from the begin- 
ning, when the head of the little ecclesiastical state was an 
abbot of princely race. 



»j»- 



-* 



Brittany^ its Princes and Saints. 93 

So far I have spoken only of L^on, Domnonia, and 
Cornouaille. But the territory of Vannes was soon invaded 
and occupied largely by Britons, and the town alone re- 
mained in the hands of the original Gallo-Ronians. A 
district was carved out of it in or about 465, comprising 
the whole seaboard from the EUe to the peninsula of Ruis, 
and extending back to the heart of the great central forest 
of Brecilien, which was entirely under the rule of British 
princes or counts, and this was called the Bro Weroc. 

And the consequence of this occupation of the Armoric 
peninsula was that from the sixth century it ceased to be 
called other than Little Britain or Brittany; and that the 
ancient tongue, of which monuments remain, belonging 
to the Gallo-Roman domination, disappeared completely, 
and was replaced by the British tongue as spoken in 
Cornwall and Wales. 

" By the middle of the sixth century," says M. Loth, " all 
in the peninsula was changed — name, language, customs. 
This was not due to an infiltration, but to an inundation." ^ 

I will now take each division of Armorica and sketch 
the story of the occupation of each in order. But it must 
be premised that the record is most incomplete ; we have 
but the story of the saints who established their monastic 
settlements and lanns ; but the story of the secular princes 
has come to us only so far as it was interwoven with that 
of the saints they endowed with lands, or whom they 
bullied. In Brittany, as in Ireland and as in Wales, the 
story of their relations is the same ; the saints stand on a 
high level of influence ; they are cajoled and then maltreated 
by the secular chiefs, who are always terribly afraid of the 
curses of these sacred medicine-men. 

I have already said something of the settlement in L^on. 
It was made up mainly of colonists from Gwent, and was 

1 Loth, " L'Emigration bretonne en Armorique." 



^ ■ * 

94 Lives of the Saints. 

very probably an offshoot of that migration which invaded 
and took possession of North Devon and North Cornwall. 
Perhaps the earliest to arrive were a husband and his wife 
— their names were Glaudan and Gologwen — in a solitary 
coracle, which had been separated from the flotilla of which 
it had formed a part. They came ashore in Lesneven, 
near Brest, and found dense forest reaching to the shore. 
They searched, but it was some time before they found a 
habitation, occupied by a half-savage native, no doubt of 
Ivernian stock, who churlishly refused assistance to the 
new arrivals, and that although the young wife had just 
been confined of a boy. The husband wandered farther, 
lost his way in the wood, and only found his wife again at 
night. The child borne under such trials was S, Goulven. 

At the beginning of the sixth century a chief named 
Tudoghil, with his wife and family, his clients and serfs, 
arrived in one of the estuaries between which stretched 
north-west of the peninsula of Plou-Ediner. 

Another petty chief named Romelius, with his wife 
Laetitia, came shortly after. 

A third, called Withur, arrived with a large body of men 
under him and formed an organised state. He took the land 
from the Aber Ildut to the river of Morlaix, and founded 
two pious at least. Then he settled in the isle of Batz, 
from which he governed the entire tribe. To make quite 
sure that he should not be dispossessed or assailed by the 
natives he entered into relations with Childebert, king of 
Paris, and secured promise of support. About 515 arrived 
a kinsman, Paulus Aurelianus, also from Gwent, a disciple 
of S. Iltyd. He seems, however, to have been a native of 
Bovium, now Boverton, in Morganwg, then forming a 
portion of the kingdom of Gwent. He had been sum- 
moned by Mark Conmor, a small king, to direct the spiritual 
affairs in his petty realm ; but he did not remain there long, 

* 



Brittany, its Priftces and Saints. 95 

in fact, only two years, and then, as the legend says, rather 
than become bishop, probably thinking to obtain a wider 
field for his energies, fled to Armorica, where he disem- 
barked in the island of Ouessant, at a port which he named 
after his native place, Porz Ejenned (Port of the Oxen). 
His community consisted of twelve priests, twelve laymen 
of noble birth, nephews or cousins of the saint, all im- 
patient to found tribes, and each taking with him wife 
and children, and clansmen and clients, who threw in 
their fortunes with their leader. Finally, they brought with 
them a quantity of slaves and servants. All the twelve 
priests were saints, and founded lanns, and merited to have 
memorial chapels erected over their graves. S. Paul erected 
his own Han at a place in the island still called after him, 
Lampaul, which is the principal village of the island. 

But the limits of Ouessant were too contracted for 
Paul's ardent spirit, and he crossed over to the mainland 
and founded another llan in a clearing of the forest, where 
remains to this day his foundation of Lampaul-Ploudal- 
mezan. At the same time one of his lay companions, 
named Pedr, founded a plou and established himself in a 
fortified caer that still carries his name, Ker-Ber, or the 
castle of Peter. 

But Paul could not remain quiet at this new station. 
After two years he was on the move again, and now he 
went along the north coast in an easterly direction till he 
reached a Plou-Meinin, a rocky land colonised by some of 
the clansmen of Withur, whom he resolved on visiting, 
partly because he could not settle in his district without 
his consent, and also because he was a relative. He ac- 
cordingly boated over to the isle of Batz. Paul was wel- 
comed by the count, whom he found engaged on making 
a copy of the Gospels. Withur, who was now very much 
taken up with making his peace with God, made over the 

^- 



^__ — ^ 

g6 Lives of the Saints. 



island of Batz to Paul, on condition that he went to 
Childebert to negotiate for him some political settlement. 
To this he agreed. Finally Paul settled where is now 
S. Pol de Leon, where he ruled as a true saint-prince over 
ten trefs or, as the monastic scribes translate them, tribes, 
the whole constituting one ecclesiastical principality, con- 
terminous in later times with the diocese of Leon. On the 
death of Withur without children his principality was ab- 
sorbed into Domnonia, with the exception of that portion 
which Paul had claimed and received by right of kinship to 
the tiern or chief. The later writers of the lives of some 
of the saints could not understand early systems of parti- 
tion of lands, and they make Paul go to Childebert and 
receive the episcopate whilst with him, forced on him by 
the king. The course of affairs was probably this. Paul, 
knowing well that Withur was without heirs, went to him 
and demanded as his right as a kinsman a large slice of his 
principality. Withur consented, acknowledging the right, 
but bade him get Childebert's consent. Paul visited Paris, 
and there the Frank king expressed his willingness to 
ratify the negotiation on condition of Paul's being made 
bishop over the district. Paul did not see that this was at 
all necessary. An abbot kept his bishops on his staff to 
ordain, but according to his ideas it was quite unnecessary 
to accumulate offices in his own hands ; he might as well 
constitute himself his own steward. However, Childebert 
had been taught differently by the Latin-Frank ecclesiastics ; 
he associated the idea of jurisdiction with episcopacy, as 
essential ; he persisted, and Paul acquiesced reluctantly. 

Again, another arrival from Gwent is to be noted, and 
that about the same time; this was the immigration of 
Carenkinal and Arthmael. The former came as secular, 
the latter as ecclesiastical chief. They landed, where had 
others, in the estuary of the Aber Ildut, and there Plou- 



*- 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 97 

Arzcl still bears the name of the first colony planted by 
Arthmael and his cousin. This remained in the hands of 
Carenkinal, and Arthmael went east to visit his fellow- 
countryman Paul, and see whether he could be useful to 
him, and perhaps also better himself. It is, however, 
possible that there may have been a quarrel between him 
and Carenkinal, and that the layman turned out the eccle- 
siastic. Such is the story as we have it, very fragmentary, 
of the colonisation of Lyonesse or Leon. 

We will now turn to that of Domnonia, that is to say, 
the whole of the north coast from the river Keffleut or 
Morlaix to the Couesnon at Pontorson, roughly speaking, 
of -the present departments of C6tes-du-Nord and of the 
northern portion of lUe-et-Vilaine. 

The early history is vague and legendary. 

We know so much, that before 460 S. Budoc was settled 
as abbot of a monastery in the isle of Lauret, near that of 
Brehat, and connected with it at low tides. He would not 
have been there unless he had powerful relatives established 
as secular chiefs near. He was doubtless a brother or son 
of one of the Domnonian princes in Britain. He is not to 
be confounded with his namesake. Bishop of Dol, who died 
in 588. In or about 460 one Fragan or Brychan, with his 
wife Gwen and his sons, arrived in the bay of S. Brieu': 
and settled near the river Gouet, and founded a plou that 
still bears his name. He was a native of Gwent, and his 
wife was grand-daughter of Aldroen or Aldwr, king or 
tiern of the West Welsh settlements in Brittany. Their 
son, Winwaloe, they committed to S. Budoc, to be trained 
to become an ecclesiastical chieftain. 

Another arrival was Rhiwal, from Cardiganshire, at the 
head of a large body of clansmen, who landed where had 
Fragan, and who sought to establish themselves between 
the Gouet and the Urne in close proximity to Fragan, 

VOL. XVI. G 

^ 



^_ ^ 

I 

98 Lives of the Saints. 

where is now S. Brieuc. About 485 arrived in the same 
harbour S. Brioc, with at least sixty persons with him in 
the same vessel. Brioc was probably from Ceredigion, the 
present Cardiganshire ; the date of his arrival was about 485. 
Rhiwal received him favourably, and gave him land on which 
to settle, and when he died constituted him his successor, 
as they were kinsmen ; consequently the whole of the colony 
land and tribesmen was converted into an ecclesiastical 
principality. 

We next hear of a prince or king over Domnonia 
bearing the same name, possibly the same man, Hoel or 
Riwal, i.e. Rhi (the chief) Hywel, who lived between 511 
and 520; but at precisely the same time we fihd a prince 
of the same name in Cornouaille. This Riwal is reported 
to have been son of Deroc, and to have had two brothers, 
Erbyn or Urbinian and Dinothus. Hoel of Cornouaille 
was the son of Budic I., who had been expelled from Armo- 
rica, and had taken refuge in Britain. It is possible that 
Budic and Deroc are the same man, and that Deroc is 
merely an epithet attaching to him for his churlishness. 

The brother Dinothus is probably an importation from 
the legend of S. Ursula by the monastic compiler of the 
legend. In this latter, Dinothus, successor to Caradoc on 
the throne of Cornwall, was the father of the mythical 
Ursula. 

Hoel Mawr, king of Cornouaille probably claimed at this 
time some sort of sovereignty over the northern coast of 
Armorica. 

The next prince of Domnonia of whom we hear is again 
a Deroc, who is thought to have ruled from 520 to 535 ; 
he was son of Riwal. Here arises a difficulty of identifi- 
cation, if we assume Riwal of Domnonia to have been the 
same as Hoel Mawr of Cornouaille. The latter had a son, 
Budic II., who succeeded him, but not at once. He was 



-* 



* iB 

Brittany^ its Princes and Saints. 99 

in exile in or about 510, and did not return to Armorica 
till 545, and he certainly was only in Cornouaille, for Canao 
had usurped all Domnonia and murdered Hoel II. This 
Deroc of Domnonia may have been chief or prince placed 
there by his father, Hoel Mawr, during his lifetime, on his 
return from Britain in 520 ; if so, he was the father of Hoel 
II. (Vychan), also known as Jonas. It is very difficult to 
unravel the descents of the princes of Brittany owing to 
their having been known by so many names or nick- 
names. 

Under this Deroc appeared in Armorica a very remark- 
able man, Tugdual. His mother was Alma Pompgea, and 
his father Hoel Mawr. His appearance in Brittany syn- 
chronised with the recovery of his patrimony by Hoel. But 
he did not visit Cornouaille, but occupied himself in obtain- 
ing settlements, and founding lanns or Hans throughout 
Domnonia from Finisterre to the Couesnon, and in the Pou 
Caer, that basin between the arms of high land opening to 
the western sea, and watered by the Aune, in which now 
lies the celebrated pilgrimage shrine of Huelgoet. 

He seems to have demanded everywhere grants of land, 
and to have had these conceded to him readily by Deroc, 
who seems to be the same as Hoel 11.,^ who died suddenly 
in 549; and it was suspected that he had been murdered 
by his brother Canao, acting in collusion with Conmor, 
count or chief of Pou Caer. Canao took possession of all 
Cornouaille. Conmor first laid hold of Leon, and then 
usurped rule over the whole of Domnonia. S. Tugdual 
had to fly for refuge to Childebert at Paris. 

To understand the rather complicated story, I must leave 
Domnonia and go to Cornouaille. Here we find at the 

1 By some it is supposed that Hoel II. was the son of Deroc. Tlie kings were 
sometimes known by their titles, sometimes by their names, at other times by their 
nicknames, and this makes the unravelling of the history of their succession most 
puzzliog. 



lOO Lives of the Saints. 

close of the fifth century a king named Gradlo Mawr, who 
ruled with a strong hand till about 505. 

In his time S. Ronan, a disciple of S. Patrick, came to 
the coasts. He landed in the west of Leon, at Aber-Ildut, 
but came south and settled in the pou or district of 
Porzoed, between Chateaulin and Quimper. He was at 
first coldly then favourably received by Gradlo. This 
Ruan is no other than the saint who has left indelible 
traces of his presence in Cornwall and Devon, where he is 
known as Ruan, Roman, and Rumon. It was perhaps not 
wonderful that having spent so long a time in insular 
Cornwall he should visit the Cornouaille, inhabited by the 
same people, and governed by descendants of the same 
princely house of Domnonia. 

Winwaloe also made his appearance in Cornouaille after 
leaving his master Budoc. He founded his great monastery 
of Landevennec near its northern limit, on the estuary of 
the Aune. But he had another Landevennec in Cornwall, 
and his time must have been distributed between visits to 
his monasteries in Cornwall and in Cornouaille. Another 
saint who worked in the Armorican peninsula was Tudi, a 
contemporary of Gradlo and Winwaloe, but of whose life 
no continuous record remains. There was again another, 
S. Corentin, regarded as the first bishop of Quimper, but a 
bishop at that time, and among the British, implied some- 
thing very different from what was supposed by the late 
writer who compiled his Life. He also was a founder in 
Cornwall of the church of Cury. 

Another, S. Day, was a founder of churches in both 
Cornwalls. 

The early history of the kings of Brittany is peculiarly 
difficult of elucidation. The first named is Hoel or 
Riwalin Maccon, or King Hoel the Great, son of Conan, 
and he is assumed to have been the son of the some- 



Brittany, its Pri?tces a7td Saints. loi 

what mythical Cynan Meiriadog. On his death his brother, 
Urbian or Erbyn Concaer, succeeded, but it is not 
clear whether they ruled over Domnonia or over Cor- 
nouaille, or over both together. The son of Erbyn was 
Selyf or Solomon, surnamed Gweddol, or "the Handsome." 
He fell in battle against his own subjects about 434, and 
is esteemed a martyr. Here we are constrained to notice 
the identity of family names of the ruling house in Cor- 
nouaille and that in Cornwall. In both we have Howels, 
Erbyns, and Solomons, and I think, that when we put this 
together with the fact of the saints of both Cornwalls being 
the same, and the people of both calling themselves Cernau, 
that we must conclude that Armorican Cornouaille was a 
colony from Cornwall, and had nothing to do with the 
Cornavii of Shropshire. 

The next name comes to us from the Welsh genealogies ; 
it is that of Cynfor. He is not named in Brittany as having 
reigned, and if he were, as is probable, the son of Solomon, 
then after the death of his father he fled to Britain. His 
son, however, Aldor, Aldroen, or Audrian, is a man who 
has been laid hold of by that romancer Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. He is known alike to Welsh and to Breton 
chroniclers. At some time, probably about 510, he had to 
return to Britain, whether to escape from an insurrection, 
or merely to look after his affairs in Cornwall, we do not 
know. The brother of Aldor was Constantine, surnamed 
Gorneu, or " the Cornishman," but also known in Welsh 
pedigrees as Constantine Llydaw, or " the Armorican," and 
also as Bendigaid, or " the Blessed." The time of his 
assumption of the Domnonian throne in West Wales was 
433, just about the time of the death of Solomon I. 
Aldor's eldest son is known to tlie Welsh as Emyr Llydaw, 
or "the Armorican," but he seems to have been driven into 
banishment, for he was for some years in Wales, in Morganwg 

^ 



1 02 Lives of the Samts. 

apparently, as his sons married the daughters of Mewrig, 
king of that country. At the same time there was another 
refugee in Wales from Brittany, Budic I. of Cornouaille, 
son of Daniel, son of Ian Reith, who founded the dynasty. 

Budic settled in Carmarthenshire, and one of his sons, 
accidentally killed, is buried at Llandeilo. According to 
Welsh accounts, his sister, Rhian, became the mother of 
S. Illtyd. After the restoration of Budic, in 490, S. Teilo 
visited him, and founded lanns in his territories. Another 
sister of Budic was Gwen Teirbron, who married ^neas 
Llydewig, and by him became the mother of S. Cadfan. 
Her second husband was Fragan, of whom we have already 
heard, and to him she bore S. Winwaloe. 

Budic died about 509, leaving several sons — Hoel I., 
Melyan, Oudoc, Ishmael, and Tewdric. The territory was, 
after the usual manner with Celts, divided among the sons, 
Oudoc and Ishmael excepted, for the former of these had 
become a devoted disciple of S. Teilo, and Ishmael of 
S. David. 

According to the Welsh accounts, Budic had lived in 
Dyfed when driven from his principality till the death of 
the usurper, who may have been, and probably was, Gradlo. 
A child of his, Tyfei, had been accidentally killed near 
Llandeilo, and the pretty little church of Llandefeisant, in 
the park of Lord Dynevor, commemorates his name, and 
stands over his grave. 

Tewdric became prince in Cornwall, and Hoel and 
Melyan divided the Brittany principality between them. 
But that happened in Armorica which was of constant 
recurrence in Wales, one brother desired to get hold of the 
share of the other. Melyan reigned for seven years, from 
530 to 537, and was then treacherously stabbed by Hoel. 

Melyan, by his wife Aurelia, had left a son, Mellor, who 
was obliged to take refuge, first in one place, then another, 

* 



— © 

Brittafiy, its Princes and Saints. 103 

from his uncle, who, however, first mutilated him and then 
killed him. He died shortly after this, and this sudden 
death was regarded as due to the vengeance of Heaven for 
the double crime. 

The death of Hoel left Armorica to be fought for between 
his grandsons. But of these, two, S. Tugdual and S. 
Leonore, had embraced the religious life, and would be 
content with the very ample endowments in Domnonia; 
but the others, Hoel 11., Vychan, also called Jonas, Canao, 
Ere or Gwerch, and Macliau, chose their shares of the 
secular inheritance. Budic II. was at this time tiern^ 
prince of Cornouaille. His relationship to the brothers 
is not very certain. He was married to a sister of S. 
Teilo, so that he had been in Wales with Budic I., and 
was probably his son.^ 

Canao was an ambitious man, and he proceeded to 
murder those of his brothers whom he could get into his 
hands — Hoel Vychan and Ere. This was in 546, Hoel, 
his brother, had been married to a daughter of Maelgwn 
Gwynedd. Canao not only murdered his brother, but at 
once took to him the widow, his sister-in-law. Macliau 
would have fallen a prey as well, but that he fled for refuge 
to Conmor, count of Bro-Weroc, and when Canao pursued 
him there he fled farther to Vannes, where he took orders, 
and was promoted to be bishop. But he also was an 
ambitious man. Budic II. had entrusted his young son, 
Tewdric, to his care. Macliau drove him into exile, and 
seized on all Cornouaille except Pou Caer, where Conmor 
was too powerful for him to touch, and ruied it along with 
his diocese of Vannes. Hoel Vychan had left a son, 
Judual, who fled for his life and took refuge at the court 

1 It is very difficult to be at all sure of tlic descents. M. de la IJorderie makes 
Macliau and Canao sons of Gwerch I. liut Hoel Vychan was their brother. I 
attempt to give only a conjectural pedigree. 

(J, . ;^ 



104 Lives of the Saints. 

of Childebert. Incensed at this, Canao had the indis- 
cretion in 559 to give asylum to Chram, the revolted son 
of Clothair, This induced the Frank king to invade 
Brittany. Canao was killed in 560, and the prince, Chram, 
was overtaken on the shore, where he was endeavouring to 
carry off his wife and daughters in a boat. The remorse- 
less father had his son strangled, and the wife and daughters 
burnt alive. 

Conmor had extended his power over Domnonia, and had 
taken to wife Trifina, daughter of a former Gwerch or Ere, 
count of Bro-Weroc, on the British portion of the territory 
of Vannes, in the hopes of extending his possessions in that 
direction ; but for some unknown reason, in a fit of disgust, 
he drove Trifina away, and she ended her days in a re- 
ligious house. It was long after fabled that he had killed 
her, and that she had been resuscitated by S. Gildas. The 
pride, the tyranny of Conmor had raised him a host of 
enemies. Judual, the claimant of the throne, was at the 
Frank court. 

Samson, son of Amwn the Black, and grandson of Emyr 
Llydaw, had been brought up in Wales. Amwn desired 
to return to his native land, and in company with his son 
Samson started for Armorica. They crossed Cornwall. 
Amwn, worn out with age, was left behind, but Samson 
waited his opportunity and crossed to the mainland at- 
tended by a large body of monks and fighting men. He 
planted himself at Dol. About the same time S. Malo, a 
son of Derwela, sister of Amwn the Black, and therefore 
cousin of Samson, settled near by at Aleth, at the head of 
another large body of men, partly ecclesiastical and partly 
military. In fact, a host of adventurers, seeking a country 
to conquer and appropriate, had joined these saints, who 
asserted that they were going against an upstart who had 
robbed them of their patrimony. With Samson was another 

* >J« 



* 

Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 105 

first cousin, Maglorius. Conmor heard of their arrival 
with dissatisfaction ; but they had made as yet no signs of 
active hostility, and had posed as holy men seeking soli- 
tude, and he therefore did not venture on attacking them. 

Samson now slipped away, and went to Paris after 
Judual. He besought Childebert to allow Judual to return 
to Armorica, and by force of arms recover his principality. 
The Frank king hesitated for a while, but at length con- 
sented. Thereupon Samson conveyed Judual into the 
Channel Islands, where they tarried awhile to concert 
measures and to drill a body of recruits. Meanwhile Malo 
and Maglorius and the disciple Mewan were acting on the 
minds of the people of Domnonia, exciting them to revolt. 
When all was ready, Samson and Judual crossed over, 
mustered their forces, and marched against Conmor. 
Three hardly contested battles were fought, and in the 
last Judual ran the usurper through with a javelin. Thus 
ended Conmor in 555. He had been a benefactor to the 
Church ; like other British chiefs he endeavoured to con- 
ciliate the saints to bless him and curse his enemies, but 
he had too many saints allied by blood to those whom he 
had supplanted to be able to maintain himself in the odour 
of sanctity, and he has gone down in tradition as a monster, 
and as the accursed of Heaven. 

Judual was grateful to Samson for the assistance given 
to him, and made him many territorial concessions. He 
died in 580, leaving five sons, of whom the eldest, Juthael 
or Hoel IH., succeeded him in Domnonia. Haeloc or 
Alan was made count of Cornouaille. Of Juthael nothing 
is known but his marriage with Pritella, daughter of Ausoc, 
a petty chief of Kemenet Illi, that is, a district in Leon or 
Finisterre running inland from Landillis to Landerneau. 
It had been colonised, probably from Gwent, by some 
saint named Illi or lUidius, of whom nothing has been 

^ ^ 



1 06 Lives of the Saints. 

recorded. The curious part of the story is that TaHesin 
was then visiting Domnonia, and his advice was sought in 
the matter of the marriage. Judicael died in or about 605, 
and left several sons. Juthael was the eldest, his next 
brother was Judoc, then came Haeloc or Alan. 

Judicael was a feeble, amiable personage, very unfit to 
rule, and at once his ambitious brother, Haeloc (Alan II.), 
supported by his foster-father, Rethwal, resolved on seiz- 
ing on the throne. Judicael was able to save his 
life only by escaping into a monastery, and being shorn 
as a monk. Seven brothers were murdered, one a mere 
child. Some years later, 610 or 615, Haeloc was seized 
with compunction for his crimes, converted by the words 
of S. Malo, and he surrendered the crown he had usurped 
to Judicael, who at once issued from the monastery in 
which he had been hiding, and took to himself a wife. He 
entered into an alliance with Dagobert, and formed a warm 
attachment for S. Eligius and S. Ouen. In or about 640 
Judicael resigned his crown ; he had spent so much of 
his days in the monastery, that he pined to return to its 
quietude. His brother Judoc refused the crown, and it 
was taken by Solomon II. Whether S. Winnoc were a 
brother or a nephew is uncertain. He died in 717, but 
it is said at a very advanced age. 

To return to Cornouaille. Budic II. had married Anau- 
med, sister of S. Teilo, whilst he was in exile in Dyfed. 
The Bretons say that he was a son of Cybydan, descended 
from a colonist Ian Reith (Righteous Law), but he was 
clearly closely akin to Hoel I. ; and when Budoc was settled 
into his principaUty, S. Teilo came there to visit him, and 
S. Samson met him and took him back with him to Dol, 
where Teilo planted an immense orchard of apple-trees, 
with grafts brought by him from Wales. This orchard was 
called in the twelfth century " Les Vergers de Tielo et de 

^ : »{, 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 107 

Samson." It was on this visit to Brittany that Teilo 
summoned his nephew Oudoc to accompany him back 
to Wales to enter the religious life. Another visitor was 
Gildas, who has left numerous traces of his presence, and 
whose tomb is shown at S. Gildas, near Carnoel, in Pou 
Caer. As already said, Macliau, bishop of Vannes, had 
driven away Tewdric, son of Budoc, prince of Cornouaille, 
but in 577 Tewdric returned, gathered an army, fought the 
bishop, and killed him and one of his sons. The other 
son, Ere or Gwerch II., retained his hold over Bro-VVeroc, 
and he was not able to dispossess him. This Gwerch II. 
was one of the ablest and most heroic princes of whose 
exploits against the Franks record has been preserved. 
Tewdric died about 586. Nothing further is known of 
him, and with him ends the record of the princes of 
Cornouaille. 

But long before this S. Cadoc had appeared in Armorica ; 
he was one of the most restless of the Celtic saints. Un- 
happily his Life was not written till five or six centuries 
after his time; but although thus lacking in historical 
accuracy, it retains many features of great interest that 
were clearly derived from earlier texts. He had visited 
Ireland, Italy, and, if we may trust the legend, even Greece 
and Jerusalem. He has left his trace in Cornwall as well 
as in Wales. He went to Brittany to visit S. Gildas, and 
he landed with a number of followers on an island in the 
great bay or inlet of Etel, near Beltz, in the Morbihan. 
There for a while he settled, and the islet bears his name 
to the present day. He built a causeway from the islet 
to the mainland, then his restlessness came on him again, 
and surrendering the conduct of the monks to a disciple, 
Cadwalader, he returned to Britain. 

About 585 arrived a virgin named Ninnoc, at the head 
of a swarm. She was a daughter of one Brychan and 



^. . Ij, 

1 08 Lives of the Saints. 

his wife Meneduc, but not of the famous Brychan 
of Brecknock. She had been baptized by S. Columba, 
and instructed by an Irish bishop of the name of Gorman. 
The fancy came on her to found a colony, and being of 
royal blood, she was able to attract to her a large body of 
adventurers, among them four bishops, a host of priests, 
monks, virgins, and of non-professional saints enough to 
fill seven large vessels. A chaperon to the damsel, a 
married man, Gurkentelu Ilfin, and his wife, Gwenargant, 
were engaged, whose duty it was to keep order among 
this mixed multitude. 

The seven ships came ashore at the mouth of the Laita, 
that formed the confines between Cornouaille and Bro- 
VVeroc. The lagoon took the name of Pyl Ilfin, and the 
inlet was entitled the Lake of Lan-nennoc, from the double 
settlement planted by the princess on the shore. Nennoc 
established herself as abbess over a double community, 
one of men, the other of women, precisely like that of 
S. Bridget in Ireland, and of several that sprung up in 
Northumbria under the direction of the great missionaries 
from lona. In fact, Ninnoc in Cornouaille was the counter- 
part of S. Hilda in Northumbria. A church was con- 
structed in the midst, and the brethren set to work to 
build little huts for themselves and the sisters around. 
Nennoc took supreme control, but Gurkentelu was set to 
keep order among the men. The writer of the Life of 
S. Nennoc says that in his day the ruins of this curious 
agglomeration of separate cells remained. Such a double 
monastery was so inconsistent with the ideas of his time, 
and the attempt to revive the institution by Robert of 
Arbrissel bad led to such scandals, that the writer cannot 
have invented the story, and knowing what we do of the 
usages of the Celtic Church, we are aware that this was in 
strict conformity with them. It is singular that the author 

* * 



of this Life has nothing more positive to say about S. 
Nennoc after the construction of this double monastery. 
No record remained of how it had flourished or gone 
to pieces. 

At Dol, Samson was succeeded by his cousin, Maglorius, 
who speedily resigned and was followed by Budoc, who 
was abbot or head of the ecclesiastical tribe till about 588. 
Then came Leucher, of whom nothing is known, and he 
was followed by Tighernomalus, who had the Life of S. 
Samson written and dedicated to him. It is deserving of 
remark here how closely connected with the names of these 
Breton princes and saints are some of those found on the 
Cornish inscribed stones. At Madron is a stone to Rivalus, 
son of Bran Cunovalus ; at S. Cubert is one to Conetoc, 
son of Tighernomalus ; at Endellion is a stone to Broegan, 
which is the name of the father of S. Nennoc. Add to 
this the fact that the large majority of the saints of Corn- 
wall are saints also of Brittany, and I think that the in- 
timate relationship between Armorica, Cornouaille, and 
Domnonia, and insular Cornwall and Devon, becomes almost 
certain, and that the conjecture of M. le Moyne de la 
Borderie that Cornouaille was occupied by Cornavii from 
near Newcastle, or even by those from Shropshire, resolves 
itself into a phantom of the brain. 

At Aleth, S. Malo was succeeded by S. Gurval, who is 
supposed to be the same as S. Gudval. There is, however, 
a difficulty in the identification, as one does not see how 
the r was changed into d. Gurval is said to have remained 
at the head of the establishment but a short time and then 
to have retired into the forest of Brecilien, and to have 
settled as a hermit at Guer, where he founded his llan. 
Gudval is said to have come from Britain, Britannioe fini- 
bus, and he founded a monastery at Loc-Goal, near that of 
S. Cadoc, near the lagoon of Etel. There a mound is still 



*- 



no 



Lives of the Saints. 



-)^ 



pointed out on which he lived, and there also is his fountain, 
and there also a chapel dedicated to S. Bridget, and near 
it an inscribed stone bearing the name lAGV. 

Another colonist was S. Ternan, whom the Bretons call 
Tenenan. He was from Britain, probably from Gwent or 
Morganwg, and he was great-nephew to S. Paul of Leon. 
It was therefore quite what might have been expected that 
the kinship should receive recognition, and that he should 
be elected ecclesiastical chief of the ecclesiastical settlement 
at Leon, about 596, and he died about 623. 

The last immigrant was S. Ywy, a disciple of S. Cuthbert, 
an enthusiastic adherent of Celtic peculiarities, and when 
these were giving way in Northumbria he went to Armorica, 
where he hoped to practise them without molestation. He 
founded a good many Hans; but we have only a meagre 
sketch of his life and labours. For some time the history 
of Brittany becomes most obscure ; a few names come up, 
but none of consequence till about 824, when a man of 
remarkable force of character and original genius appears 
on the scene. 

This is Nominoe, whom the hostility of some of the 
monastic writers has induced to depreciate as having been 
raised from the plough tail to be a duke and king. This 
is most improbable. He probably descended from the 
royal house, but from that when reduced to its lowest con- 
dition of powerlessness. 

It is unnecessary to detail his history here. 

Made Governor or Duke of Brittany by Louis the Pious, 
he remained faithful to that feeble prince so long as he lived ; 
but when the empire broke up with the death of Louis in 
840, he resolved on making his country independent. He 
had for some time been preparing his measures. In one 
Convoyon, a humble monk, he recognised both daring and 
patriotism, and he supported him against the nobles about 



*- 



-•*« 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 1 1 t 

Redon, where Convoyon had settled, even against the 
bishop, and further even against the royal authority in- 
voked to crush him. Convoyon, won by the zeal where- 
with Nominoe took up his cause, and sharing in his ambition, 
was prepared to act in concert with him, and that heartily. 
Nominoe succeeded in annexing both Rennes and Nantes 
to Brittany, and in establishing the independence of the 
peninsula. Then he turned his attention to ecclesiastical 
affairs. Some of the bishops were Franks thrust into 
the Breton sees, and more or less tainted with simony. 
Nominoe, on the accusation of Convoyon, summoned them 
to give an account of themselves, and he sent them to the 
Pope, and demanded their deposition. But he became im- 
patient at the tortuous and grasping methods of the Roman 
court, and he summoned a council in his own land, and 
called the bishops before it ; they acknowledged their guilt, 
and laid down their staves and rings in token of surrender. 

Nominoe now increased the number of sees, appointed 
hearty Breton-minded men to them, and elevated Dol to be 
the primatial, archiepiscopal see at the head of all the rest 
in Brittany proper. 

Nominoe advanced into France, defeated Charles the 
Bald in Anjou, and had got as far as Vendome when he 
was carried off by sickness in 851. 

He left a son, Erispoe, who succeeded him ; but his 
elder brother, Rhiwal, had a son named Solomon, who re- 
sented his exclusion from the throne. Erispoe agreed to 
become the vassal of Charles for Maine and Anjou. Per- 
haps this did not please the Bretons, for an insurrection 
broke out, headed by Solomon. Erispoe was obliged to 
fly for refuge to a church, and there Solomon killed his 
uncle at the altar, in 817. 

Solomon was now sole king of Brittany, but after some 
time he committed the indiscretion of resigning the crown 

_^ 



1 1 2 Lives of the Saints. 

to his son Wigo. This was in 857, when he was old and 
weary of government. This at once excited the ambition 
of Pasquitien, count of Vannes, who had married the 
daughter of the murdered Erispoe. He raised the standard 
of revolt. Wigo was taken and killed ; Solomon fled for 
refuge to a monastery, but was induced to leave it, and 
was put to death by his eyes being put out with red-hot 
irons in so barbarous a manner that he survived it only 
two days. 

It has been supposed by some that this Solomon is the 
saint of the name who is venerated in Brittany, and un- 
doubtedly the two have popularly been confounded ; but 
Solomon the saint was known and esteemed holy in Corn- 
wall as well as in Brittany, and in the tenth century there 
existed no such connection between the countries as could 
explain this usurper and murderer having been in Cornwall 
and there founded churches. Solomon who is saint in 
both countries belongs to the fifth century. 

Let us now take a glance at the ecclesiastical organisation 
in Brittany for three centuries. 

It has been already pointed out that a settler on coming 
to Armorica established his colony as a plou or plebs or 
tribe. Each head of a household was granted a tref, that 
is to say, a habitation with land around it. In Cornwall 
the thousands of trefs indicate such settlements, but there 
the title plou has been lost, as several pious coalesced. 
They coalesced also in Brittany, and became poris or pagi 
or regions. In Domnonia there were six of these — 
Pou-Castel, Pou-Goelo, Pou-Tregher, Pou-Penteur, Pou- 
Dour, and Pou-Racter. In Cornwall the ancient pagi are 
represented by the deaneries, in Wales by the cantrefs. 

When the religion of the new colony came to be set in 
order, then the secular princes gave up land here and there 
to the saints on which to establish a Han or a monastery. 

^ .(j, 



-* 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 1 1 







The llan was usually only a church with some land about 
it ; glebe, for the maintenance of a disciple of the saint, a 
priest to minister to the people; and as already said, the 
llan was very often not at all close to the secular settlement, 
as each tribe, secular and religious, lived apart on their 
own lands under their several chiefs. 

The ecclesiastical settlements were not solely monastic. 
There was a monastic core to each, with the abbot and his 
disciples as heart and ruling power ; but there were under 
him bishops and priests and deacons, not monks, who might 
be married men, and very often were so, and in Wales so 
they remained down to the twelfth century. Sometimes, 
by no means always, the authority as chief of the tribe was 
united to that of bishop ; but this was arbitrary only, and it 
did not enter into the ideas of an early Christian Celt that 
a bishop ruled by Divine commission ; he regarded him as 
the official retained by the ecclesiastical chief to propagate 
the sacred orders. There were many bishops, for by a 
curious misunderstanding of the rule that three bishops 
should unite in every consecration, the Celtic consecrator 
always ordained three bishops at a time, and single or 
double consecrations were regarded as irregular, if not 
unlawful. 

With respect to the married priests, there remains a curious 
letter addressed by the three bishops of Tours, Angers, 
and Rennes to two priests of the Britons, reproaching 
them for irregularities committed within the confines of the 
diocese of Rennes between 512 and 520. It must be 
premised that just as the Britons had encroached on and 
occupied a large portion of the territory of Vannes, so that 
bishop Regalis there complained of being enveloped by 
them, so had they encroached on the territory of the 
ancient Redones, and had occupied the whole upper por- 
tion of the country from the sea ; in fact, had taken posses- 

VOL. XVI. H 



^^- 



*- 



-* 



114 



Lives of the Saints. 



sion, ecclesiastically and civilly, of a portion of the county 
and diocese of Rennes. Very naturally the settlers liked 
to be ministered to by their own clergy, in their own tongue, 
and according to their traditional usages. This drew forth 
a letter from the three bishops, Licinius, Eustochius, and 
Melanius, to the priests Lovocat and Catihern. They said 
that it had been told them by a priest, Sparatus, that they 
not only had female companions living with them {con 
hospitce), but that they even allowed these women to minis- 
ter the cup in communion. They therefore warned them, 
and supplicated them to desist from these abuses.^ 

We can by no means be sure that Sparatus told the 
whole truth, that, in fact, he did not exaggerate in the 
matter of the administration of the chalice. What he heard, 
no doubt, was that these priests lived with their wives ; and 
the great rub was that they were acting and ministering in 
the diocese of Rennes without leave of the bishop, and 
without any idea that any licence was necessary when 
ministering to their fellow-Britons. 

We find nowhere else any trace of the Celtic clergy allow- 
ing women to act as deaconesses at the altar, but we do 
find that they claimed the right to be married ; and indeed 
Sulien, one of the most notable of the bishops of S. Davids, 
who ruled from 1071 to 107 6, and again from 1078 for ten 
years, was a married man, the father of four sons. From 
1076 to 1078 the see was occupied by Abraham, who set 
up a monument to his two sons. Rhydfarch, son of 
Sulien, succeeded lis father in 1089, and was himself a 
married man. But it was so also in the Anglo-Saxon 
Church ; the canonries were held by married men, till Dun- 
stan swept them out and planted celibates in their room. 

It was so also in Brittany. Macliau, Bishop of 
Vannes, was married, and in spite of the condemnation 

1 Duchesne : " Lovocat et Catiherne," in Rfyiue de Bretagne, 1885. 



y^- 



BiHttany^ its Princes and Saints. 1 1 5 

of the Franko-Gallic bishops, continued to live with his 
wife. A certain Tetbald, son of a priest named Loscoran, 
was elevated to be bishop, and married the daughter of 
the Archdeacon of Nantes. When old, Tetbald resigned 
the see to his son Walter, who became bishop in turn, and 
Tetbald took the abbacy of S. Melanius. No doubt these 
were scandals, but only possible because the prevailing idea 
in the Celtic Church was not in favour of celibacy. 

We must look on the Celtic abbey as the head of the 
district or province ox pon; under it were numerous clergy 
not monks, who were sent to minister in the several churches, 
and many lay colonists who were granted farms, as also serfs 
who worked under them. 

A monastery whether in Wales, Ireland, Scotland, or 
Brittany had the same character ; it was surrounded with 
an embankment or wall, and within, of wood usually, were 
the church and the refectory and the kitchen. Each monk 
occupied a separate cell, that is to say, a circular hut of 
stone or of wood with conical roof. On a mound or in a 
commanding elevation was the bee-hive hut of the abbot. 

In the island of Lauret, near Br^hat, off the Brittany 
coast, are remains of the monastery of S. Budoc.^ It con- 
sists of the ruins of an old church with its sacristy ; of a 
much later church of SS. Simon and Jude, characteristically 
dedicated to apostles " known of all men," and not to any 
of the saints who lived and laboured and died on the spot ; 
also of a cemetery in which the old solitaires were laid ; and 
of eight circular huts, five of which are ranged in a row, all 
but one of which are ruinous, but one remains intact. 
There were formerly many more, but as the whole area 
of the island has been tilled, only a few have escaped 
demolition. 

On another isle in the same archipelago, the Isle Modez, 

1 Plan and map are given in De la Borderie's Hist, tie la Breiagne, vol. i., 1896. 



-* 



*- 



ii6 



Lives of the Saints. 



-* 



is the bee-hive hut in two stages, believed to have been the 
abbatial cell of S. Maudez or Mawes. 

It is solely on islands and in remote spots, as also where 
wood was scarce and stone plentiful, that such relics remain ; 
elsewhere they have disappeared. 

Outside the enclosing rampart were the lay folk, and in 
many monasteries no woman was suffered to set foot 
within the enclosure. 

The monks were the educators of the young men of the 
plon. These were sent to them to be instructed in religion 
and in literature. 

The life of the monks was one of great severity. From 
the Life of S. Brioc we have a sketch of the services. " At 
fixed hours they all assembled in the church to celebrate 
divine worship. After the office of vespers (at 6 p.m.) they 
refreshed their bodies by a common meal. Then, having 
said compline, they dispersed in silence to their beds. At 
midnight they rose and assembled to sing devoutly psalms 
and hymns to the glory of God. Then they returned to 
their beds. But at cock-crow, at the sound of the bell, 
they sprang from their couches to sing lauds. From the 
conclusion of this office to the second hour (8 a.m.) they 
were engaged in spiritual exercises and prayer. Then they 
cheerfully betook them to manual labour." 

Some enthusiastic solitaires lived apart in cells in the 
woods or on the moors called " deserts," and only occa- 
sionally joined in the worship of the monastic choir. Some 
in their fervour delighted in plunging themselves to the 
neck in water to recite their midnight psalms. S. Meven 
one night was passing to his cell when he heard a gurgling 
voice and chatter of teeth — it was mid-winter as well as mid- 
night — and he went to the river side to discover the cause 
of the noise, when he found there his disciple S. Judicael, 
with teeth chattering with cold, muttering his orisons. 



-* 



*- 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 1 1 7 



-^ 



The food of the monks was scanty, one good meal a day, 
and that in the evening, was all, and yet in some monasteries 
they were allowed a fortifying soup in the morning as break- 
fast. They ate bread, eggs, fish, seal, and porpoise ; honey 
was allowed, also beer, and cheese was a condiment to their 
bread. In the Life of S. Sampson we hear of their having 
some cordials supplied. '• It was customary (at Llaniltyd) 
to squeeze out the juice of certain herbs cultivated in the 
garden of the monastery, and to mix this with the drink of 
the monks, by pressing it through a little pipe into the mug 
of each, so that on returning from singing terce (9 a.m.) 
they all had this mixture served them by the butler." 

From this centre the whole ecclesiastical government of 
the tribe proceeded. There were Hans and Iocs, or churches 
and chapels, to be provided with clergy, and to this the 
abbot saw ; and each llan or loc stood in its own glebe, with 
about it sufficient estate to maintain the ministering clerk. 

Terrible was the vengeance of the abbot on such daring 
tierns as ventured to encroach on the property of his 
monastery. The cartularies of the monasteries, the legends 
of the saints, are heaped up with examples of the horrible 
deaths of such as invaded the lands of the Church, or carried 
away the cattle of the saints. One might almost suppose 
that the main solicitude of these abbots was to accumulate 
and preserve landed property and live stock ; but it must 
be remembered that many of the grants of repentant princes 
and desecrators of the sacred rights are mediaeval forgeries, 
composed at a time when the greed after land was an en- 
grossing passion in the hearts of monks, and also, that it 
was a necessity of the time and conditions of social and 
political organisation for the abbots to have their patches 
of glebe everywhere, and that for the sake of the souls of 
the poor they were compelled to do battle for the bits of 
land on which their churches stood. 



We have preserved to us a form of cursing employed by 
the church of Aleth against such as invaded its property. 
It is found in a MS. of the end of the eighth or beginning 
of the ninth century, but is doubtless older. 

After a warning to the wrongdoers to withdraw and make 
amends, the abbot-bishop proceeds against the violators : — 

** If they do not hasten to make amends and give that 
satisfaction to our mediocrity which they have offended, 
then we smite them with eternal malediction, and by a 
perpetual anathema. 

" May the wrath of the Sovereign Judge fall on them. 
May they lose all right in the heritage of God and of His 
elect. 

" May they be excluded in this world from the com 
munion of the faithful, and in the world to come from 
that of God and of His saints. 

" May the devil and his angels be their companions, and 
the torments of the avenging flame and eternal sobbing be 
their lot. 

" May they be held in execration in heaven and earth, 
and when this life is ended, become the prey to the anguish 
of hell. 

" Cursed be they in their houses, and cursed in their 
fields ; cursed in their food, and cursed be the fruit of 
their beUies. Cursed be all that they possess, from the 
barking dog to the crowing cock. May theirs be the 
destiny of Dathan and Abirom, whom hell swallowed up 
alive ; that of Ananias and Sapphira, who having lied to the 
Apostles perished on the spot ; that also of Pilate, and of 
Judas who betrayed his Lord. 

" May they have but the burial of an ass, and may their 
light be put out in darkness." 

To superstitious, half-civiUsed Celts such curses pro- 
nounced by the successors to the Druids and medicine- 



*- 



■* 



-* 



Brittany, its Princes and Saints. 1 1 9 

men whom their forefathers had revered from time 
immemorial produced the greatest effect. They quailed 
before them, and rarely did these curses fail in their effect. 
A chief who braved them trembled with fear if he caught a 
cold, sprained a joint, fell from his horse — he thought the 
anathema was beginning to work. The greatest monsters, 
murderers of brothers and usurpers, cringed to the saints, 
and bought their benediction by grant of lands. 

In the study of the history of the Church among Celtic 
peoples the records of the colonisation of Armorica from 
Britain are of great importance, as they show us the pro- 
cedure which doubtless was followed everywhere else, and 
which indeed was that adopted by the Brythons when 
they first came into Britain, and when they were pagan. 
Then, also, we can hardly doubt the Druids were accorded 
their glebes on which to settle, and then also the people 
was divided into secular and sacerdotal tribes. 

What we find in Christian Cornwall, Wales and Brittany 
was but the adaptation to a new religion of an organisation 
of hoar antiquity. 

So far we have seen how Brittany was occupied from 
Devon and Cornwall and Wales, perhaps also from other 
parts of Britain, but there can be little doubt that there 
were also settlements on its coast from Ireland. We know 
from the Cambrian Annals that the Welsh coasts were in- 
fested by Goidel Picts, and Welsh history records occupa- 
tions of Gwynedd, of Pembroke, Carmarthen, and Breck- 
nock, by these invaders. In Cornwall also they took 
possession of the Land's End district. It would have been 
strange had they not also made descents on the Armorican 
sea-board. When we find, as we do, in Brittany, that the 
cult of such a purely Irish saint as S. Bridget is widely 
extended, and that Kieran of Saigir is there found as Kerian, 
the Goidelic form of his name, as well as under the 



*- 



*- 



1 20 Lives of the Saints. 

Brythonic form of Peran, we may be confident that there 
was an Irish element in the population as well as one that 
was British. S. Brendan, S. Senan of Inniscathy, S. Tigher- 
nac, to whom S. Bridget stood sponsor, have all left their 
mark in Brittany, and Breton tradition gives an Irish origin 
to several of their local saints. The presence of saints of 
one nationality in a district very generally implies that they 
followed their countrymen, who had come without pacific 
or evangelising intent. They attended on them, much as 
missionaries now go in the track of colonists of their own 
race and tongue. 



^ ^ 



PEDIGREES OF SAINTLY 
FAMILIES. 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

I. The Holy Family {conjecturat) 123 

ROMAN. 
II. The Flavian Family 124 

III. Family of Constantine the Great . . .125 

IV. Family of Theodosius the Great . . . .126 

GREEK. 

V. Family of S. Basil and S. Gregory ok Nyssa . 127 

GALLO-ROMAN. 
VI. Family of S. Sidonius Apollinaris . , .127 

BRITISH, 
VII. Family of Cunedda, fugitives from North Britain . 128 
VIIL Family of Brychan, Goidelic conqueror . . .129 
IX. Table Illustrative of the Gwent-Breckon Saints who 

settled in north-west Cornwall 130 

X. Family of Llyr Merini and Caradog Freichfras 131 

XI. Family of Caw, fugitive from North Britain . . .132 

Xli. Family of Geraint, Prince of Devon . . . .133 

xiii. Family of S. David . . t,^ 

XIV. Family of S. Gwynllyw, S. Cadoc, and S. Petroc 135 



122 



Lives of the Saints. 



PAGB 

XV. P'amily of Coel Godebog, of SS. Deiniol and 

Asaph 136 

XVI. Family of Armorican Fugitives, S. Samson and 

S, Padarn 137 

BRITTANY. 

xvii. Family of S. Melor, and SS. Judicael and Winnoc 

{^conjectural) 138 

xviii. Family of S. Tol de Leon 139 



FRANK and BURGUNDIAN. 
XIX. Table of Merovingian Kings. 
XX. Table of Descendants of Chilperic I 
XXI. Table of Burgundian Kings . 
XXII. Family of S. Arnoald 

XXIII. Family of S. Amalberga. 

XXIV. Family of Charlemagne . 
XXV. Family of S. Gregory of Tours 

XXVI. Family of S. Gertrude of Hamage 
xxvii. Family of S. Gertrude of Nivelles 
xxviii. Family of S. Waltrude . 

XXIX. Family of S. Odilia. 



140-41 

42-43 
144 

145 

145 
46-47 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 



ANGLO-SAXON. 

XXX. Family of the Kings of Kent . . . '153 

XXXI. Family of the Northumbrian Kings (Bernician). 154 

XXXII. Family of the Northumbrian Kings (Deiiian) . 155 

xxxiii. Family of the Kings of Mercia . . . 156-57 

xxxiv. Family of the Kings of East Anglia . . 156-57 

XXXV. Family of the Kings of Wessex . . . .158 







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IV.— FAMILY OF THEODOSIUS THE GREAT. 



Theodosius, 

Master of the Horse to 

Valentinian I.; beheaded 

in Africa, 376. 



Eucherius, 
Consul, 381. 



(i) Aelia Flacilla 
d. 386. 



I 

Theodosius the Great = 

b. 346 ; Emperor, with 

Gratian, 379 ; sole 

Emperor, 392 ; 

d. 17 Jan. 395. 



(2) Galla, daughter of 
Valentinian II.; 
m. 387, d. 394. 



Honorius 



Arcadius, 

b. 377 ; made Emperor 

by his father, 383 ; 

Emperor of the East, 

395 ; d. I May 408 ; 

ni. 395, Aelia Eudoxia, 

daughter of Bauto the 

Frank. She d. 404. 



I 

Honorius, 

b. 384 ; made Emperor 

by his father, 393 ; 
Emperor of the West, 

395 ; m. (i) Maria, 

daughter of Stilicho ; 

in. (2) Thermantia, 

daughter of Stilicho ; 

d. Aug. 423. 



Galla Placidia, 
Regent during the minority 

of Valentinian III.; 

m. (i) Alhaulf, King of the 

West Goths ; he d. 415. 

m. (2) Constantius, 

Emperor with Honorius ; 

he d. 421. She d. 

27 Nov. 450. 

Children by Constantius. 



Aelia Pulcheria, 
l>. 399, d. 453 ; 
m. the Emperor 

Marcianus. 

She d. 457. 



Theodosius II., 

b. 10 April 401 ; Emperor 

of East, 408 ; of West, 423-425 ; 

d. 450; m. 421, Eudoxia 

(Athenais), daughter of 

Leontius, Professor 

of Rhetoric. 



Serena 
d. 408. 



Stilicho, 
d. 408. 



Licinia Eudoxia, 

b. 422 ; tn. 437 ; 

m. (2) the Emperor 

Petronius Maximus ; 

d. 455- 



Valentinian III., 

b. 2 July 419 ; 

Cassar, 424 ; 

Emperor of the 

West, 425 ; 

murdered, 16 March 455, 



I 

Maria, 

m. 398, the 

Emperor 

Honorius; 

(/. before 408. 



Thermantia, 

m. 408, the 

Emperor Honorius, 

who divorced her 

the same year ; 

d. 415- 



Placidia, 

wife, 455, of the 

Emperor 

Olybrius ; 

d. 472. 



Eudoxia, 

m. Huneric, son of 

Genseric, King of 

the Vandals ; d. 484. 

Had issue, Hildericx 

who d. 533. 

126 



GREEK. 



v.— FAMILY OF S. BASIL AND S. GREGORY 

OF NYSSA. 



= S. Macrina the 
Elder, Matron. 



S. Basil, = S. Emilia, 
d, circa 330. d. circa 340. 



I 



S. Basil the Great, 

b. 329 ; 

Bishop of Neo- 

caesarea, 370 ; d. 379, 



S. Gregory, 

Bishop of Nyssa, 372 ; 

d. 394. 



S. Peter, 

Bishop of Sebaste, 380; 

d. 387- 



S. Macrina 

the Younger, V. 

d. 379- 



GALLO-ROMAN. 



VL— FAMILY OF S. SIDONIUS APOLLINARIS. 



Apollinaris, Prefect of Gaul under the 
Usurper Constantine, a convert 
to Christianity = . . . 



Avitus 

b. circa 395 ; 

Emperor, 455 ; 

d. 456. 



A lady of the = ApoUinaris, 



family of 
Avitus. 



I 
Agricola. 



Ecdicius, 

Defender of 

Auvergne 

in 474. 



Papianilla, 
m. circa 452. 



I 

: S. Apollinaris 

Sidonius, 

b. 5 Nov. 430 ; 

Bishop of 

Clermont, 

472 ; d. circa 488, 



Prefect of 
Gaul, 448-49. 



S. Aprunculus, 

Bishop of 

Clermont, 

circa 488 ; 

d. 491. 



S. Isichius, 

Bishop of 

Vienne, 

circa 476 ; 

d. 494 ; 

m. Audentia. 



I I I 

Alcima. Severiana. Roscia. 



Apollinaris, S. Apollinaris, S. Alcimus 
Bishop of Bishop of Ecdicius Avitus, 
Clermont, Valence, Bishop of 

515; (f- 515- 499; d. 522. Vienne, 494; 

d. 517. 



Avitus, Archdeacon of Clermont in 560, belongs to the family, 
but where to be placed is uncertain. 

137 



Fuscina. 



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«39 



FRANK AND 

BURGUNDIAN. 



XIX.— TABLE OF MERO 



Note. — The numbers before the children refer to their mothers. 



Theodoric I. 
(illegitimate), 

King of 
Rheims, 511 ; 

d. 534- 



Suavegotha, 

daughter 

of Sigismund, 

King of 

Burgundy. 



Ingomer, 
b. and d. 494. 



Theodebert I. 

king 534 ; 

d. 548. 



= (i) Deoteria. 

= (2) Wissigarda, 
daughter of 

Wacho, 
King of the 
Lombards. 



I Theodobald, 
King, 548 ; 
d. 555- 



Vuldetrada, 

daughter of 
Wacho, King 

of the Lom- 
bards ; she m. 
afterwards 

Clothair I. 



(i) Authar r= Theodelinda, 



(2) Ago, King 
of the Lom- 
bards. 



d. 627. 



Chlodomer, 

b. 495 ; King of 

Orleans, 511 ; 

d. 524. 



Theodowald, 

murdered, 

530. 



(2) Chramm, 
d. 560. 

w. Chalda, 

daughter of 

Wilichar, 

Duke of Aqui- 

taine, d. 560. 

(3) Gunthar, 
d. before 561. 

(3) Childeric, 
d. 561. 

Clotswintha, 

m. Alboin, 

King of 

the Lombards. 



(i) S. Bertha, 
tn. S. Ethelbert, 
King of Kent. 



I 

(2 or 3) Berthe- 

fleda, nun of 

Tours. 



Guntheuca, 

afterwards wife 

of Clothair I. 



Gunthar, 

murdered, 

530- 



S. Clodoald, 
d. 560. 



(3) Charibert, 
King of Paris, 
521 ; d. 567. 
m. (i) Ingo- 
berga, d. 589. 
m. (2) Mero- 

f^ed.i. 

m.. (3) Marco 

vefa, sister 

of above. 

m. (4) Theode- 

child. 



(3) Guntram, 
King of 

Orleans, 561 ; 
d. 593- 



(2 or 3) Chrote- 

childe, nun of 

Poitiers. 



(i) Gundobad, 
d. 570. 

(2) Childebert, 
d. 570. 

(3) Chlodomer, 
d. 577- 

(3) Clothair, 
d. 577. 

(3) Chrodechild. 



140 



VINGIAN KINGS. 



Merovaeus = 

I 

Childeric I., 

King of the 

Franks, d. 481. 



Basina. 



Clovis I. 

b. 466, King 

of Franks, 481 ; 

baptized, 496 ; 

d. 511. 



S. Clothild, 

daughter of 

King Chilperic 

of Burgundy ; 

■m. circa 493 ; 

d. 540. 



Audofieda. 

m. Theodoric, 

King of the 

Ostrogoths. 



Albofieda. 
Lantechilde. 



Childebert I., =Ultrogotha. 
King of Paris, 
511 ; rf. 558. 



Clothair I. 

b. 500, King 

ofSoissons,sii, 

and 

Orleans, 524, 

and 

Metz, 555, 

and 

Paris, 558 ; 

d. 561. 



(i) Veneranda 
(concubine). 
m. (2) Marcatruda, 
daughter of Duke 
of Magnachar ; 
d. before 577. 
tn. (3) Austrichilde, 
maid of 
Marcatruda, 
d. 580. 



(3) Chilperic I., 

King of 

Soissons, 561 ; 

d. 584. 

tn. {i) Audo- 

vera, d. 580. 

m. (2) Gal- 

swintha, 

m. and d. 567. 

m. (3) Frede- 

gund, 

m. 567, d. 597. 

I 
See Table 
following. 



I 
(3)Sigebert I., 

t>- 535. 

King of Metz, 

561 ; d. 575. 

m. Brunehild, 

daughter of 

Althanagild, 

King of the Visl 

goths ; d. 614. 



Guntheuca, 
widow of 

Chlodomer. 

m. (2) Chunsena. 

m. (3) Ingunda. 

m. (4) Aregunda, 

sister of Ingunda. 

m. (s) S. Rade- 

gund, daughter of 

Berthar, King of 

Thuringia; in 550 

nun at Poitiers ; 

d. 587. 
m. (6) Concubine. 
m. (7) Vuldetrada, 
widow of Theode- 
bald, divorced and 
m. Duke Garibald. 



Chrodehild. 

tn. Amalaric, 

King of the 

Visigoths in 

Spain. 

S. Theodi- 

childe, 

V. Abbess of 

S. Pierre le 

Vif at Sens ; 

d. 28 June 

circa 520. 



Childebert II. - 

b. S7i, K-ing of 

Austrasia, 

575, and 

Burgundy. 593; 

d. 596. 



Faileuba. 



Ingunda, 

d. 585. . 

tn. Hermenegild 

son of 

Leovegild, 

King of the 

Visigoths. 



Clodoswintha, 

betrothed to 

Reccared I., 

King of the 

Visigoths. 



r " I 

Theodebert II. = (i) Bilihild, Theoderic IT. 

b. 586, King d. 610. b. 587, King 

of Austrasia, =(2) Theodehild. of Burgundy, 

596 ; d. 612. I 596 ; d. 613. 

Merovaeus. 



= The granddaughter 
of .Sigismund, 
King of Burgundy. 



See Table XX. 



<4I 



XX.— TABLE OF DESCENDANTS 



Note. — T'^^ numbers before the children of Chilperic 
and Clothair refer to their mothers. 



(5« Table XIX. p. 141). 
Childebert II., = Faileuba. 

King of 
Austrasia and 

Burgundy. 



(i) Theodebert, 
d- 575- 



Theodoric II., = 
b. 587, King of 
Burgundy, 596; 
d. 613. 



Sigebert II., 
murdered, 613. 

Corvus, 
murdered, 613. 



Childebert,: 
d. 613. 



(1) Merovaeus, 

murdered, 577. 

m. Brunehild, 

widow of 

Sigebert, 

killed 614. 



I I I 

(i) Clovis, 
murdered, 580. 

(i) Basina, 

nun at Poitiers 

in 580. 

(3) Riguntha. 



Gisela, = (3) Charibert II., 



daughter of 

Amandus, 

Duke of 

Gascon y. 



1 



King of Aquitaine, 
murdered, 631. 



Bozo, 

Duke of 

Aquitaine 

and Gascony, 

d. 688. 



S. Oda, 
daughter of 
Childebert, 

d. T22,. 



Phigberta, 
(Hugbern), 
daughter of 
Childebert. 



I 
Bertrand. 



Eudes, 

Duke of 

Aquitaine, 

d- 735- 



= Waltrude. 



S. Hubert, 

Bishop of Li^ge, 

d. 727. 



I 

Clovis II. 

b. 634, King of 

Neustria, 638 ; 

sole King of the 

Franks, 656 ; 

d. 656. 



Clothair III., 

King of 

Neustria, 

651-670. 



I 
Theodoric III., 

King. 657; 

d. 691. 



Clovis III., 

King, 693 ; 

d. 695. 



Childebert III. , 

b. 654, King of 

the Franks, 698 ; 

d. 14 April 711. 



= Dagobert III., 
King of the 
Franks, 711 ; 
d. 715. 

f 

Theodoric IV., 

King, 720 ; d. 737. 



M» 



OF CHILPERIC I. 



Chilperic I., = 


= (i) Audovera, 


King of 


deserted, 567 ; 


Soissons,56i, 


murdered, 580. 


d. 584. 


m. (2) Galswintha, 




married and 




murdered, 567. 




m. (3) Fredegund, 




first concubine. 




then wife, 567 ; 




«'• 597- 



(3) Clodobert 



(3) Theodoric, (3) Clothairll., = (i) Hildetrude, 

murdered, 604. 
m. (2) Beretrude. 
tn. (3) Sichilda 



l>. 565. d. 580. 


b. 582, 


d. 584. 


b. 584, King 
of Neustria, 584 ; 


(3) Samson, 






of all the Frank 


l>- 575. d. 577- 






kingdom, 613 ; 
d. 628. 


(3) Dagobert, 
b. and d. 580. 









I 

(i) Merovseus, 
d. 604. 



S. Bathild, 
d. 680. 



Dagobert I., 

King, 622 ; 

d. 638. 



(i) Ragntrude (concubine). 
m. (2) Gometrude, sister 
of his stepmother, 
Sichilda. 
m. (3) Nanthild. 
»i. (4^ Wulfegund. 
m. (s) Berthild. 



I 

S. Sigebert III., = Hymnegild. 

b. 630, King 

of Metz, 638 ; 

d. 656. 



= Clothild. 



ChildericII., = 

King, 657 ; sole 

King of the 

Franks, 670 ; 

d. 673. 


= Bilichild. 


Dagobert II., = 
b. 652, King 
of Metz, 655; 
murdered, 678. 


: Mechtilde. 


w * m - 


= Chilperic 11 

(Daniel), 

King of 

Neustria, 71C 

d. 720. 


1 

S. Irmina, 

nun at 

Horem, 

; d. circa 690 


1 1 1 
S. Adela, Sigebert, Ragutrude 
nun at d. 678. 
Horem, 
d. circa 695. 


Childer 
King 

Frank 
depose 

last of 


icIII., = Gi 
of the d. 

3. 743 ; 

d. 752: 
Mero- 


sela, 
nun. 




vingian 


kings. 









'43 



XXL— TABLE OF BURGUNDIAN KINGS. 



Gunthicar, = 

King of 
Burgundy, 



Gundicar, 
King of 

Burgundy, 
d. 451. 



Gunderic, 
King of 

Burgundy, 
d. 473- 



Chilperic. 



Ricimer, 

conqueror 

of Italy. 



I 
Gundobald, 

King of 

Burgundy, 

d. circa 5 1 6. 

Clovis, 
King of 
the Franks, 
b. 466, 
d. 511 



Chilperic, = 
killed, 
477- 



killed, 
477- 



Gundomar, 

killed, 

477- 



Gundegisl, 

killed, 

477. 



r 

= S. Clothild, 
m. circa 493 ; 
d. circa 540. 



I 

2 sons, 

murdered, 

477- 



Sedelinda, 
nun. 



A 

See Table XIX. 



S. Sigismund, = (l) Ostrogotha, 



King of 

Burgundy, 

d. I May 524. 



daughter of 
Theodoric, 
King of the Goths. 

(2)N. 



I 

Gundomar, 

King of 
Burgundy, 
killed, 532. 



(i) Sigeric, killed 
by his father. 



Swavigotha. 

m. Theodoric I., 

King of the 

Belgic Gauls, 

d. 534- 



144 



XXII.— FAMILY OF S. ARNOALD, 

(This Genealogy is not certain.) 



Pepin 

of Landen, 

Mayor of Palace, 

d. 639. 



S. Bodagisl, 
later monk, 
Glandieres, 

d. circa 588. 

S. Itta. 



I 

Grimoald, 

Mayor of Palace, 
d. 656. 



S. Oda, 

afterwards 

Abbess of Hamage. 



Ansbert 



S. Arnoald, ; 
later Bishop of Metz, 
d. 640. 



S. Aigiilf, 

Bishop of Metz 

d. circa 600. 

Doda, later nun 
at Treves. 



S. Gertrude of 

Nivelles. 

See Table XXVII. 



S. Begga, later 

Abbess of Ardenne, 

(/. 17 Dec, 

7th century. 



S. Ansegisl, 
d. 685. 



Pepin of Herstal, 
See Table XXVII. 



S. Chlodulf, 

Bishop of Metz, 

d. 694. 



XXIII.— FAMILY OF S. AMALBERGA. 



{2) Witgere, Count = 
in Brabant, afterwards 
monk of Lobbes. 


= S. Amalberga, 
nun, Maubeuge, 
d. \o] -cXy circa 690. 


= (i) Theodoric, 
; Lord of 
: Austrasia (?). 


i 

Pepin 
of Landen. 

1 ., 


S. Ermebert. S 
Bishop of Cambrai 

and Arras, 
d. 24 JuneciVfa 713. 


1 
. Rainilda, Virgin, 
d. 16 July circa 

690. 


1 
S. Gudula, Virgin, 
d. 8 Jan. circa 
710. 


S. Pharaildis, 

Virgin nun, 

Ghent, d. circa 

680. 



VOL. XVI. 



145 



XXIV.— FAMILY OF 

Note. — The numbers before the children of 



(i) Rotrude, => 
d. 724. 



(2) Carloman, Duke of 

Aiistrasia, Swabia, 

and Thuringia, 741 ; 

monk of Monte 

Cassino, 747 ; 

d. 17 Aug. 755. 



Hiltrude, = Odilo, Duke 



d. 754. 



of Bavaria. 



/K 



(i) Pepin the Short, 
Duke of Burgundy, 
Neustria and Pro- 
vence, 741 ; Mayor 

of Palace, 747 ; 
King of the Franks, 
751 ; d. 24 Sept. 768. 



Carloman, King of =Gerberga. 
half Aquitaine, 
Burgundy, Pro- 
vence, Languedoc, 

Elsass, and 

Allemannia, 768 ; 

d. 4 Dec. 771. 



I 

Pepin, 
b. Ts<), 
d. 762. 



Adelheld. 
Gertrude. 



I 
B. Charlemagne, 
b. 2 April circa 
747 ; King with 
Carloman, 768 ; 
sole sovereign of 
the French king- 
dom, 771 ; crowned 
Emperor, 
25 Dec. 800 ; 
d. 28 Jan. 814. 



(i) Pepin 


(3) Charles, (3) Rotrude, (3) Pepin, 


(3) Louis I. the = (i) Irmengard, 


the 


b. 772, b. 775, b. 778, 


Pious, b. 778, 


d. 3 Oct. 818. 


Hunch- 


d. 4 Dec. d. 810. King of 


King of 


(2) Judith, 


back. 


811. m. Rorich, Italy, 781 ; 


Aquitaine, 781 ; 


daughter of 




Count of (/. 8 July 


crowned 


Welf, Count 




Maine. 810. 


Emperor, 28 Oct. 


of Bavaria, 




1 


816 ; King of 


819; 




Abbot 




Italy, 818 ; 


d. 19 April 




Ludwig, 




deposed, 833 ; 


843. 




d. 867. 

/ 


\ 


replaced, 834 ; 
d. 20 June 

840. 




Arnulf, 


1 1 1 
(i) Lothair, = Irmingard, (1) Pepin, = Ingeltrude. (i) Louis the = Emma, sister 


a 


b- 795> 


daughter of b. 803, 


German, 


of his 


natural 


King of 


Count Hugo King of 


b. 804, 


stepmother 


son. 


Bavaria, 


of Tours, Aquitaine, 


King of 


Judith ; 




814; 


15 Oct. 814; 


Bavaria, 


d. 31 Jan. 




King of 


821 ; d. 13 Dec. 


817 ; 


876. 




Italy, 822 ; 


d. 20 Mar. 838. / 


\ King of 






divides the 


851. 


East Franks, 






kingdom 




843; 






among his 




d. 28 Aug. 






sons, and 




876. 






d. 2g Sept. 




1 






855. J 


I 






/ 


k 



/\ 



146 



CHARLEMAGNE. 

Charles the Great and Louis refer to the mothers. 



Charles Martel, = (2) Swanhilda, = (3) Gunnehild (concubine). 



Mayor of Palace 


daughter of = 


= Other concubines. 








toDagobertlll., 


Theodo 


bert, 










Chilperic II., 


Duke of 










Clothair IV., 


Bavaria ; 


retired 










Theodoric IV. ; 


in 741 to 


Abbey 










d. 15 Oct. 741. 


of Che 


lies. 










1 
Bertha or = Gripho, S. 


Adeloga, S. 


1. . 1 
Remigius, Bernard, =Gundlendis, 


1 1 
erome. 


Bertrada, killed, V 


. Abbess 1 


Bishop of Count. 


daughter of 


— 


daughter of 753. ofKitzingen, 


Rouen, 




Adalbert, 


Hiltrude. 


Count 8th century. d. 19 Jan. 




Duke of 


— 


Heribert of 




771- 




Allemannia. 


Landrada 


Laon, 












t/. 12 July 






A 




783. 






See Table. 




(i) Himiltrude (concubine). 


S. Gisela, 


( 

S. Isberga, 




(2) Desideria, daughter of 


*• 757 ; 


nun at 






Desiderius, King of the 


Abbess of 


Ybergh ; 






Lombards ; divorced 


Soissons. 


d. circa Boa 






(3) S. Hildegarde, d. 










30 April 783. 










(4) Fastrada, d. 794. 










(5) Liutgard, d. 800. 










(6) Regina (concubine). 










(7) Adeltrude ,, 










(8) Gerswintha „ 










(9) N. 

















1 
(3) Lothair, 


(3) Bertha, 


(3) Gisla. 


(4) Theodrada. 


1 
(6) Hugo, 


(6) Drogo, 


twin 


afterwards 




— 


Abbot of 


Bishop of 


brother of 


nun at 


(3) Adelheid. 


(4) Hiltrude. 


S. Quentin, 


Metz, 


Louis ; 


Centulle. 


— 




d. S44. 


d. 8 Dec. 


d. 780. 


»«. S. Angel- 

bert. Abbot 

of Centulle. 

d. 18 Feb. 

814. 

1 


(3)Hildegard. 






855-^ 



I 

Hartnid. 



Nithard. 



(7) Theodoric, (8) Adaltrude. (9) Ruodhaide. 
monk, d. 819. 



(i) Alpais. 

m. Bego, 

Couni of 

Paris. 



(i) Hildegard. 
m. Count 
Theodoric. 



(2) Charles the Bald,= (i) Irmentrude. 

h. 13 June 823; (2) Richild. 

Duke of Swabia, 829 ; 

Kingof Neustria,843 ; 

and Aquitaine, 852 ; 

and Lorraine, 869 ;x\ 

and Italy, 875 ; 

crowned 25 Dec. 875 ; 

d. 6 Oct. 877. 



Gisela. 
tn. Eberhard, 
Alargrave of 

Friuli. 



147 



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XXXIIL— THE ROYAL AND SAINTLY 



I 

Pearla, 

first Christian 

King of Mercia, 

King of the Mid 

Angles ; d. 657 



Wulphere, 

King of Mercia, 

656-675. 



S. Ermenilda, 

daughter of 
King of Kent ; 
Abbess of Ely. 



S. Wulfhad, 
M. circa 657. 



S. Rufinus, 
M. circa 657. 



Coenred, 

King of Mercia, 

704 ; monk at 

Rome, 709. 



Merewald, 
King of 
Mercia. 



S. Ermenburga 

or Domneva, 

Abbess of 

Minster ; d. 690. 



See Table XXX. 



S. Werburga, nun at 

Ely ; then Abbess 

of Weedon, Trenlham, 

Hanbury, and Ely ; 

patroness of Chester ; 

d. circa 699. 



XXXIV.— THE ROYAL AND SAINTLY 



Etheiburga 
(illegitimate), 

Abbess of 
Faremoutier. 



Concubine = Anna, King of the 
East Angles, 
635-654- 



F ~ 

S. Sexburga ; 

tn. Ercombert, King 

of Kent ; foundress of 

Sheppey ; second 

Abbess of Ely, from 

679-699. 



See Table XXX. 



S. Etheidreda ; 

m. (i)Tombert, Prince 

of the Giwirians ; 

m. (2) Egbert, King 

of Northumbria ; 

first Abbess of Ely ; 

d. 679. 



* According to Bede she was wife of Edelhere, 
156 



FAMILY OF MERCIA. 



Pybba or: 

Wibba. 



Penda, King of Mercia, = 
626-655. 



S. Kyneburga, 

Abbess of 

Gloucester ; 

m. Alchfrid, 

King of 
Northumbria. 



I I . 
S. Kyneswitha, 

sought by Ofla, 
King of Essex, 
but she per- 
suaded him to 

become a monk. 

S. Wilburga ; m. 

P. of Surrey, and 

with whom founded 

the monastery of 

Chertsey. 



Ethelred, 

King of Mercia, 

675 ; Abbot 

of Bardney, 

704; 
d. 715. 



Osdrytha 
of North- 
umbria. 



Eadburga, 

Abbess of 

Dortmuncester, 

d. 680. 



S. Ceolred, 
King of Mercia, 

709 ; became 

monk at Rome; 

d. 716. 



FAMILY OF EAST ANGLIA. 

Hereric = Bregeswitha. 



See Table 
XXXII. 



Ecgric = Hereswitha,* 
a Northumbrian 
Princess. 



Edelhere, 
first husband. 



S. Wilhburga, 

nun at Ely, 

then Abbess of 

Dereham. 



r 

Aldulf, 
Kin'i of the East 
Angles, 663-713. 



S. Sethrida, 
Abbess of Brie. 



I 

Ethelbur<:a, 

Abbess of 

Hackness. 



I 
Wetburga, 
Abbess of 
Hackness. 



Eadburga, 

Abbess of Repton ; 

afterwards of Hackness. 



and he was father of King Aldulf by her. 

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158 



A CELTIC AND ENGLISH KALENDAR OF 
SAINTS PROPER TO THE WELSH, COR- 
NISH, SCOTTISH, IRISH, BRETON, AND 
ENGLISH PEOPLE. 

[ (L.) attached to a name signifies that the Life is given in the text of the 
preceding volumes, any other references are to dates under which 
the additional notices appear in this Calendar.'\ 



JANUARY 

Elfan and Medwy (Elvan and Medwin), BB. Wales, 
end of 2nd cent. (L.). See also May 14 and 
24, August 8, and September 26. 

Maelrys, C. Carnarvonshire, 6th cent. 

GwYNHOEDL or GwYNODL, Mk. C. Carnarvonshire, 6th 
cent. 

MocHUA or CUAN, Ab. Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 

Tyfrydog, C. Anglesey, 6th cent. 

Machraith, C. Anglesea and Merioneth, ith cent. 

MocHUA or CKOJ:i AN, A b.Balla, in Ireland, "jth cent. (L.). 

Ernan, CO. Donegal, circa 634; also December 22. 

Maelrys, his name also spelt Maelerw or Maelryd, son of 
Gwyddno, the son of Emyr Llydaw, belongs to the first half of 
the sixth century. He was a cousin of Cadfan, and almost cer- 
tainly came with him to Wales from Armorica, in that large 
company of saints that then migrated to the British Islands. 
Maelrys, like his cousin, settled in Bardsey. 

Gwynhokdl or Gwynodl was son of Seithenyn, warden of 
the dykes of the low-lying tract of land off the coast of Cardigan, 
that formed the cantref of Gwaelod. In the sixth century, by a 

159 



*- 



^ 



sudden submergence, the sea overflowed this district. The kinj^ 
of the district of Gwaelod was Gwyddno Longshanks. It was 
the duty of the warden to ride along the embankments that kept 
out the sea, and which had probably been raised by Roman 
legionaries, as were those which shut out the Severn from Calde- 
cot level and Wentlooge. Br.t Seitlienyn was given to intem- 
perance, and neglected his duty. Whether there was an actual 
submergence or not, the blame for the waves overflowing and 
devastating the district was laid upon Seithenyn. The occasion 
was doubtless a concurrence of neap-tide and strong westerly 
winds. Gwyddno and his court were keeping revel that night, 
and Seithenyn was very drunk. The king escaped with difficulty 
before the inrolling stormy sea. It is said that by this calamity 
sixteen palisaded caerau were destroyed. Such persons as escaped 
fled to the mountainous region about Snowdon. The recollection 
of the disaster produced a saying attached to a heartbroken sigh ; 
it was likened to 

The sigh of Gwyddno Garanhir, 
When the waves rolled over his land. 

A short poem, attributed to Gwyddno, is preserved, in which 
he laments : — 

" Stand forth, Seithenyn, and behold the dwelling of heroes 

the plain of Gwyddno is whelmed by the sea. 
Accursed be the sea warden, who, after his carousal, let 

loose the destroying fountain of the raging deep. 
Accursed be the watcher, who, after his drunken revelry, 

let loose the fountain of the desolating sea. 
A cry from the sea rises above the ramparts : even to 

heaven does it mount, — after fierce excess comes a long 

lull. 
A cry from the sea rouses me in the night season. 
A cry from the sea rises above the winds. 
A cry from the sea drives me from my bed this night." 

Probably the disgrace that attached to Seithenyn's whole 
family after this terrible catastrophe induced his sons to retire 
entirely from the world and devote themselves to religion. 
His ten sons embraced the monastic life under Dunawd, at 
Bangor Iscoed. (For Merin see January 6.) 

Tyfrydog was the son of Arwystli Gloff, a brother of Di- 
heufyr, Tyrnog, Tudur, and Twrog. He was a member of the 
college of Bardsey, and founded the church of Llandyfrydog. 
He lived down to the close of the sixth century. 



*- 



-* 



January 2.] Ccltic and EitgHsh KaleudaT. 1 6 1 



Machraith. Of this saint nothing is known. 

Ernan was nephew to the great Columba, and was a servant- 
boy in the monastery of Clonmacnois. When Cohmiba visited 
this place in 590 Ernan strove to touch the hem of his rough cloak, 
when the saint, seeing the effort of the lad, held out his hand, 
took him, and placed him before his face. Some of the by- 
standers bade him take no notice of a troublesome boy ; but 
Columba silenced them, laid his hands on the head of Ernan, 
blessed him, and said, "This boy whom ye now despise will 
henceforth be agreeable to you, and will go on from grace to 
grace, and be gifted by God with wisdom, learning, and 
eloquence." 

Along with his brother, Cobtach, he followed his uncle to 
Alba, to labour at the conversion of the Picts. After many 
years spent there he returned to Ireland, and established himself 
at Drumhorne, in Donegal. Adamnan says that on the night 
that Columba died, it was revealed to Ernan in vision. In the 
Irish calendars he is called Ernan of Rathnew, in Wicklow, but 
it is somewhat uncertain whether there were not two of the same 
name. In Ireland his memory is revered on August 18, but 
in the Scottish calendars his name occurs on January i. He died 
in the year 634. 

\ Holy Martyrs of Lichfield, circa 304 (L.). 
ScoTHiN, C Ireland^ circa 550. 
Seiriol, C Anglesea, 6th cent. 

ScoTHiN was a native of Ireland, who came to Britain and 
studied under S. David, and the manner of his coming was this : — 
He was a disciple of S. Aidan, Bishop of Ferns, in Ireland. 
Aidan had been a pupil of S. David, and he loved his master 
dearly. Now it fell out on Easter Eve that whilst Aidan was 
in prayer it was revealed to him that David was in great peril, 
for three false brethren had put poison in his bread, so as to 
destroy him. Then Aidan tearfully besought the Lord to deliver 
his old master. And an angel appeared to him, who said, " Send 
thy fellow disciple Scothin to the seaside, and I will enable 
him to pass over." Then Scothin did cheerfully what he was 
bidden, and he walked in the water till it reached his knees. 
Thereupon appeared a sea monster, and took him on his back 
and landed him on the other siile, on Easter Day at noon, and 
he met David coming from church, and told him the message of 
Aidan. 
VOL. XVI. L 



-vjgt 



1 62 Lives of the Saints. (Januarys. 



In the refectory David took the poisoned bread and broke it 
into three pieces. One he gave to a crow, the second to a dog, 
but the third he ate himself and took no hurt, though crow and 
dog died. Then " all the brethren arose and lamented, and cursed 
the steward, cook, and deacon, and with one mouth condemned 
them and their successors, that they should never inhabit any 
portion of the kingdom of heaven." 

After a while Scothin returned to Ireland, and lived as a soli- 
tary in a cell constructed by himself on Mount Mairge, in Queen's 
County. After an edifying life he died on January 2, but the 
exact year is not known. It was about 550, 

Seiriol was the son of Owain Danwyn, and brother or nephew 
of Einion, prince of Lleyn, in Carnarvon, of the race of Cunedda. 
Einion established a sacred tribe at Penmon in Anglesea, and 
made Seiriol chief of the saintly tribe. So celebrated did this 
establishment become under him, that foreigners, so we are tpld, 
even Scandinavian vikings, resorted to it for instruction. This 
is a clumsy way of explaining that some Norse pirates who had 
been captured on the coast were given up to Seiriol, instead of 
being put to death. Seiriol and Cybi were friends. The former 
lived at Penmon, the latter at Holyhead. They were wont to 
meet weekly at Clorach, near Llanerch y Medd. From the cir- 
cumstance of Seiriol travelling westward in the morning with 
the sun, whereas Cybi's course was eastward against the sun, 
they were denominated Seiriol the Fair and Cybi the Tawny. 
Matthew Arnold wrote a sonnet on this story, but mistook the 
point. He makes Seiriol the Bright, because the sun was on 
his face, and Cybi the Tawny, because his was in shade. 

Late in life Seiriol retired to Glanach or Priestholm, a little 
island off the coast. This islet is now called Ynys Seiriol. He 
lived in the early part of the sixth century. Challoner gives 
January 2 as his day, but in his supplement gives as well Feb- 
ruary II. There is some question whether February i was not 
also observed as his day in Wales. There used to be an inscrip- 
tion on a stone in the tower of Llanengan to the memory of 
his father. In Welsh Calendars on February i. 

3 Melor, il/. Cornwall or Brittany, circa 538 (L.). 
GwENOG, V. Cardiganshire, ']th cent. 

Melor, son of Melyan, prince of Cornwall, is not to be mis- 
taken for Meilyr, brother of S. Maelrys, who is commemorated 
on January i. 



* 



Januarys] Celtic a7id EngUsJi Kalendav. i6 



o 



The story of S. Melor is involved in difficulties, partly because 
his legend is replete with fables, next because it contains ana- 
chronisms, and lastly, because the scene of his adventures is 
regarded as either Cornwall or Cornouaille, and his place of 
martyrdom is claimed to be at both S. Mylor in the former, and 
at Lanmeur in the latter. 

Sweeping aside all the fabulous matter in the legend, we come 
to those particulars which are historical. Melor was the son of 
Melyan, prince of Cornwall or of Cornouaille, probably of both. 
Melyan was the son of Budic, and his brother, Tewdric, was 
prince of Western Cornwall, where he made himself notorious 
through his opposition to a settlement of Irish immigrants in 
Pen with ; he went so far as to kill some of them, Fingar and Piala. 
The brother of Melyan was Hoel I., cousin of King Arthur, who 
had been sent by Arthur to rule as prince in Brittany. Hoel, 
called in the legend Rhiwal, that is to say, the Lord Hoel, finding 
Melyan in the way, murdered him in 538, and sought to destroy 
also his nephew Melor, who, however, fled to the abbey of S. 
Corentin to escape him. Here comes in the anachronism. In 
the legend it is Corentin who affords him shelter. But that is 
impossible, as Corentin died in 453 ; and all we can admit 
is, that he was for a while sheltered by the successor of S. 
Corentin. There may be some truth in the story that Melor 
was mutilated by Hoel, and this mutilation of hand and foot 
was designed to incapacitate him from becoming a candidate for 
the chieftainship. But when, in spite of this, a party was formed 
to support Melor, then Hoel proceeded to extremities and had 
him assassinated. 

With regard to Melyan the father, the traces of his having 
been in Cornwall are many. Not only are S. Mellion and 
Mullion churches dedicated to him, but also near Par are Lan 
Mellion and Merthan close together, indicative of an ancient 
martyrium and a church dedicated to the saint. In S. Tudy 
is another Lan Mellion, another at Liskeard, and there are 
other less distinct traces of his foundations. That he was a 
prince in Cornwall, therefore, I can hardly doubt. But that 
Melor fled to Brittany from Hoel, who was now in Britain and 
then in Armorica, is most probable. It is true that in Cornwall 
is the church of Mylor dedicated to him, and believed to occupy 
the site of his martyrdom, but it may be only a commemorative 
church. The adjoining parish is S. Mabe, i.e. the Holy Son, 
and it is possible that the original church at Mylor may have 
been a foundation of S. Melyan, and that the adjoining church 
was known as that of the Saintly Son ; but that gradually the 



-k< 



164 Lives of the Saints. [January 3 

greater fame of the boy eclipsed that of his father, and his name 
was transferred to his father's foundation. This, however, is 
mere conjecture. Linkinhorne is dedicated to S. Melor, so 
also is Thornbury, in Dorsetshire. His relics were held to be 
enshrined at Amesbury. All this points to a very close relation 
with the south-west, and to the story having taken a lively hold 
of the Britons there, which could hardly have happened unless 
he had been related intimately to the reigning house. 

In the Legendariuin of Bishop Grandisson of Exeter, 1366, is 
the story. It begins : " S. Melor, son of Meliar, King of Corn- 
wall, lost his father when he was seven years old. His mother 
was in Devon (in Devonia regione), Aurilla by name, of the race 
of Rivold." There is a doubt as to the exact relationship of 
Rivold and Melian. On the strength of a statement in a frag- 
mentary Life, published in the Analecta Bollandiana (T. v. 
p. 165), that Melor's mother was daughter of Judoc, Count of 
Domnonia, he has been moved to a date but little before 710. 
But Aurelia cannot have been a daughter of S. Judoc, who 
was never married. Judoc may be a misreading for Budoc. 

In Brittany tradition attaches to every stage of the flight of 
Melor from his uncle. His estates are said to have been at 
Lanmeur, between Lannion and Morlaix, in Domnonia. Be- 
tween Carhaix and Lanmeur, according to the legend, when he 
was pursued, the earth sank and formed a hollow, in which he 
concealed himself. This is still shown, and called Guele San 
Velar, or the Bed of S. Melor. A chapel was built over the 
spot. Thence he pushed on in the direction of Boiseon, but was 
overtaken by night and took refuge at a farm in Plouigneau, 
now called Gouer Velar, or the rivulet of Melor. On leaving 
the farm next morning, without his breakfast, he ascended a hill 
and fainted from exhaustion, where now stands a small chapel 
dedicated to him at Coal-sao-bell (the Wood of the Long Ascent). 
Thence he pushed on to Boiseon. There Rivold came and 
carried him off to Lanmeur, where he stabbed him at a spot 
near the parish church, which is pointed out as the scene of the 
murder. Indeed, even a room in the old wooden house is called 
Cambr-ar-Sant, or the Chamber of the Saint. Tradition is so 
minute in its particulars relative to the localities, that it is diffi- 
cult to doubt that S. Melor belongs to Brittany and not to 
Cornwall. 

In Brittany the feast of 8. Melor is on October 3, and not in 
January, and the form assumed by his name is Meleuc, which 
is a corruption of Melur-oc. In Bishop Grandisson's Exeter 
Calendar the feast is on October i. 

lit ^ 



* 



January 4.1 CelHc aud EngHsk Kaleiiclar. 165 



William of Malmesbury said of the story of Melor, in the twelfth 
century, " Incertum," and so it is still as to its details ; but there 
can be little question as to the substantial truth of the story, 
that he and his father were the victims of a family contest for 
supremacy, such as was common in all times among the Celtic 
chiefs, where the law of subdivision of authority and land provoked 
these fratricidal crimes. 

GwENOG, a virgin in Cardiganshire, of whom nothing is known. 
To her was dedicated a church at Caerleon, a mile and a half 
from the town, at the angle between the Soar and Avon. It wa? 
destroyed at the Reformation. She is not to be confounded with 
S. Gwenafwy or Wennapa or Veep of Cornwall, nor with S. 
Gwynog, the nephew of the latter and disciple of S. Cadoc, 
both of whom made settlements in Cornwall 

RuMON, B.C. in Cornwall^ Brittany ^ and at Tavistock ^ 
in Devon (L.). 

RUMON, Roman, or Ruan, was the name of a man of some 
note and importance. He is thought to be the same as the 
Ronan who was consecrated bishop by S. Patrick, and to have 
visited Scotland. But although this is possible enough, know- 
ing, as we do, how great travellers the Cehic saints were, yet 
it is advisable to hesitate about the identification. 

That he came to Britain we know. And here local tra- 
dition comes to our aid. He made a foundation at Romans- 
leigh, originally Lan Roman, in Devon. 

Then the spirit of restlessness came over Rumon, and he 
moved away to the west, and settled in the Poti of Kerrier, 
where he elicited a fountain from the rock, and his church and 
holy well remain to this day. His festival was there held on 
August 30. Another of his foundations was near Porthleven, 
where the parish still bears his name, as S. Ruan Major. 
Another of his foundations is Ruan Lanihorne. Lanihorne is 
a corruption of Llan-ruan. In the church here is an interesting 
ancient figure of the saint, and there is a holy well in the midst 
of the village. 

It was doubtless on his way west that he tarried at the mouth 
of the Fowey, where he founded a church, Llan-ruan, corrupted 
in Domesday to Lanlaron ; but the port or basin of the harbour 
still bears his name unaltered as Polruan. For some reason 
unknown, but jirobably no other than the love of change, he took 
boat and crossed to Armorica, and reached land on the west of 



-► A 



I 66 Lives of the Saints. [January 4. 



Leon, in the harbour of Aber Ildut. Ascending the valley he 
came on wild and unpeopled country. There they show to this 
day a rock hollowed out, which is called the bed of S. Ruan or 
Ronan. The district was marshy and insalubrious, and he left 
it to move south, following the coast. He came to the dense 
forest of Nemet, rolling down the flanks of the Menez Hom, 
and he planted his hermitage there on a height. Between the 
mountain he occupied and the town of Curiosopitum, or Quimper, 
the country was fairly peopled, partly with the original non- 
Aryan race, dusky and broad-shouldered, partly with British 
immigrants, who had assumed the lordship over them. The 
wolves in Nemet troubled the natives greatly, dependent as they 
were on their flocks and herds. The natives were pagans, but 
the immigrants had some smattering of Christianity. Ronan 
laboured hard to convert the heathen, and thereby provoked 
some hostility. One of his principal opponents was a woman 
named Keban, young and good-looking, who was particularly irate 
because Ruan or Ronan had converted her husband, and she 
feared would turn him into a monk. She accordingly accused 
Ronan of being a werewolf. " Every night," said she, "betakes 
on him the shape of a wolf, and devours our sheep." She per- 
sisted in this charge, and even went before the British king 
Gradio to formulate her accusation. She had a little daughter. 
One night Ronan, in the form of a wolf, had burst into the 
cottage and carried off and eaten the child. 

The concourse was immense ; exasperation against the re- 
puted werewolf was at its height. She demanded justice of 
Gradio against Ronan, and that he might be burned alive ! The 
king sent for the saint. In the effervescence of minds it would 
not be well to take openly the side of the hermit, nor would it 
do to scout the charge, as then the people would with their own 
hands wreak vengeance on the saint. 

So Gradio said, " Bring him to me. I have two wolf-dogs. 
If he is innocent, they will not hurt him ; but if they sniff 
anything of the wolf about him, they will tear him to pieces." 

The people were delighted. Meanwhile Gradio, who did not 
desire the death of the hermit, had his hounds well fed, and 
probably let them see him in intimate commune with the saint. 
On the day appointed Ronan and the hounds were confronted. 
He raised his hand and said, "Do what God wills." They 
came and licked his feet. 

That sufficed. At once the stupid and ignorant rabble roared 
out that Keban had been guilty of slander, and they would burn 
her. Ronan with difficulty rescued her. He persuaded the mob 



January 5-6] Celtic auci EugUsk Kale^idav. 167 

to search her house, and promised that there they would find hei 
child concealed. This was done. The little girl was discovered 
hidden away. 

Unhappily the legend of S. Ronan is fragmentary, and we know 
of no more incidents in his life, nor anything concerning his death. 

In the ninth century his relics were translated to his oratory 
in Loc-Ronan-ar-Coat-Nevent, or the Chapel of Ronan, in the 
Wood of Nemet. There is also a church of his foundation in 
the diocese of S. Brieuc, Lanrenan. In Brittany he is commemo- 
rated on June I, but this probably is the day of the translation. 

But Tavistock Abbey claimed to possess his relics, translated 
thither by Ordulph, Earl of Devon, in 981. 

I have assumed that the Ronan of Brittany is the Ruan of 
Cornwall and the Romanus or Rumon of Devon, as the legend 
represents the Breton saint as coming from Britain, and identifies 
him with the disciple of S. Patrick, who travelled greatly. 

5 Edward the Confessor, K. England, a.d. 1066 (L. 

on October 13). 

6 The Epiphany. 

Merin, C. Monmouthshire, Carnarvonshire, 6th cent. 

EiGRAD, C. Anglesea, 6th cent. 

Hywyn, P.C. Bardsey and Carnarvonshire, end of 6th 

cent. 
Edeyrn the Bard, C. Anglesca, 6th cent. ; also Nov. 1 1 . 
Ulched, C. Anglesca. 
Peter, Ab. Canterbury, a.d. 608 (L.). 

Merin or Meiryn was trained at Bangor under Dunawd. 
He was the nephew of Gwynhoedl {^^q Jatuiary i). In Wales 
S. Merin is commemorated on January 2, and he is the patron 
of Bodferin, in Carnarvon, and of Llanferin, in Monmouthshire. 
The church of Lanmerin, in the old diocese of Treguier, in 
Brittany, is possibly dedicated to him. 

EiGRAD, son of Caw and brother of S. Samson of York. He 
was trained in the religious establishment of S. Illtyd. He 
founded a church in Anglesca in the sixth century. (Challoner.) 

HvwYN, variously spelt Ilefnin, Ilenwyn, Hewnin, w.is the 
son of Gwyndaf lien, or "the Aged." Gwyndaf was an 
Armorican chief, anil brother of Amwn the Black. He retired 



*- 



-* 



1 68 



Lives of the Saints. 



[January 7. 



into Wales, and became head of the college of Duhricius at 
Caerleon. In his old age he retreated to Bardsey, where he 
lies buried. Hywyn his son accompanied Cad fan from Brittany. 
He was first a member of the college of Illtyd, and afterwards 
bishop in Bardsey. He founded the church of Aberdaron, on 
the opposite coast of Carnarvon, from whence pilgrim-; crossed 
over to the Holy Isle. (Rees.) 

Edeyrn the Bard was son of Nudd, of the family of Maelgwn 
Gwynedd. He was one of the most valiant knights of the court 
of King Arthur. 

The story was told that three giants occupied the hill of Bren- 
tenol, and when, one Feast of the Nativity, King Arthur was 
feasting at Caerleon, to prove Edeyrn he sent him to fight these 
giants. Edeyrn was successful. He slew all three, but was so 
exhausted by the struggle that, when King Arthur arrived on 
the scene, he lay insensible on the ground, and Arthur reproached 
himself for having been the cause of his death, and he vowed 
masses for his soul. Edeyrn, however, revived. 

In the Mabinogioii is a story of an encounter between Geraint, 
prince of Devon, and Edeyrn, " the Knight of the Sparrow-hawk." 
There was set up yearly in a meadow a silver rod between two 
forked sticks, and on this a sparrow-hawk, and for it knights 
jousted. Edeyrn won it for two years in succession. Had he won 
it the third, it would have been his for ever ; but Geraint con- 
tested the prize with him, and won it. The attendant on Edeyrn 
was a dwarf, who had struck one of the ladies of Queen Gweniver 
across the face with a whip. When Geraint had defeated Edeyrn 
he sent him to the court to apologise for the insult offered. 

Edeyrn devoted the latter part of his life to religion. He lived 
in the sixth century. He is also commemorated on November 11. 
A church, Llanedern, in the diocese of Leon, in Brittany, is 
dedicated to him, and there his tomb is shown with his figure 
carved upon it. 

Ulched : nothing further is known of him than that he founded 
the church of Llechulched, in Anglesea. 

CwYLLOG, C Anglesea, 6th cent. 
Cedd, B. London, a.d. 644 (L.). 

Kentigierna, W. R. Loch Lomond, Scotland, circa 
A.D. 733. 

Cywyllog or CVVYLLOG was a daughter of Caw and wife 
of the traitor Modred, nephew of King Arthur. 



»*«- 



January 8-12.] Celtlc auci EugUsh Kalcndav. 169 

Kentigierna was a daughter of Ceallach Cualain, prince of 
Leinster, who died in 715. Ceallach was the ancestor of the 
O'Kellys of Rathdown, in the county of Dublin. She was 
married to Feradach, chieftain in Monchestree, and had for 
brother S. Coemgan, and her son was named Faeltan. Him 
S. Ibar is said to have saved from drowning, when he saw the 
boy at the bottom of a lake playing with water-kelpies — trans- 
lated in the legend into angels. • Leaving Ireland, Kentigierna, 
accompanied by her brother and son, came to Straphilane, in 
Scotland, and finally she retreated wholly from the world and 
lived as a recluse in the island of Inch Cailleach, in Loch 
Lomond, where she died about 733. 

8 Pega, V. England, circa a.d. 718 (L.). 
Translation 0/ S. ]UDOC (see July 25; December 13). 
WuLSiN, B. Sherborne, a.d. 983 (L.). 

9 FiLLAN, Ab. Scotland, 8th cent. (L.). 
Adrian, Ab. Canterbury, a.d. 709 (L.). 
Brithwald, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 731 (L.). 
Translation 0/ S. William, Abp. York, a.d. 1283. 

10 Sethrida, V. Abss. France, ph cent. (I^.). 
William Laud, Abp. M. Canterbury, a.d. 1645. 

1 1 Llwchaiarn, C. Montgomeryshire and Cardiganshire, 

6th cent. 
Egwin, B. Worcester, circa a.d. 720 (L.). 

Llwchaiarn was the son of Hugarfael and brother of 
Aelhaiarn and Cynhaiarn. Nothing further is known of him 
than that he founded churches in Montgomeryshire and Cardi- 
ganshire, and lived in the sixth century. 

12 Benedict Biscop, C. Northiimbria, a.d. 703 (L.). 
Thirty-Eight Monks, 71/iT/./;;/rWrt,circaA.D. 750(1..). 
Aelred, Ab. C. Rivaulx^ Yorkshire, A.D. 11 66 (L.). 



*■*- 



170 



Lives of the Sai?its. 



[January 13. 



-* 



13 Erbin or Ervan, C Devon and Cornwall, e^th cent. 
Elian the Pilgrim, C. Anglesea and Denbighshire, 6th 

cent, {see February 22). 
Saeran, C. Denbighshire, 6fh cent. 
Eleri, V. Carnarvonshire and Denbighshire, 6th cent. 
Kentigern, B. Glasgoiv, a.d. 601 (L.). 

Erbin was the son of Cystenyn Gorneu or Constantine the 
Cornishman, a prince of Devon in the fifth century. No 
churches are dedicated to him in Wales. S. Ervan, in Cornwall, 
is dedicated to him, and was probably founded by him. Hals 
gives Ervan as a corrupt form of Erbyn. When so many 
churches of Celtic origin were re-dedicated in the Middle Ages, 
Erbin was converted into Hermes, a martyr in the Roman 
Kalendar. He was also grandfather of S. Cyngar, Abbot of 
Congresbury. His brother Digain founded a church in Den- 
bighshire, called Llangernyw, or the Church of the Cornishman. 
Erbin was undoubtedly a chieftain, and he probably retired from 
the world to dedicate his life to God, where now stands the 
church in North Cornwall that bears his name. The date of 
his death is about 480. The Welsh Kalendars commemorate 
him as well on May 29. 

Ei.iAN Geimiad, or "the Pilgrim," was the son of Gallgu 
Rieddawg, and his mother was Canna, daughter of Tewdwr 
Mawr, the son of Budic I. The church of Llanelian, in Angle- 
sea, was formerly resorted to by a great concourse of people, 
who implored his aid for relief from a variety of disorders, and 
to gain his favour considerable offerings were made. These 
amounted to so large a sum that three tenements were purchased 
with it, which belong to the living to the present day. S. Elian's 
Well, at Llanelian, in Denbighshire, obtained great notoriety as 
a cursing well. On payment of a fee to the keeper of the well, 
persons devoted the names of their enemies to the vengeance of 
the saint, by inscribing them on pebbles and dropping them 
into the water. By this means they brought upon them cramps, 
agues, and losses. This custom survived to the present day. 

A singular confusion has arisen through mistaking Elian with 
S. Hilary. S. Cybi and Elian were wont to meet at a place 
called Llandyfrydog, between Holyhead and Llanelian, there to 
confer upon subjects of religion. From this arose the idea that 
Cybi had been a disciple of S. Hilary — Elian's epithet, Ceimiad 
("pilgrim"), being mistaken for Cannaid ("bright"), and so 



->< 



January 14-15.) Celtic and EugHsh Kaleiidaf . 171 



corresponded with the Latin Hilarius, or Elian resembling 
Hilary, produced the mistake. Consequently, not only has this 
led to difficulties in reconciling dates, but also it has been the 
means of churches founded by Elian being re-named in honour 
of S. Hilary. One of the Scilly Isles, where probably Elian 
resided and had an oratory, now bears the title of the Bishop 
of Poitiers ; and although the wake of Elian is observed in the 
month of August, his festival has been regarded as on January 
13, because that is the day of the commemoration of S. Hilary 
of Poitiers. But Hilary belongs to the fourth century, and Elian 
to the sixth. 

In Cornwall, Elian must have been almost as well known as 
his friend Cybi, whom he probably followed thither. He was 
the founder of S. Allen's church, in Powder, where his feast is 
obser\ed on the third Sunday after Easter. He had a chapel 
in Sithmy, 



14 



15 Ita or Ytha, V. Ireland, A.D. 570. 

Lleuddad, Ab. C. in Carmarthenshire, 6th cent. 
Sawyl Benuchel, Prince C. at Bangor, 6th cent. 
Sawyl Felyn, C. in Carmarthenshire, ?>th cent. 
Ceolwulf, K.C. Lindisfarne, a.d. 767 (L.). 

S. Ita or Ytha, who may be regarded as the Bridget of 
Munster, was a daughter of Kennfoelad and Necta, Christians, 
and of royal race. She was born about 480. From her earliest 
childhood she showed signs of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, 
so sweetly modest and pious was she. It is related that, while 
she was still very young, the room in which she slept seemed 
ablaze, and in the midst of this marvellous light the young 
damsel lay asleep, her face transfigured to superhuman beauty. 

She was sought in marriage by a noble youth, and her father 
greatly favoured his suit ; but she obstinately resisted, and took 
the veil. She then retired to the .south of the barony of Hy- 
Conaill, in Limerick, where she led a solitary life. Numerous 
maidens placed themselves under her direction. She affected 
such abhorrence of money that after touching it she washed 
her hands ; and her love of morlilication was so great, that she 
allowed a great stag-beetle to gnaw into her side unmolested. 
This, however, is to be understood as implying no more than 

4< — __ j, 



172 



Lives of the Saints. [January 15. 



that in her old age she suffered from cancer. She nursed and 
brought up the illustrious Brendan of Clonfert. 

So great was her fame, that when S. Comgan of Gleanussen 
was dying, he sent for her to lay her hand on and close his 
lips. She lived to a very advanced age, and died on the 15th 
January 570. 

It is probably due to the presence of S. Brendan in Devon 
and Cornwall that there are churches and chapels there dedi- 
cated to this great abbess. She is there known as S. Ide or 
S. Syth. 

Lleuddad, latinised into Laudatus, son of Alan or Emyr 
Llydaw, was a companion of S. Cadfan when this saint emi- 
grated from Brittany. The incessant family feuds among the 
British settlers of Armorica was the cause of so large an immi- 
gration of men of princely families to Britain. Lleuddad was a 
cousin of Cadfan, on whose death he was appointed abbot of 
the monastery of Bardsey. Next to his predecessor he has 
been considered the guardian saint of the island. " Unloved 
is every unamiable person " is a saying attributed to him in 
Welsh literature. Probably he is the S. Laudus or Lo, Bishop of 
Coulance, who died 568. 

Sawyl Benuchel, or "the Haughty," was the brother of 
Dunawd, and son of Pabo, the Pillar of Britain ; he stood out 
for the cause of the Britons in the North against either Picts or, 
more probably, the Angles, who conquered and settled the basin 
of the Tweed between 500 and 547, in which year the kingdom 
of Bernicia was constituted by Ida. It is possible that the family 
of Pabo may have been in part of Pictish origin. It is probable 
enough that Frisians had already settled in the valley of the 
Tweed, and that it is due to this that the Firth of Forth bore 
the early name of the Frisian Sea. Through the dim haze of 
northern tradition we see a chieftain struggling in battle after 
battle at the opening of the sixth century against invaders, till 
about the middle of the century the Britons were compelled to 
relinquish the basin of the Tweed and withdraw behind the 
Cattrad, a line of embankments that strikes through Ettrick 
Forest. 

According to Welsh tradition, the reason of Sawyl and Dunawd 
following their father into Wales was that they were unable to 
hold their own against the invaders ; moreover, Sawyl's over- 
bearing character drove his clansmen into revolt against him, and 
they expelled him. Dunawd threw himself on the protection 
of Cyngen, Prince of Powys, and he was given a tract of land, 
and founded a monastery at Bangor. But Sawyl the Haughty 



-* 



tf4 

January 16-20.] Celtic and EfigHsk Kalendav. 173 

appears in the Legend of S. Cadoc as exercising authority as a 
petty chief in Glamorganshire. S. Cadoc was mightily offended 
because one day Sawyl, together with his attendants, came to 
the monastery of Llancarvan and gorged themselves on the food 
and drink they found there, till they all lay down in a sleep of 
surfeit and drunkenness. Then Cadoc ordered his monks to 
shave off half the beards and hair of the sleepers, and with razors 
to cut off the lips and ears of their horses. When the robbers 
awoke they were still too stupefied to observe anything. But 
Cadoc knew full well that, as soon as they came to their senses, 
they would return and butcher them all ; he therefore bade his 
monks go forth with psalms and hymns in procession. They 
advanced till they reached the mound on the top of which was 
the caer of Sawyl. The chief, seeing the monks arrive, and 
being now aware what had been done, rushed with his men 
down upon them, whereupon the ground gaped and swallowed 
them up, "and the fosse where they were engulfed is known 
unto this day." The story is puzzling, for, in the first place, 
one does not see how Sawyl got into Glamorgan, and next, 
because he was not swallowed up, but became a monk. Other- 
wise his behaviour to S. Cadoc was consistent with his passionate, 
overbearing character. 

He was married to Gwenaseth, daughter of Rhufon Rhufoniog, 
and was the father of S. Asaph. Rees believed that Llansawel, 
on the Cothi, was his foundation, but it is more probably a 
foundation of Sawyl Felyn, or "the Tawny," who lived in the 
eighth century. (Welsh Cal. B.M. Addl. MSS. 14,912.) 

t6 FuRSEY, Ab. in France and Stiff oik, a.d. 653 (L.). 
Henry, H. Northumhria, a.d. 1127 (L.). 

17 MiLDGiTHA, V. Kent, circa a.d. 730 (L.). 
18 

19 Blaithmac, Ab. M. and Companions MM. lona, a.d. 

824 (L.). 
VVuLSTAN, B. Worcester, a.d. 1095 (I..). 

20 Fkchin, Ab. Fore, in Ireland, a.d. 665 (L.). 



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174 



Lives of the Saints. [January 21-24. 



21 



2 2 Brithwald, B. Wilton, a.d. 1045 

23 BoisiL, Ab. Melrose, circa a.d. 664. 

BoiSiL was a disciple of S. Cuthbert, and was abbot of Old 
Melrose. lie is spoken of both by Bede and by the author of 
the Life of S. Cuthbert. He died in the great pestilence of 664. 

24 Cadoc or Catawg, Ab. Wales, 6th cent. (L.). 

S. Cadoc. In the text reference is made to La Ville Marque, 
La Legende Celtique. La Ville Marque is now somewhat dis- 
credited among scholars. His object was to write a popular 
and picturesque book, and he was indifferent as to his treatment 
of authorities. 

S. Cadoc has left his impress in Cornwall, where a chapel 
at Padstow was one of his foundations. We are told in his Life 
that he produced a fountain in Cornwall by thrusting the end of 
his staff into the ground. After that he went on to Rome and 
Jerusalem, and brought home with him some of the water of the 
Jordan, which he poured into his Cornish spring. The mira- 
culous power of the well was increased thereby a hundred-fold ; 
therefore the Cornish people built a chapel on the spot near the 
well. Quethiock, now dedicated to S. Hugh, was possibly 
originally Eglyscadoc. At Llancarvan S. Cadoc lived like a 
prince, as he was ; and the account is interesting, as it shows us 
what the conditions were in an ecclesiastical tribe. " He daily 
fed a hundred clergy, and a hundred soldiers, and a hundred 
workmen, and a hundred poor men, with the same number of 
widows. This was the number of his household, besides ser- 
vants in attendance, and esquires, and guests, whose number 
also was uncertain, and a multitude of whom used to visit him 
frequently. Nor is it strange that he was a rich man and 
supported many, for he was abbot and prince." His bio- 
grapher further states that his territory extended from Ffynnon 
Hen, the Old Well, and the Rumney, to a stream that enters the 
sea near Cadoxton. 

He seems to have been terrible in his curses. But the stories 
of the judgments which befell such as were cursed by him are 
doubtless later inventions, composed for the purpose of scaring 



*- 



^ 



January 25.] CelHc aiid EngUsk KaleJidav. 175 

Welsh and Norman princes and barons from laying hands on 
the lands of the monastery. 

The curious story told of Cadoc carrying red-hot coals to his 
master, and of his then hiding the fire in the earth, where it got 
lost in some of the disturbances of South Wales, is due to a 
misunderstanding of the biographer. What Cadoc found was 
a vein of coal in Glamorganshire, and to this the people had 
recourse till the seam got covered by a fall of earth, or its situa- 
tion was forgotten. Yox fire in the text we should xea.dfueL 

S. Cadoc visited Brittany, and founded a monastery in the 
island that bears his name in the lagoon of Etel (see p. 107) ; he 
built there a church of stone, and made a causeway connecting 
the island with the mainland. But his tarrying in Brittany was 
not for long. Not to be confounded with S. Cadog, son of 
Brychan, of Brecknock and Carmarthenshire. 

2 5 DwYNWEN, V. Anglesea and in Cornwall, beginning of 

^l/i cent. 

DwYNWEN was of the family of Brychan, king of Brecknock ; 
she is numbered among his daughters, but this means no more 
than that she was closely allied by descent in blood. She founded 
a church in Anglesey, and if, as is possible, she, like so many 
of her sisters, brothers, and kinsfolk, came to Cornwall, then 
she must have settled at Ludgvan or Llan-Dwynwen. By the 
Welsh bards she has been regarded as the patron-saint of true 
lovers. She and Maelon Dafodril fell desperately in love with 
each other, but when he paid his addresses to her, in a spirit 
of levity she flouted him, and he retired deeply offended, and 
spread ugly reports concerning her. She was greatly distressed, 
and prayed to be relieved of her passion. An angel appeared 
and administered to her some drops of a heavenly balm, and at 
once her heart was lightened of its love-sickness. Next the 
angel dosed Maelon, who was thereupon turned into a lump 
of ice. Dwynwen prayed, and God granted her three requests. 
For the first she asked that Maelon might be thawed ; for the 
second, that all who invoked her might obtain the husbands 
they desired or become indifferent to them ; and for the third, 
that the desire to marry might for ever depart from her. A 
gilded image of her stood at Llanddwynwen or Llanddwyn, in 
Anglesey. A maxim attributed to her is "Nothing wins hearts 
like cheerfulness," Another Cornish foundation of hers was 
perhaps Adwen, now Advent, but formerly Llan-Dwen. The 
date of S. Dwynwen is about 460. 



* 



*- 



176 



Lives of the Saints. [January 26-30 



* 



26 CONAN, B. Sodor^ A.D. 648. 

Theoritgytha, v. Barking, ']th cent. (L.). 

CoNAN, Bishop of Sodor, was the tutor of S. Fiacre. Little 
is known about him. 



27 



28 GiLDAS Badonicus, circa a.d. 570 (L.). 

29 GiLDAS the Younger, Ab. Brittany, circa 600. 
VoLOC or Macwoloc, Ab. B. Scotland, a.d. 724. 

VoLOC or Macwoix)C was a stranger to Alba, but to what 
nation he belonged is not told us. lie settled into a little hut 
of reeds and wattles, and led a life of great austerity. Possibly 
Voloc is the Irish Faelchu, and there was one of this name 
abbot of lona between 717 and 724, and it was under him that 
the Celtic tonsure was abandoned and the Roman was adopted. 

;o Peithian, V. Wales, 6th cent. 

Tybie, V.M. Wales, e^th cent. * 

Charles, K.M. England, a.d. 1649. 

Peithian, a daughter of Caw, and, like her sister Cwyllog 
(see under January 7), is buried in Anglesea. No churches 
are dedicated to her. 

TvBlE was a virgin of the family of Brychan, king of Breck- 
nock, and consequently of Irish origin. She is said to have 
been murdered by pagans about the middle of the fifth century. 
Brychan had a court at Llysbrycheiniog connected with the 
astounding fortified Cam Goch near Llandeilo, in the valley of 
the Towy. He attempted to extend his authority in the direc- 
tion of Morganwg and into Dyfed. It is probable that his 
encroachments met with resistance, and in a revolt or a riot 
Tybie was killed where now stands the church of Llandybie, 
near which is a farmhouse called Gelli Forwynion, " The Grove 
of the Virgins," where tradition says she and her sister, S. 
Lleian, and others lived. Her holy well is hard by. 



*- 



January 31.] Celtic atici EfigUsIi Kalcudar. 177 



31 Melangell, v. Wales, middle of 6th cent, {see May 27). 
Tyssul, C. Montgomeryshire and Cardiganshire, 6th cent. 
AiDAN or Maedoc, B. Ferns, in Ireland, circa a.d. 

632 (L.). 
WiLGis, C. Holderness, circa a.d. 700. 

Tyssul was the son of Corun, of the family of Cunedda, and 
he lived in the sixth century, and founded churches in Mont- 
gomeryshire and Cardiganshire. 

WiLGis was the father of S. Willibrord, Apostle of Friesland, 
and Archbishop of Utrecht. Wilgis, along with his whole 
family, led a pious, God-fearing life. Late on in life he 
retired to a headland on the banks of the Humber, beside a 
chapel dedicated to S. Andrew. The people of the neighbour- 
hood resorted to him, believing him to have the gift of working 
cures. A small community gathered about him, and formed a 
religious cell, that was afterwards a priory. The great Alcuin 
was at one time prior there, and he has left some account of the 
holy founder. He is venerated on this day at Echternach, but 
does not seem to have got into English kalendars. 

AlDAN, Bishop of Ferns. To the account given in the text 
may be added some characteristic stories. 

One day, as a boy, he kept sheep. Eight wolves approached, 
and he pitied them ; they were manifestly famishing, and he gave 
them eight wethers. As he returned home, driving his flock, his 
aunt appeared in the distance, a woman with a hard mouth, and 
not disposed to pass over the loss of eight wethers. So he cried 
to the Lord, and lo ! eight wethers appeared to take the place 
of those eaten. He was walking reading in the fields one day, 
when a poor stag that was being pursued by hunters fell on its 
knees before him. Aidan placed his book between the horns, 
and continued reading. The hunters drew off, not daring to 
kill the beast protected by the saint. He and S. Molass were 
great friends, and resolved to travel, if it might be, together. 
Then they set up two sticks in the ground, and watched which 
way they should fall. If together, they would be companions ; 
if not, each would go in the direction indicated by the fallen 
stick. The rod of Molass fell south, that of Aidan north. So 
they parted. Three boys were drowned in a tarn. Aidan was 
informed of it. He went to the lake, walked on the water till he 
saw the drowned boys at the bottom. Then he summoned them, 
and they rose like corks. He gave them to their mothers alive. 
VOL. XVI. M 



* 



178 Lives of the Saints. [Januakysi. 



Whilst he was a disciple of S. David, at Menevia, he incurred 
the anger of David for having left his book in the rain. David 
ordered him to prostrate himself on the seashore. Aidan obeyed, 
and David pardoned him, but forgot to tell him to rise. After- 
wards, in his monastery, David wondered at the absence of his 
disciple, and inquired where he was. Some told him he had 
been seen prostrate on the beach. Then he sent, and Aidan was 
found there. The tide had risen and flowed about him, and yet 
he would not stir till released by his master. A man was brought 
to Aidan, born without eyes and nostrils, his face a blank. 
Aidan blessed him, when suddenly eyes appeared and nostrils 
gaped. He was inspired with particular animosity against the 
Saxons, and attended the Britons in their fights, and cursed 
their enemies with the best possible effect. 

On his way back to Ireland, in a little boat, he arrived whilst a 
fight was going on, and the Irish king was slaughtering a number 
of pirates who had landed to ravage the land. Aidan began to 
rin^ his little hand-bell, and when the king heard the tinkle 
wafted over the waves, he desisted from the butchery, for he knew 
a holy man drew nigh, to whom such bloody acts were distasteful. 
Aidan was granted land in a lonely district. He was troubled 
with wolves, but, having a compassionate heart, he gave a calf 
to them one night that belonged to " two cows." Next day the 
cook came to him to say that the cows would not give their 
milk, and lowed, and were restless because they had lost their 
calf. Aidan bade the cook stoop, and he stroked and blessed 
his head, and bade him go to the cows and let them lick it well. 
The cook did so, and the cows were comforted ; "and," says 
the biographer, " the cows loved that cook like a calf." 

Aidan fasted on one occasion for fifty days and as many 
nights, and in return was granted his petition, that thenceforth 
whoever should sit in his seat would certainly go to heaven. 
One day he cursed a rock, and split it. 

A certain Saran had assassinated the King of Leinster. Aidan 
cursed him that his hand should fall off, and not recover it until 
he had been pardoned by the murdered man. So Saran lay down 
beside the cairn of the king, with crossed hands on his breast. 
After several nights, the dead man spoke from the sepulchre : 
"Saran, you brute 1 1 forgive you" (OSarane, brute, ignosciturtibi 
quod fecisti). When dead, a certain paralytic man was healed by 
rubbing himself with some spittle he collected from the dead lips. 
This is a fair specimen of the stuff that fills the " Lives" of 
Irish saints. 



*- 

February 1-4] Celtic uncl EfigUsk Kalendav. 179 



FEBRUARY 

1 KiNNEA or Cennea, v. Ireland, e^th cent. 
Crewenna, V. Cornwall, beginning of dtli cent. 
Bridget, V. Abss. Kildare, a.d, 525 (L.). 
Dardugdach, V. Kildare, a.d. 526 (L.). 
Seiriol, C. Anglesea [see January 2). 

Crewenna was one of the Irish virgins who came with 
Breaca, la, Senan, and others to Cornwall at the close of the 
fifth or beginning of the sixth century. She suffered martyrdom 
at Crowan. Unhappily nothing further is known concerning 
her. The cause of the martyrdom was that Tewdric, himself a 
Christian, objected to the Irish invasion of his land in Penwith, 
and its appropriation. 

2 Laurence, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 619 (L.). 

3 Meirion, C. Anglesea, 6th cent. 

Werburga, Abss. Hanbury, in Staffordshire, beginning 

8th cent. (L.). 
FoTHADH II., B. Scotland, a.d. 1093. 

Meirion was the son of Owain Danwyn and brother of 
Einion the king, and of S. Seiriol. {See Seiriol, yammry 2.) 

FOTHADH II. was the last bishop of St. Andrews of the old 
Celtic Church, and on his death in 1093, King Alexander 
appointed in his room Turgot, the confessor of Queen Margaret, 
and all the property and rights of the saintly clan passed over 
to the Church under Roman obedience. 

4 Aldate or Eldad, B.M. Gloucester, circa a.d. 5 So. 
MoDAN, Ab. Scotland, -jth cent. (L.). 

Gilbert of Sempringham, Ab. England, a.d. 1189 
(L.). 

Eldad or Aldate was the son of Ceraint, the son of Cara- 
nog. lie was descended from Cadell Deyrnllwg. He became 



► 4- 



i8o 



Lives of the Saints. [February s-O- 



-* 



Bishop of Caer Loew, or Gloucester, after having been trained 
in the school of S. Illtyd. In 577 occurred the disastrous 
battle of Deorham, attended with the capture of Bath and 
Gloucester, which fell into the hands of the West Saxons. The 
bishop was not driven out, but during some affray he was killed, 
about 580. 

5 Indract, Dominica, and Comp., MM. Glastonbury^ 

2>th cent. (L.) ; also May 8. 
RoNAN, B. Scotland, 2>th cent. 

RONAN is mentioned by Bede ; he died in 778 ; however, 
the Ulster annals give 737 (736). ^ngus calls him Bishop 
Ronan the kingly, and says that he lies in Lismore. But his 
name is best known in Scotland. There is some uncertainty as 
to his day, whether February 5, February 7, or February 9. 

6 Mael, Melchu, Mun, Rioch, BB, Ireland, end 0/ 

5//1 cent. 
Ina, K. West Saxons, circa a.d. 728 (L.). 

7 AuGULUS, B.M. London (L.). 
Meldan, B. Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 
Richard, K.C, a.d. 722 (L.). 

8 KiGWVE or CiWA, V. Wales, 6th or ^th cent. 
CuTHMAN, C. Steyning, in Sussex (L.). 
Elfleda, V. Abss. Whitby, a.d. 716 (L.). 

KiGWVE or Kywa is marked in the Exeter martyrology as 
commemorated on this day. She is probably the same as 
Ciwa, a sixth or seventh century saint who is venerated in 
Monmouthshire. 

9 EiNiON, C. Wales, beginning of 6th cent. 
Athracta, V. Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 

Teilo or Theliau, B. Llandaff, circa a.d. 566 (L.). 

EiNlON, the king, was of the family of Cunedda. This is a 
family that played an important part in Welsh history. Cunedda 



•r- 



* 



► ^- 



-►< 



February 9.1 Celtlc and EngUsk Kaletidar. i8i 



was a British ruler in North Britain, and was invited by the 
Welsh of Gwynedd to assist them against the Irish Goidels, 
who had possessed themselves of Mona and the greater part 
of North Wales. He sent his sons with their followers, and these 
sons, after expelling the Irish, possessed themselves of the lands 
they had released. This was soon after 409. Cardiganshire, 
Pembrokeshire, Carmarthen, as well as Gwynedd, were thus laid 
hold on and portioned up among the brothers. Some of the 
family became professional saints, that is to say, were con- 
stituted heads of ecclesiastical tribes. No less than fifty saints 
were reckoned as belonging to this family. Einion Frenhin, or 
the king, was prince over Lleyn, a division of Carnarvonshire. 
He founded Penmon, in Anglesea, and also a monastery in 
Bardsey. There was an inscribed stone in the tower of the 
church of Llanengan which he founded, and that bore his name, 
but it is of later date, and is now effaced. His death took 
place in the sixth century. 

Teilo. The strong spring that rises near the ruined church 
of Llandilo, at Penally, near Tenby, is a holy well of the saint. 
In the farmhouse hard by, Mr. Melchior, the tenant, preserves 
the skull that was shown and used before the Reformation as 
that of S. Teilo. He is the hereditary guardian of the relic. 
The skull, as now preserved, is imperfect, only the brain pan 
remaining. The open sutures prove that it must have been the 
head of a young person, and as S. Teilo is said to have died at 
an advanced age, it could not have belonged to him. More- 
over, a part of one superciliary ridge remains, and this is of 
slight elevation, so that it seems almost certain to have been 
part of a young woman's head. Patients drink the water of 
S. Teilo's Well out of his reputed skull, and many cures are 
recorded. 

At some time S. Teilo must have been in Cornwall and in 
Brittany, where he has left his stamp. In Burian is a chapel 
and a well of S. Dillo. The church of Landelleau, in the 
diocese of Quimper, honours him as patron, and claims to 
possess his relics. In the diocese of Dol his day was Novemr 
ber 29. Another church dedicated to him is S. Thelo, in the 
old Pagus of Goello, now a deanery in the diocese of S. Brieuc. 
Perhaps also Quillio, an adjoining parish on the opposite bank 
of the river Oust, may also be named after him. 

In the text nothing is said of his having been one of the first 
companions with David in the establishment of his monastery at 
Rosina, the spot now called S. David's. The Bretons say that 



1.82 Lives of the Saints. [February 10-12. 



10 



his migration to Armoiica was occasioned by the yellow plague, 
which wrought such devastation in Britain, and of which Mad- 
gwn Gwynedd died in 560. After the cessation of the plague 
they say that he returned to Wales. 



1 1 Ceadmon, Mk. Whitby, circa a.d. 680 (L.). 

12 RiocH, Ab. Brittany, 6th cent. 
Translation of S. Frideswide, V.M. Oxford. 
Ethelwold, B. Lindisfarne, a.d. 740 (L.). 

RiocH : according to the legend, there were two Armorican 
chieftains, named Neventer and Uerrian, who visited Palestine 
at the time when S. Helena was engaged on the search for the 
true Cross on Calvary. On their way home they came to Brezal, 
near Landerneau (Lann-Ternau), in Brittany, where they saw a 
man throw himself into the river. They hastened to rescue 
him, and found that his name was Elwrn, and that he was a 
chieftain. From him they learned that a ferocious dragon in- 
habited Brittany. The king, named Bristoc, who lived in a 
caer at Brest, had ordered that every Saturday lot should be 
cast among his nobles, and he on whom the lot fell was required 
to furnish one of his vassals as food for the dragon. The lot 
had fallen so often on Elwrn that he had given up all his sub- 
jects, and now was left alone, with only a wife and child of two 
years, and that, as the lot had again fallen to him, he had 
sought death in the river rather than see his child devoured. 
The two valiant men, Neventer and Derrian, offered to rid the 
country of the dragon if Elwrn would devote his son to religion. 
To this he gladly consented, and at once delivered up his two-year- 
old child to be educated to the ascetic life. The two brave men 
then went in quest of the dragon. Derrian threw his baldric 
round the monster, and bade the child, to whom the name 
of Rioch had been given, lead it to his father's castle. The 
monster was then thrown into the sea. At the age of fifteen 
Rice or Rioch retired from the world to a rocky islet in the 
parish of Camaret. 



-* 



*- 



February 13-16.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



183 



Fragan, father of S. Winwaloe, who settled at Plou-fragan, 
in the north of Armorica, visited the saint in his solitude, where 
he had lived on the islet for forty-four years, and he found him 
completely overgrown with red moss. This he scraped off, and 
found his skin fresh and white under it. Winwaloe took him 
from the island to Landewenec, where he died about 530. Cressy 
in his "Church History of Brittany" makes him a son of S. 
Darerca, "by nation a Briton, near kinsman to Patrick, by 
whom he was ordained a bishop in Ireland." But this is a dif- 
ferent person, a contemporary of Bishop ^dus, who died in 
5S9, and who visited Rioch in his monastery of Inis-bofinde, in 
Lough Ree. It is obvious that this abbot cannot have been the 
nephew of S. Patrick. There is confusion in the Irish accounts. 
There may have been two Riochs in Erin, but both must have 
been distinct from the Rioch of Brittany. 

13 Dyfnog, C Denbighshire^ ph cent. 

MoDOMNOC, C. Ossory, 6/h cent.; also October ii (L.). 
Erminild.\, Q. Abss. Ely, circa a.d. 700 (L.). 

Dyfnuc was the son of Medrawd, of the family of Caradog 
Freichfras. lie is not the patron of the church of Defynog, in 
Breconshire, as is generally believed, for that church is dedi- 
cated to S. Cynog, the son of Brychan. 

14 Nectan, B.M. Devon {see June 17). 

15 Berach, Ab. Ireland, circa a.d. 615 (L.) ; also on 

February 18. 
OswY, K. Northumbria, a.d. 670 ; see August 20 (L.). 

16 TuDA, B. Lindisfarne, a.d. 664. 

TuDA was one of those energetic Irish clergy who, after 
having travelled and been in Rome, enthusiastically embraced 
Roman usages, and laboured thenceforth to bring the Irish 
Church into conformity with Latin Christianity. He defiantly 
wore the semicircular tonsure, and his labours were in the south 
of Ireland, which was already nearly won to Roman customs, 
whereas in the north Celtic peculiarities remained. He was 



*- 



-* 



*- 



i84 



Lives of the Saints. (February 17-18. 



ordained bishop, and went into Northumbria, where S. Colman 
ruled, and observed the usages of his forefathers. When this 
latter saint, after the Council of Whitby, was forced to resign, 
because he would not submit, then Tuda was thrust into his 
place at Lindisfarne ; but he ruled there for a short time only. 
He died in or about 664. See further, under Colman, Feb- 
ruary 18. 



I 7 FiNTAN, Ab. Ireland, 6tli cent. (L.). 

LoMAN and Fortchern, BB. Ireland, ph cent. (L.). 
GuEVROC, Ab. Brittany, 6th cent, (see CvRiG, June 16). 
FiNAN, B. Lindisfarne, x.-D. 661 (L.). 



18 Colman, B. Lindisfarne, a.d. 676. 

Colman succeeded Finan as Bishop of Lindisfarne in 661. 
He was a Scot, and, like his predecessors, unyielding in his 
adherence to Celtic ecclesiastical usages. In the third year of 
his rule a synod was convened at Whitby. Oswy, the King of 
Northumbria, kept Easter according to Celtic custom, his wife, 
Queen Eanfleda, according to Roman computation. The differ- 
ence had arisen out of a mistake. The Roman Church had 
re-settled Easter at a time when the British Church was isolated 
through the invasion of the Saxons ; but the partisans of the 
Latin arrangement thought to humble the British Christians by 
heaping insulting epithets upon them, calling them quarto- 
decimans and schismatics. The chief advocates of the Roman 
usage were Agilbert, formerly Bishop of the West Saxons, and 
S. Wilfrid, whose arrogant and overbearing character has been 
described under the heading of his name (April 24). The prin- 
cipal supporter of the Celtic use was S. Colman. Wilfrid had 
the best of the argument, though he used intemperate language, 
and threw aspersions on the memory of a far nobler and better 
man than himself, the great Columba. Oswy settled the matter 
in these words : "You both acknowledge that it was not to 
Columba, but to Peter that the Lord said, ' To thee will I give 
the keys of the kingdom of heaven,' and I tell you that he is 
a doorkeeper whom I am unwilling to gainsay ; I desire to be 
obedient to his injunctions, lest, haply, when I come to the 
gates of the kingdom of heaven, there should be none to unlock 
to me, if he be out of humour who holds the keys." Oswy, in 



>*- 



-> < 



febkuary 19-22.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 185 



fact, may have felt twinges of conscience because he had mur- 
dered Oswin, and, in his mean soul, hoped to obtain admission 
into heaven by thus winning the favour of its doorkeeper. 

As Colman would not yield, he resigned his see of Lindis- 
farne ; in fact, he was forced to do so, and, accompanied by the 
whole of his Scottish brethren, and about thirty attached monks 
of Anglican nationality, carrying the bones of S. Aidan, the 
apostle of the Northumbrian Church, he retired to lona. It 
may have been that the house at lona was unable permanently 
to maintain so large an addition to the community as was thus 
suddenly thrust upon it. At any rate, before long Colman 
removed with his monks to Ireland, and settled them in Innis- 
bofifin, the "island of the white heifer," situated two or three 
miles off the nearest point of the coast of Mayo, exposed to the 
storms and rollers of the Atlantic. After a while dissensions 
broke out between the Irish and English monks, the latter com- 
plaining that the Irish shirked the work of harvest by leaving 
the island in autumn to visit their friends. Colman solved the 
difficulty by buying a piece of land from a chief on the main- 
land, and building a monastery there for his Englishmen. This 
latter became an important settlement, and was known as Mayo 
of the Saxons. 

Colman remained at Innisboffin till his death, which took 
place in 676. 

ig Odran, M. Ireland^ circa a.d. 451 (L.). 

BiLFRiD, H. Lindisfarne, a.d. 756 (^see Balther and 
BiLFRED, March 6). 

20 Olcan, B. Ireland, circa a.d. 500 (L.). 

Mildred, V. Abss. Thanet, circa a.d. 700 (L.). 
WuLFRic, P.H. Haselbiiry, in Dorsetshire, a.d. 1154 
(L.). 



21 



22 Elwyn or Allen, C. Cormvall and Wales, circa a.d, 
420 (^see January 13). 



-»** 



1 86 Lives of the Saints. [February 23-24 



23 Earcongotha, v. Abss. Faremouticrs, end of ^th cent 

(L.). 
MiLBURGA, V. Abss. Wcnlock, in Shropshire, ph cent. 

(L.). 
BoiSiL, Ab. Melrose {see January 23). 
JuRMiN, C. Bury St. Edmunds, circa a.d. 750. 

JURMIN was of the royal family of East Anglia, and is said 
by some writers to have been a son of King Anna, but more 
probably his parents were Ethelhere, the brother of Anna, and 
S. Hereswytha, the sister of S. Hilda. No particulars of his 
life are recorded, but his bones were translated to Bury St. 
Edmunds. William of Malmesbury calls him Germinus, and 
says that he could learn nothing concerning him. 

24 CUMINE the White, Ab. lona, circa a.d. 668. 
Ethelbert, K. Kent, a.d. 616 (L.). 

Liuthard, B. at Canterbury, 'jth cent., see February 24 
(L. p. 409), also May 7. 

CuMiNE the White, also called Cummian, was trained in the 
Columbian monastery of Durrow, in Queen's County. He went 
thence to lona, with the abbots of which he was related by 
blood. He abandoned the Celtic party with regard to the 
Paschal controversy, and sent an epistle to the Abbot Segnius 
of lona from the place to which he had retired, Disart-Chiamin, 
on the question. This epistle is a wonderful monument of 
Irish learning in that age, and at the same time throws much 
light on the events of the time. In it he refers to S. Patrick as 
"papa noster." He mentions names of saints now become 
shadows— Ailbe of Emly, Kieran of Clonmacnois, and Brendan 
of Clonfert. And he puts the matter of controversy neatly 
thus : " What can be thought worse concerning the Church, our 
mother, than that we should say Rome errs, Jerusalem errs, 
Alexandria errs, the whole world errs — the Scots and Britons 
alone know what is right.'' He ridicules the claim of the Celts to 
set up for themselves, for, says he, " What are they but a pimple 
on the chin of the world." He wrote a Life of S. Columba, and 
in spite of his opposition to the Celtic use with regard to Easter, 
on the death of Suibhne (Segnius) was elected abbot of lona. 
He died in 668. 



* 



mar'V°] Celtic and English Kalendar. 187 

25 Walburga, v. Abss. Heidenheim, circa a.d. 780 (L.). 

26 Tyfaelog, C. Brecknockshire and Carmarthenshire, 6th 

cent. 

Tyfaelog was a son of S. Giklas, and grandson of Caw. He 
founded churches in Brecknockshire and Carmarthenshire. 

27 Alnoth, H.M. Stowe, in Northamptonshire, circa a.d. 

727 (L.). 

28 Llibio, C. Anglesea, 6th cent. 

Llibio was one of the sons of .Seithenin, who, with his 
brothers, after the overwhelming of the plain of Gwyddno by 
the sea in the sixth century, became saints in Dunawd's monas- 
tery of Bangor, by the banks of the Dee. 



MARCH 

David, B. Menevia, in Wales, circa a.d. 562 (L.). 

MoNAN, C. Ireland, a.d. 571. 

Marnan or Marnock, B. Scotland, a.d. 625. 

MoNAN, Archd. St. Andrews, circa 874 (L.). 

Sannan or Senanus, Ab. Ireland {see March 8). 

Daviu. The beautiful shrine of .S. David remains intact in 
the choir of the cathedral. A recent discovery is of great 
interest. During the restoration of the lady chapel and ambula- 
tory, between it and the choir a recess was discovered behind 
the high altar, walled up and plastered over, that contained 
human bones. This recess was formerly lighted by a beautifully 
worked and ornamented small circular Norman window opening 
into the church, about four feet above the floor. There can 
exist little doubt that these relics were those of the patron saint, 
which could be seen and touched through the \xny fntestella 
confessionis. At the Reformation it was plastered over and 
concealed. The relics on their discovery were placed in a box 



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k 4- 



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i88 



Lives of the Saints. 



[March 2 



and buried in the churchyard. They certainly ought to have 
been placed in the empty tomb in the choir ; but those who 
made the discovery were not at all aware what the signification 
of the position of the bones was, and consequently whose they 
were. His death is variously placed at 544, 562, and 601. 

MoNAN or MoiNEN was suffragan-bishop to S. Brendan of 
Clonfert. He is spoken of as tall and fair, and he is in all 
likelihood the same Monan who came with S. Brendan to 
Clonfert when quite a youth ; he afterwards went, according 
to Scottish tradition, to Fife, but the Scottish legend concerning 
him is fabulous. 

Marnan or Marnock was a bishop in Scotland, and is 
thought to have been the same with Ernans, a boy who sought 
to touch S. Columba's garment at Clonmacnois, and whose 
future greatness was predicted by the saint. But in the Irish 
calendars his commemoration is on August 18. Formerly it 
was customary to wash the head of the saint at Aberkerdner 
every Saturday, and give the water to be drunk by those who 
were sick and suffering. His death took place about 625. 

Fergna the White, B. Scotland, a.d. 622. 
GwRTHWL, C Brecknockshire and Carmarthenshire, un- 
certain date. 
Chad, B. Lichfield, a.d. 672 (L.). 
JoAVAN, Ab. B. Brittany, circa a.d. 553 (L.). 

Fergna the White was an Irishman, and a kinsman of S. 
Columba, and from his earliest youth he was under his direction 
at lona. He returned to Ireland, and dwelt at Clon-genevil till 
the death of Columba, which was miraculously communicated 
to him. Upon this he went to Scotland, and led a hermit-life, 
first in one island then in another. He was afterwards made 
abbot of lona, and was a bishop. He died in 677. 

JOAVAN, whose life is given in the text, was son of a sister of 
S. Pol de Leon, or Paulus Aurelianus, and was grandson of 
Porphius (Porphyrins ?) Aurelianus, probably a Romano-British 
family. His brother is called in the legends Tinidor, but this 
is Tighernach-daor. He was with his uncle at the college of 
S. lUtyd, at Lantwit Major, but seems to have been much in 
Ireland, and his father appears to have been settled there. He 
followed his uncle Paul to Brittany, and became abbot of 
Daouglas, where two abbots, Judulus and Tadec, had been 



><- 



if, 

March 3.] Celtu and English Kakfidar. 1 89 

murdered by a petty noble called Fao. He succeeded in con- 
verting this chieftain, and baptized him. When S. Paul resolved 
to surrender his bishopric and abbacy at Leon, Joavan was 
chosen as his successor, but held the bishopric and abbacy for 
a year only, and died in or about 553. 

On the ground of Joavan or Jaovan being supposed to be 
Irish, Colgan has admitted him among the saints of the island 
on March 2, the day on which he is venerated in Brittany. 

3 NoN, Mother of S. David, W. Wales and Cornwall, 
circa a.d. 540. 
WiNWALOE, C. Brittany and Cornwall and Wales, 6th 
cent. (L.). 

NoN or NoNNiTA, the mother of S. David. She was the daugh- 
ter of Cynr of Caer Gawch, a rude fortified camp on one of the 
headlands of S. Davids. He was but a petty chief. Ceredi- 
gion or Cardigan lay to the north, governed by Sandde, grand- 
son of Ceredig, of the house of Cunedda, who gave his name 
to the district. Sandde happening one day to see Non in the 
fields, seduced her. 

She retired to a little dwelling near Forth Cleis, on the slope 
of the downs, above the purple crags that plunge into the sea. 
Here was a pleasant spring, and here, facing the sun, she 
remained till she bare a child, which was in the midst of a 
thunderstorm. It is told that in her pains she lay under a great 
standing stone, a menhir, and that this was split by the lightning, 
and one portion was whirled over her head and fell and planted 
itself erect at her feet. Yet she was in no way injured. She 
had leaned her hands against the stone, and left the impress on 
them in the hard rock. This stone was afterwards laid as the 
foundation of the altar, when a chapel was erected on the spot. 
This chapel remains, and is ruinous. It points north and south, 
and has an early incised cross on the east side. The lower 
portion of the south wall is of very rude and primitive masonry, 
to the height of about six feet, built without mortar. Were the 
rubbish cleared away and this interesting chapel excavated, the 
marvellous stone with the impress of her hands " like wax " 
might be found. 

When S. David was born he was taken to Forth Cleis, where 
he was baptized by the Bishop Beluc in a well that is still known 
as the place where S. David was made a member of the kingdom 
of (jod. 

^ ^ 



190 Lives of ike Saifits. [Marchs. 



The Lives of S. David expressly tell us that his mother was 
outraged ])y violence, and that otherwise "she continued in 
chastity of body and mind, and led a most faithful life." 

We know very little more of her. It would seem that she 
accompanied her son on his journey at least to Cornwall and 
Devon, for we have there two churches of her foundation, 
Altarnun and Bradstone. At the former was a marvellous well 
that fed a tank into which mad persons were precipitated back- 
wards, and this was believed to recover them. The tank is now 
filled, and the spring has drained away at a lower level. At 
this place there was a sanctuary attached to her foundation. 
Not far away is Davidstowe, a church under the invocation of 
her famous son. 

At Bradstone is a large slab, the quoit of a cromlech, the sup- 
ports of which have been removed. A local tradition says that 
she was martyred on this stone by the Druids, but there is no 
authority to support this story. What is possible is, that she may 
have been instrumental in the destruction of this monument. 

At S. Cuby, in Cornwall, is an interesting inscribed stone in 
the foundation of the tower bearing the names of Nonnita, 
Ercilius, and Virigatus, but it can have no relation to our saint. 
Owing to her name being Non or Nonna, the notion grew up that 
she was by profession a nun, who had been violated by Sandde, 

Where Welsh history fails us, there Breton legend takes up 
and completes the story. 

According to the miracle play of S. Nonna, which was at one 
time extant at Dirinon, a parish in Brittany, of which .S. Non is 
patroness, and where this Hreton play was at one time annually 
performed, the mother of S. David was also named Melaria. She 
crossed over from Cornwall to Brittany, and found a retreat at 
Dirinon, where she remained to her death. There the rock is 
shown on which she was wont to kneel in prayer, till she had 
left therein the impress of her knees. In the church is her tomb 
of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, representing her tramp- 
ling on a dragon, and holding a book in her hands. Dirinon is 
near Lanternau, south of the Elorn River ; on the opposite bank 
is S. Divy, dedicated to her illustrious son. 

WiNVVALOE must have founded several churches in Corn- 
wall. He is patron of Landewednac and Tremaine, Tresmere, 
Gunwallo, and he had a chapel at Cradock, in S. Cleer. 

His connection with Cornwall is due to this, that he was the 
son of Fragan and Gwenteirbron. Fragan was cousin of Cado, 
" King of Britain," and Fragan fled to Armorica in the latter 
part of the fifth century. According to Welsh genealogies, the 



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MARCH4.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 191 



husband of Gwenteirbron was ^neas Lydewig, and by him she 
was mother of S. Cadfan. Fragan must have been a second 
husband. His kinsman Cado was the Duke of Cornwall, son of 
Geraint, who fell at Llongborth. This being the case, he was 
probably son of Erbyn, Prince of Devon, who died about 480. 
Winwaloe's cousin would accordingly be S. Selyf or Solomon, 
Duke of Cornwall, and also of Breton Cornouaille, and he would 
be akin to S. Cybi. This relationship at once explains the 
numerous foundations of Winwaloe in Cornwall. At Gun- 
walloe his holy well is choked with drift sand. There his 
feast is on the last Sunday in April. In Devon the parish 
church of Portlemouth is dedicated to him, under the name of 
S. Onolaus. 



4 GiSTLlAN, C. IFaks, e^th cent. 

Owen, Mk. Lastingham, end of 'jth cent. (L.). 
Adrian, B.M. St. Andrews and Comp., MM. Scotland, 
circa a.d. 870 (L.). 

GiSTLiAN was a son of Cynyr of Caer Gawch, a chief who 
occupied a walled caer or fortress on one of the porphyry and 
purple-red Cambrian headlands above S. David's Head, the 
remains of which stronghold are visible to this day. Gistlian 
was brother of Non, mother of S. David, and of Gwen, mother 
of S. Cybi. Gistlian, or Justlianus, established a monastery at 
Hen Fynyw, which was the old Roman Minevia, the site of 
which has not been determined with accuracy, but which is 
probably covered by the sands that are heaped up in the lap of 
Whitsand Bay, and are overrun with low growing yellow roses. 
To this point the old Roman road, the Via Julia, leads, but so 
far no traces of the ancient settlement have been discovered. 
Here Gistlian ruled as abbot and bishop. When S. David 
arrived in Menevia, after having been trained by Paul Hen, or 
" the Aged," and had founded churches in many places, he saw in 
vision an angel, who informed him that old Menevia, or "The 
Bush," was not a suitable site for a monastery, for that from it 
scarce one in a hundred would be saved, whereas the glen of the 
Alun, the Glyn Rhosyn, was so good, that every one buried in its 
cemetery would be certain to oljtain mercy. This he related to 
his uncle, who thereupon shifted his quarters to the more favoured 
spot. If we translate this marvellous story into plain English, 
we should say that common-sense had spoken to S. David, and 



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192 Lives of the Saints. [Marchs. 

told him that it would be far better to establish a college in a 
sheltered valley, where there was good soil with abundant water, 
than on the edge of the sea, exposed to the furious gales from 
the west, where the sand was ever shifting, the soil was naught, 
and there was no spring water. Gistlian died in the sixth century. 

5 KiERAN OF Saigir, B. Ossory, in Ire/and and Corn- 
wall, circa a.d. 552 (L.). 
Jacut, Gwethenoc, Abbs., and Creirwy, V. Brittany, 

6th cent. 
Caron, B. Cardiganshire. 

KiERAN. The oratory and cell of the saint, which were over- 
whelmed with sand many centuries ago, were discovered and 
dug out in 1835 by Mr. William Michell of Comprigney, near 
Truro. A description, accurate and precise, of the church as 
found by him is printed in Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph's 
" Register of Bishop Grandisson " (Lond., 1897, p. 608). In 1844 
the Rev. William Haslam, then curate in charge of the parish, 
published a book, in which he gave an account of its " discovery 
and restoration." Previous to this the Rev. C. Collins Trelawny 
published " Perranzabulo : the Lost Church Found," which went 
through seven editions (1837-72). Neither of these writers saw 
the church in its original state, and owed much to Mr. Michell's 
account. In 1880 Mr. Haslam returned to the subject, in a book 
entitled " From Death to Life," and quietly appropriated the 
discovery to himself. Not only did Mr. Haslam do this, but he 
undertook mischievous " restoration," that is to say, adaptations 
to his own fancies. The altar was found north and south. Mr. 
Haslam, taking it for the tombstone of S. Kieran, erected it east 
and west over the body of the saint, and placed a new granite 
slab on top, inscribed S. Piranus, Three skeletons had been 
found by Mr. Michell, with their feet only under the altar. Mr. 
Haslam pretended to have discovered the skeleton of S. Piran 
himself. Small reliance can be placed on his statements ; the 
only trustworthy account is that by Mr. Michell, which must be 
read where indicated. 

Jacut, Gwethenoc, and Creirwy, according to the legen- 
dary life of S. Gwenoleus or Winwaloe, were born in one day of 
one mother, S. Gwen. Their father was Fragan or Brychan, 
but not he of Brecknock. This couple migrated to Armorica 
from Britain at the close of the fifth century The three 




SAINT GUENN AND HER THREE SONS. 

Monument in Brittany, 
Appendix Vol., p. 192.] 



[March 5. 



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March 6-7] Celtic mid EngHsJi Kalendav. 193 

brothers, Jacut, Gwethenoc, and Winwaloe were educated by 
S. Budoc. Their names are not known in Wales, but 
they are famous in Brittany. Their mother had three breasts, 
and she was able to suckle all three simultaneously. Some 
curious representations remain of the three -breasted Gwen. 
When grown to man's estate the brothers retired into solitary 
places, and Jacut and Gwethenoc found rest for their souls 
in the island of Landouart. The ancient kalendar of S. Meen 
gives March 3 as the feast of S. Jacut, but in the dioceses 
of S. Brieuc and Dol he was commemorated on March 5. 
Creirwy was the sister, and she also led a solitary life. Jacut, 
along with Winwaloe, was a disciple of S. Corentin. One day 
when Creirwy was driving geese out of the yard one of the birds 
flew at her, pecked out and swallowed her eye. Winwaloe 
killed the goose, opened its crop, took out and replaced the eye, 
and his sister thenceforth saw as well as before. A more famous 
brother than Winwaloe was S. Cadfan ; but the Welsh accounts 
give yEneas Lydewig as the husband of Gwen of the Three 
Breasts, and not Fragan. It is, however, possible that Gwen- 
tierbron was twice married, and that Cadfan was son by one 
husband, and the three commemorated to-day were by the other, 
as also S. Winwaloe. 

Caron, a bishop, who founded the church of Tregaron, in 
Cardiganshire. His date is unknown. 

6 Translation of SS. Kyneburga, W. Abss., Kynes- 
wiTHA, V. Abss., and Tibba, F. ai Peterboroxigh, 
end of 1th cent. (L.). 
Balther and Baldred, H.H. Thtingham, in North- 
umberland, A.D. 756 (L.). 



7 Deifer, Diheifyr, or Dihaer, C. Flintshire, 6fh cent. 
Easterwin, Ab. Monkswearmouth, a.d. 686. 

Deifer, Diheifyr, or Dihaer was a son of Arwystli 
Gloff, or "the Lame." His brother was Tyfrydog, and his 
sister S. Marchell, foundress of the cell that became later the 
abbey of Strata Marcella. They belong to the sixth century. 
He founded Bodfari, in Flintshire. 

Easterwin, r kinsman of Benedict Biscop, became a monk 
of Wearmouth, and although of noble blood, he held the plough, 
VOL. XVI. N 



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194 Lives of the Saints. [Marchs-h. 

and worked in the mill and at the forge. He had an open, 
pleasant countenance. Whilst Benedict was away, Easterwin 
ruled the establishment. He was seized with his last sickness 
whilst Benedict was in Rome, and he died in 686. 

8 Senan of Inniscathy, B. Ireland, circa a.d. 546 (L.). 
Rhian, Ab. Pembrokeshire, date imcertain. 
Felix, B. Dunwich, a.d. 654 (L.). 
DuTHAC, B. Ross, A.D. 1 253 (L.). 

Senan. In the text I have said that I suspected that the 
S. Sane venerated in Brittany, at Plouzane, was a different person 
from the Bishop of Inniscathy. I no longer hold this opinion. 
I think that there can be little doubt that the S. Sennen who 
built a church at Land's End, Cornwall, was Senan of Innis- 
cathy. The Breton legend clearly identifies the abbot who 
settled at Plouzane with this famous Irish saint, and he is com- 
memorated in Brittany on the same day as in Ireland. The 
church of S. Senan, at the Land's End, is dedicated to him ; so, 
perhaps, was Zennor, but it is reputed to be named after a 
female saint, Senara. 

Rhian is called by William of Worcester {Kin. p. 164) " S. 
Ranus, abbas " ; and by Leland {Itin. v. 29) " S. Reanus, abbas." 
He lived in Pembrokeshire, where he founded Llanrhian. 

9 CoNSTANTiNE, K.M. Comwall ; also March 11 {see 
below). 

BoSA, B. Northnmbria, a.d. 705 (L.). 
Merin, tth cent., see January 6, and Gwynhoedl, 
January i. 

10 Kessog or Makessog, B. Ireland and Scotland, 6th 
cent. (L.). 

Failbhe the Little, Ab. lona, a.d. 754. 

Failbhe the Little, abbot of lona from 747 to 754, died at 
the age of eighty. 

1 1 Constantine, K.M. Cornwall and Scotland, circa A.D. 
576 or 600 (L.); see also March 24. 

ujEngus of Keld, B. Ireland, circa a.d. 824 (L.). 



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March 12-15.] 



Celtic and Eiiglish Kalendar. 



195 



13 Paul, B. Leon, in Brittany, a.d. 573 (L.). 

Gregory the Great, Pope, Rome, a.d. 604 (L.). 
MuRAN, Ab. Fathinnis, Ireland, circa a.d. 650 (L.). 
Alphege the Bald (the Elder), B. a.d. 951; also 
September i. 

Paul, Bishop of L^on, The Life by Wrmonoc has been 
published by Dom. Plaine in the Analecta Bollandiana, 1882, 
vol. i. pp. 208-58, and by M. Charles Cuissard in La Rcviie 
Celtiqite, vol. v. (1S83), the first from a Paris, the second from a 
Fleuri codex, and this is a great acquisition, as the Life given in 
the Bollandists was unsatisfactory. Wrmonoc wrote in 884, but 
admits that he had an earlier life to go upon. 

Paul's father was Porphius, a Romanised Briton, and he was 
born at Cowbridge, in Glamorganshire. He had eight brothers 
and three sisters. Among the latter was Sativola or Sidwell. 
We learn the names of the rest from other sources, S. Wulvella 
and S. Jutwara. 

In Cornwall he founded Paul's, near Penzance, and he is also 
patron of Ludgvan. Between these two churches is Gulval, of 
which his sister Wulvella is patroness. 

13 MoCHOEMOG, Ab. Liathmor, Ireland, middle ph cent. 
(L.). 
Kennotha, V. Scotland. 
Gerald, Ab. B. Mayo, circa a.d. 700. 

Kennotha or Kevoca is really Caomhan or Mocoemog, 
Abbot of Liathmor, in Tipperary. The history of the life of 
this saint having been lost in Scotland, by a curious blunder 
he was converted into a female virgin saint, and as such appears 
in Scottish calendars. 



14 



15 CoNLAETH, B. Sodor, circa 520. 

CONLAETH was the hermit selected by S. Bridget to be her 
chief artist, and she associated him with herself in the govern- 
ment of her monasteries. She set him to read aloud to her 



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196 Lives of tlie Saints. [March 16-17. 



nuns whilst they were at their meals. He is variously called 
Conlaith, Conlaed, and Conlian. ' He was a bishop, and he 
drove in his chariot to call on S. Bridget, when she was so 
pleased with his piety that she retained him. He became first 
bishop of Kildare. This can hardly have been before 490. He 
is thought to have died about 520. 



16 CoLUMBA, V.M. Cornwall (L.). 

FiNAN the Leper, Ab. Swords and Innisfathen, Ireland, 

circa a.d. 610. 
Boniface Quiritine, B. Ross, in Scotland, yl/i 

cent. (L.). 

FiNAN or Finian the Leper was born in Ireland, in Ely 
O'Carrol, and of an illustrious family. Being desirous of perfec- 
tion, he took on himself the leprosy of a child who came to him to 
be cured, and sent the child away healed. He became a disciple 
of S. Columba. He was most desirous to visit Rome, but was 
forbidden by the saint. Thereupon Columba, to mitigate the 
disappointment of the man, bade him lay his head in his lap. 
Finan did so, and when he awoke was able to give a graphic 
description of the Eternal City, which he had visited in dream. 
Maggots bred in his sores, and these he termed his good mates ; 
but after thirty years he was cured. 

Whether Finan, who was abbot of Swords, is the same as 
Finan the disciple of Columba, is doubtful. Two other monas- 
teries are attributed to him, Innisfathen and Ardfinan, " the 
high place of Finan," in Tipperary. But almost certainly these 
are quite distinct persons. The disciple of Columba died about 
575, and the Abbot of Swords is held not to have died till later. 
According to the legend of Finan or Fintan Munnu of Taghmon 
(see October 21, L. ) this saint was also a leper. The Irish saints 
seem to have passed on their complaints as well as the miracles 
they wrought from one to another. Fintan died in 625. 

17 Patrick, Ap. Ireland, a.d. 465 (L.). 
Becan, H. lona, a.d. 675. 

Withburga, V. Dereham and Ely, a.d. 743; also 
July 8 (L.). 



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March 18-22.] CcUic aud EngUsk Kaleudiir. 197 



1 8 FiNNiAN or Frigidian, of Moville, in Ireland, B. Lucca, 

A.D. 589 (L.). 
CoMMAN, C. Tyrconnel, a.d. 688. 
Edward, K.M. Wareham, a.d. 978 (L.). 

19 Cynbryd, M. Denbighshire, $th cent. 
Lactean, Ab. Ireland, a.d. 622 (L.). 
Alkmund, M. Derby, a.d. 800 (L.). 
Clement, B. Dunblane, a.d. 1258. 

Cynbryd, one of the many reputed sons of Brychan. He 
founded the church of Llanddulas, Denbighshire, and was slain 
near it by the Saxons at a place called Bwlch Cynbryd, or 
Cynbryd's Pass. 

Clement, Bishop of Dunblane, introduced the Dominican 
order into Scotland. He had received the habit at the hands 
of Dominic himself. Fordun tells us that he was a famous 
preacher, and that he had great facility in acquiring languages, 
also that he was a man mighty in word and deed before God 
and man. He found the church in Dunblane in a deplorable 
condition of neglect. It had been impoverished by his pre- 
decessor, and the divine mysteries were celebrated in the cathe- 
dral only thrice a week, like a country chapel. He laboured 
to restore the dignity of divine worship, and to rebuild his 
cathedral. 

20 CUTHBERT, B. Lindis/anie, A.D. 687 (L.). 
Herbert, H.P. Derwentwater, a.d. 687 (L.). 

21 Enda, Ab. Aranmore, circa a.d. 540 (L.). 



22 



Failbhe I., Ab. lona, a.d. 679. 

Thomas of Lancaster, M. Pontefract, a.d. 131 i (L.). 

Failbhe I. was of the noble race of Conall Gulban, in 
Tyrconnel. Finan, Abbot of Rath, was his brother, and lona 
was recruited from this stock ; the headship of the abbey was 



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198 



Lives of the Saints. [March 23-24. 



for long hereditary in the family of Columba. Failhhe became 
abbot on the death of Cumin in 66S, and was succeeded by 
Adamnan in 679. He twice revisited Ireland, probably in 
connection with the Paschal controversy. 

23 FiNGAR or GwiNGAR, M., and Piala, V.M. Cornwall, 

circa a.d. 520 (L.). 
MoMHAEDOC, Ab. Ireland, circa a.d. 600. 
Ethelwold, H. Fame, circa a.d. 723 (L.). 

Fingar and Piala. Fingar is also known as Gwingar or 
Wyncar. In Brittany he is commemorated on December 14. 
Not only does a parish bear his name, but also a chapel in the 
cathedral of Vannes, and another at Pluvigner, where some of 
his relics are preserved. His festival is observed as a double ; 
and he is regarded in Brittany as having been a bishop. S. 
Piala, his sister, was the original patroness of Phillack, in Corn- 
wall. Later clerics changed the dedication to S. Felicitas. 

In the text I have said that the Theodoric of the Acts is 
probably Corotic, but it is more probable that he was the 
Tewdric, a petty prince of Cornwall, who appears repeatedly 
as a tyrant. Tewdric had his Lis or Court in S. Kevern parish, 
and a palace on the Fal, as we learn from the Acts of S. Kea, 
at a place now called Goodern (Gwydd-tiern). If Tewdric were, 
as I suspect, the son of Budic of Domnonia, then his date would 
be about 510-26. 

24 CoNSTANTiNE, K.M. Cornwall and Scotland, circa 600 ^ 

see below, and March 11 (L.). 
DoMANGART, of SHcve Donart, B. Ireland (L.). 
HiLDELiTHA, V. Abss. Barking, circa a.d. 720 (L.). 
DuNCHAD or DoNATUS, Ab. lona, a.d. 716; also 

May 25. 

CoNSTANTiNE. According to the legend, he was son of 
Padarn, King of Cornwall, but this is a mistake of the Latin 
scribe. His father was Cador,^ Duke of Cornwall, reputed to 

1 Cadwr mny have become Padwr, ju=;t as the Goidelic Cieran became the 
Biythonic I'ieran, and the monkisli writer latinised Padwr into Paternus. 



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,^- 



■m 



March 241 Ccltic and EugHsh Kalcndar. 1 99 



be a cousin of the renowned King Arthur. 
"Metrical Chronicle," says — 



Harding, in his 



" Duke Cador's sone, of Cornwall bounteous, 
Afore had been one of the table rounde 
In Arthures time." 

It is pretended, but this is mere fable, that after Arthur had re- 
ceived his death-wound on the field of Camlan he nominated 
Constantine to be his successor, and the British forces continued 
for several years under his command to make stubborn resistance 
to the Saxons. It was against him that Gildas launched his 
ferocious letter in 547. He styles him, " the tyrannical whelp 
of the unclean lioness of Devon." Why he should have cast 
this insulting epithet at the mother of Constantine is not known. 
Her name is unrecorded, but it was part and parcel of Gildas' 
manner to throw dirt against every one, especially such as were 
of his own race and family. He accused Constantine of murder 
and sacrilege, because he had killed two youths who had taken 
sanctuary. The traditional account of the circumstance is as 
follows : — The youths were the sons of Mordred, who laid claim 
to the throne and stirred up rebellion against him, and made 
common cause with the Saxon foe. After several battles the 
rebels were defeated and put to flight. One of the youths fled 
to Winchester, and took refuge there in the church of S. Amphi- 
bahis, but was killed by Constantine before the altar. The 
other escaped to London, was captured in a monastery, and put 
to death. That there is a foundation for this legend is probable 
enough ; in fact, Gildas shows that Constantine did kill two 
youths, kinsmen, and it is probable enough that he was justi- 
fied in so doing. They were traitors to the national cause. 
What angered Gildas was, not that they were put to death, but 
that they were put to death sacrilegiously. Gildas says : " Not 
one worthy act could he boast of previous to this cruel deed ; 
for many years before he had stained himself with . . . many 
adulteries, having put away his wife. For he had planted in the 
ground of his heart a bitter scion of incredulity and folly, . . . 
watered with his vulgar domestic impieties," &c. Not much 
weight can be placed on the words of this scurrilous writer, 
matched only by the coarse and indecent pamphleteers of the 
later Georgian age ; but we may allow that Constantine was 
not a very virtuous prince. 

In 588 or 589 he was converted, according to the Irish and 
Cambrian Annals. 



iii,- 



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a^ _ 

200 Lives of the Saints. (March24. 

The story of his conversion is told in the Life of S. Petroc.^ 
Constantine was hunting near Bodmin, when the stag he was 
pursuing fled to the hermit's cell, and took refuge at his 
feet. Constantine coming up, purposed to kill the stag, but 
his purpose failed when he saw how that the innocence and 
holiness of the solitary were recognised even by dumb animals. 
He entered into himself, and repented of his disorderly life. 
(See the story in the Life of Constantine, March ii, p. 214.) 
But, on the other hand, we are told that the real motive of the 
conversion of Constantine was grief at the death of his wife. 
This does not agree with what Gildas says ; but it is not im- 
probable that he may have been reconciled to his wife after a 
temporary separation, and have loved her better then than he 
did before. The Aberdeen Breviary informs us that this was 
the true motive of his conversion, and, further, that his wdfe was 
an Armorican Princess. 

So completely did he sever himself from the world, that it 
was supposed by some that he had been murdered by Conan, 
his successor. 

But he retired to a cell on the sands in the parish of S, 
Merryn, near Padstow, where was a well, and where he could 
be near Petroc, through whom he had been brought to the 
knowledge of himself. S. Cadoc may have been hard by at the 
time; he was a Welshman, and Petroc possibly may have com- 
mitted to him the direction of the contrite old king. The other 
churches founded by Constantine are one in the deanery of 
Kerrier, on a creek of the Helford River, and Milton Abbot, in 
Devon, on the Tamar. These were probably dedicated by him 
before his conversion, as we do not hear of him having been 
long in Cornwall after this event. Had he continued in his 
native land, moving from place to place, the rumour that he 
was dead could hardly have spread. At the same time, it is 
possible that after having resided a while in S. Merryn he 
went to the Helford estuary, settled there for a while, and then, 
as Conan, prince in his room, objected to his presence in Corn- 
wall, he moved across the Tamar into Devon, and then, that 
being inconvenient, he betook himself to Menevia, and placed 
himself under the direction of S. David. In the Life of S. David 
we read that Constantine, on his conversion, came to the monas- 
tery in Menevia, "and submitted his stubborn neck, which had 
never before been bridled, to the yoke of humility in the cell of 

1 I assume that the Constantine of the Life of S. Petroc is one with the King 
of Cornwall. 



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March 24.] 



Celtic and Ens' lis h Kalendar. 



201 



this father, and there he remained a long time performing faithful 
service." It is difficult to reconcile dates h^re, as David died 
before this. 

From Wales he removed to Ireland, "and there for the love 
of Christ," relates Hector Boece, "he laboured for some time in 
the service of a miller, disguised as a poor man, till at length he 
was induced by a monk, to whom he made himself known, 
to shave his head, and devote himself to a religious life in a 
monastery, where he lived with such piety and devotion, that 
he became a pattern of all virtues to the rest of the monks, 
and, after some time, was sent by the bishop of that place to 
instruct the people of Scotland in the faith of Christ." There 
he founded the church of Govan, on the Clyde, and was buried 
there. 

Doubts have been cast on the identity of the Cornish Con- 
stantine with the saint of that name who toiled and died in 
Scotland at the close of the sixth century. But all the best 
authorities concur in describing the Scottish Constantine as the 
son of Cador, Duke of Cornwall. The notice of his conversion 
in the Irish Annals points to his having been known in Ireland, 
and when we find that both in Cornwall, Scotland, and Ireland 
his festival is observed on the same day, March II, it is hard 
not to conclude that the same man is commemorated. That he 
should have wandered about so much is quite in accordance 
with the practice of Celtic saints, wlio were possessed with rest- 
lessness that never allowed them to remain long in one place. 

In the text (March 11) I have adopted the legendary life as 
basis, and given his death as occurring in 576 ; but if he be, as 
is probable, the Constantine converted in 589, then his death 
cannot be put earlier than just before 600. 

DuNCHAD succeeded Dorben as abbot of lona in 713. He 
was son of Kenfoelaid and grandson of King Malcov, or 
Moelcova, consequently was of the Columban family, and in- 
herited the abbacy according to the law that constituted the 
headship, an office to which one of the family had a hereditary 
right. He had been an abbot at Kill-lochuir, in Ulster, before 
he succeeded to lona. He was abbot when Egbert arrived from 
Ireland and induced the monks to receive the Roman Paschal 
cycle, and tonsure. Thenceforth Egbert continued to reside at 
lona until 729. Dunchad did not live long after obtaining tlie 
alibacy of lona, for he dietl in 716, on May 25, the day on 
which his festival was usually kept ; but in Scotland his day is 
March 24. 



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202 Lives of the Saints. [March 25-29. 

25 Camin, Ab. Inniskeltra, Ireland, a.d. 653 (L.). 
Alfwold, B. Sherborne, a.d. 1075 (L.). 
William, child M. Nonvich, a.d. 1141 (L.). 
Robert, child M. Bury St. Edmunds, a.d. it 81. 

Robert, a child found murdered at Bury, and this furnished 
a convenient excuse for pillage and butchery of the Jews, a.d. 
1181. 

26 MocHELLOC, Ab. Ireland, beginning of ph cent. 

27 Tyfei, M. Pembrokeshire and Carmarthen, early 6th 
cent. 

Tyfei was the son ot Budic, an Armorican prince, and 
Arianwedd, the sister of S. Teilo. Whilst a child, he was 
accidentally killed in the early part of the sixth century, and the 
popular voice has proclaimed him a martyr. He owes his 
admission into the Kalendar to his having belonged to a princely 
and saintly house. His brother was S. Ismael, who was a 
favourite disciple of S. David. In Dynevor Park, under the 
shelter of the hill, overhung by noble trees, nestling into a warm 
corner, with the meadows of the Towey before it to the south, 
is the little church of Llandyfeisant, dedicated to him, and pro- 
bably the scene of his " martyrdom." He was, however, buried 
at Penally, in Pembrokeshire. Soon after, Budic, who had come 
to Wales from Armorica, returned to it, and became there the 
father of S. Oudoc, afterwards Bishop of Llandaff. 

28 

29 GwYNLLYW FiLWR 01 WoOLOS, K.C. Moniiiouthshire, 
circa 520. 

GUNDLEUS or GwYNLLYW FiLWR (the Warrior), now known 
as S. Woolos, was a prince of South Wales, son of Glywys, 
of the line of Cadell Deyrnllwg. The kingdom was called 
Glywysig, and comprised a portion of Monmouthshire and of 
Glamorgan. On the death of his father the sons divided up the 
kingdom among them, and Pedrog (Petroc) alone went short, 
but he had professed the religious life. But according to the 

^ >J< 



1^ i^ 

March 29.] Celtlc and EugUsk Kaleuclar. 203 

Welsh pedigrees Petroc was son of Clement, who may have been 
uncle of Gwynllyw. 

The portion that fell to Gwynllyw was the marshy district now 
called Wentloog level, between Newport and Cardiff, but run- 
ning back to the feet of the mountains. His residence was on 
the height near where now stands S. Woolos's Church, Newport, 
commanding a splendid prospect of his marshy territory, with 
the glittering Severn estuary beyond. The Caldecott and also 
the Wentloog levels had been reclaimed by the Romans, and 
the second legion, stationed at Caerleon, had banked out the 
tide, but since the legion had been withdrawn, doubtless all had 
reverted to swamp. 

Gwynllyw fell in love with a granddaughter of Brychan of 
Brecknock, named Gwladys, and sent to ask her hand, but the 
king, her father, treated the messengers with contumely. " She 
enjoyed a high reputation, was elegant in appearance, beautiful 
in form, and wore silk dresses," says the Life of S. Cadoc. 

Gwynllyw, highly incensed, armed three hundred of his men 
and swooped down on Talgarth, in Brecknock, where the damsel 
was, seated her behind him on his horse, and galloped awaj 
with her. The king, her father, pursued, and a fight took placa 
at Rhiw Cam, near where now are the Beaufort Ironworks, and 
where were the confines of the territory of Gwynllyw. In this 
fight several hundred lives were lost. According to the story, it 
would have gone ill with the ravisher had not King Arthur, 
who happened to be near, come to the rescue. 

We possess in addition to this account given in the Life of S. 
Cadoc another, a Life of S. Gwynllyw, written to glorify him, 
and it is instructive to see how the biographer altered facts to 
suit his ideas of what ought to have been. In this latter docu- 
ment the story of the marriage reads very differently. " When 
by the general advice of the inhabitants he desired to get married, 
he sent ambassadors to Brychan, king of Brycheiniog, for he had 
heard of the gentleness and beauty of his daughter Gwladys, 
she being requested as a bride was promised, and given that he 
might enjoy legal nuptials." Not a word about the elopement. 

So, on the same authority, we learn, " When Gwynllyw reigned, 
all the inhabitants were obedient to the laws, no one then dared 
to injure another. Peace was confirmed, there were no conten- 
tions in his time, he was a pacific king." But when we turn to 
the Life of S. Cadoc we have another account altogether. " On 
a certain night some of Gwynllyw's thieves went for the purpose 
of committing a robbery to a town wherein dwelt a religious 



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Lives of the Saints. 



[March 29. 



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Irishman, who was a hermit, and devoutly served God. These 
thieves the aforesaid Gwynll)n.v loved, and incited to robbery P 
And again : " Cadoc's father, the aforesaid Gwynllyw, was 
given up to carnal allurements, and frequently instigated his 
soldiers to robbery and plunder, and he lived contrary altogether 
to what was just and right, and disgraced his life with crimes." 
This was, of course, in his unconverted days ; but this is a fair 
instance of the manner in which some of the monastic biographers 
not only evolved the lives they wrote out of their inner con- 
sciousness, but even deliberately altered or suppressed facts that 
did not comport with their ideas of what the saints should have 
been. But at a much later date Alban Butler did the same. 
These unscrupulous hagiographers wrote for edification, and not 
as historians. 

In one point both biographers are agreed, in the goodness of 
Gwladys, and her readiness to lead a holy and self-denying life, 
in her eager response to the call of Divine grace. 

When Gwladys was in a fair way to become a mother, four 
lamps shone miraculously every night, one in each corner of her 
chamber. This is merely a hagiographer's way of saying that 
she liked to keep a light burning in her room at night. Her 
eldest child was called Cathmael, afterwards known as S. Cadoc. 

This child was the precursor of a large number of brothers 
and sisters. When the couple had their quiver as full as possible, 
it occurred to them that it was high time for them to think of 
their souls. The legend says that this thought was prompted 
by an angel, who told Gwynllyw to build a church at a place 
where he saw a white ox with a black spot between the 
horns. 

According to the Life, Gwynllyw and his wife thereupon went 
in search of the spot, and the king made over his principality 
to S. Cadoc. Probably he did nothing of the sort, but built a 
church of wattles, within a bowshot of his caer or fortified resi- 
dence. And this spot is that where now stands S. Woolos's 
Church. 

He and his old wife lived on in their fortress, a furlong 
distant, and they fasted together, bathed together in the Usk 
when the tide was up, and sometimes when the tide suited 
bathed twice a day. When S. Cadoc became a saint and abbot 
at Llancarvan he disapproved of the old people tubbing together, 
and remonstrated. They could not understand his scruples, but 
he insisted, and, convinced against his will, Gwynllyw suffered 
his imperious son to remove the old woman to a distance — 



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March 29.] Ccltlc aud EfigUsJi KaUndar. 205 



within an easy walk — and build her a separate cabin, and enjoin 
on her a little less publicity in her bathing arrangements. 

In his last sickness Gwynllyw was visited by his son and by 
S. Dubricius. 

The form of religion — repeated bathing — seems to have struck 
the media-'val Latin monks with astonishment, so unaccustomed 
were they to cleanliness, and they considered it explicable only 
as the severest form of self-imposed asceticism. In this par- 
ticular the Celtic saints towered above such as S. Thomas a 
Becket, who, when dead, was found to have his inner vestment 
" boiling over " with vermin ; towered above the biographer of 
Becket also, who could admire such filthy habits. 

In a field within a short distance of the church of S. Woolos 
" there was not long ago," writes Mr. C. O. S. Morgan in the 
Archccologia Cambre7isis (1885), "a moated mound, on the 
summit of which was planted a clump of fir-trees. There are 
several of these mounds about the country. They consist of a 
circular conical mound, having a flat table-top, usually about 
fifty feet in diameter, and surrounded by a deep fosse or moat. 
The summits are always flat. This mound is now in the grounds 
of Springfield, laid out by the late Mr. Gething, It is, however, 
no longer a mound, but is buried up to the top with the spoil 
brought up by the shafts during the excavation of the tunnel of 
the Great Western Railway, which runs underneath. Its site, 
however, is still marked ; for, in order to preserve it, as the fir- 
trees were all cut away, I suggested to Mr. Gething to collect 
the large masses of rock brought up out of the tunnel and place 
them in the form of a cairn on the summit of the mound. This 
mound used to be called ' The Grave of S. Woolos ' ; but that 
was incorrect, as these mounds were not burial-places, but the 
dwellings or strongholds of the chieftains or rulers of the dis- 
trict, and in subsequent times were converted into castles by the 
erection of stone edifices on their summits in lieu of the timber 
or wattled structures which originally crowned them. This 
mound I believe to have been the dwelling of Gwynllyw, the 
prince of this district, where he founded his church in close 
proximity to it ; and I fully believe that that mysterious portion 
of S. Woolos's Church, generally called S. Mary's, is the church, 
or rather the site of the templum, first erected by our saint, and 
enlarged and altered at various subsequent periods, but always 
spared by adding on the east end, like the church of S. Joseph 
of Arimathea at Glastonbury, when the great abbey was added 
on to the east end of it." 



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206 



Lives of the Saints. [March 30-31. 



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In their old age, as already said, Gwynllyw and his wife 
Gwladys were separated, and she retired to the banks of the 
Ebbw River, where she continued bathing in a spring of coldest 
water. 

The precise spot has probably been fixed by Mr. Morgan. 
He says : " On the banks of the river, above Ebbw Bridge, is a 
cliff", on the top of which is a small spot of ground, adjoining 
Tredegar Park walls, of less than half an acre, on which there 
is a very old cottage. This small detached spot of ground has 
always belonged to the church of S. Woolos, and was part of 
the glebe land ; and when the glebe lands were sold a few years 
ago, it was purchased by Lord Tredegar. A short distance off, 
in the park, there issued from the bank a remarkably beautiful 
spring of very cold water, over which a bath-house was erected 
in 1719, and it was always called 'The Lady's Well.'" Mr. 
Morgan conjectures that Lady's Well is a corruption of Gwladys' 
Well, and that the explanation of this piece of land having be 
longed from time immemorial to the church of S. Gwynllyw is, 
that it was the site of the hermitage of the mother of S. Cadog. 
There was once probably a chapel on the rock, as the place is 
still called "The Chapel." 

Recently, moreover, Lord Tredegar has discovered the 
tumulus in which she was buried, hard by the chapel and 
the well. 

30 Regulus or Rule, B. Senlis, commemorated in Scot- 

land, ^th cent. (L.). 

31 Turcot, B. St. Andrews, Scot/and, a.d. 1115. 

Turcot was prior of Durham. On August i he was conse- 
crated bishop of St. Andrews. He was confessor to S. Margaret. 
York claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Scotland, and this 
was resisted by King Alexander. The king and Turgot had 
many discussions. The bishop desired to appeal to Rome, but 
Alexander allowed him only to go to Durham, where he died 
in 1 1 15. 



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Celtic and EnoUsh Kalendar. 



207 



APRIL 

1 Gilbert, B. Caithness, a.d. 1245 (L.). 

2 Ebba and Comp., VV. MM. Coldingham, a.d. 874 ; see 

Ebba, August 25 (L.). 

3 Richard, B. Chichester, a.d. 1253 (L.). 

4 Teyrnog, in Denbighshire, Tighearnach, B. Clones, 

Ireland, a.d. 550 (L.). 
Gwier, H. at St. Neots, Cormvall, before ()th cent. 

Teyrnog or Tyrnog was of the family of Ceredig, and was 
brother of Tyssul and Caranog. He lived in the sixth century. 
A suspicion arises whether he be not the same as Tighearnach — 
one of the many of that name commemorated in Ireland ; but 
the most eminent was the Bishop of Clones, known also as S. 
Ternoc, who was formerly patron of Llanderneau, but which now 
honours S. Tenenan. Tigernach, of Clones and Clogher, was 
held at the font by S. Bridget, and educated at Rosnat ; but 
whether that was Candida Casa, or the Vallis Rosina, now S. 
Davids, is uncertain. His preceptor there was Monennus. This 
Tigernach died in 549, and his festival is observed in Ireland on 
the same day as Teyrnog's in Wales. He is patron of Northill, 
in Cornwall, where he is called S. Torney. Tigernach, or more 
correctly Tighearnach (anglicised into Tierney), is the Irish 
form of the Welsh Teyrnog. See also S. Tenenan, yi/Zy 16. 

GwERiR or GuiER was an anchorite, who lived where now is 
S. Neots, in Cornwall, and when Neot arrived there he took up 
his residence in a cell that had formerly been occupied by this 
ascetic. 

15 Derfel Gadarn, C. Merionethshire, 6th cent. 
Probus and Grace, CC. Cornwall. 

Derfel Gadarn or "the Mighty" was a member of a 
saintly family, brother of SS. Sulien, Cristiolus, and Rhystud. 



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208 



Lives of the Saifits. 



[April 6. 



He was famous as a warrior, and was present in the battle of 
Camlan, in 542, where he greatly distinguished himself; but 
the latter part of his life was devoted to religion, as a hermit in 
Merionethshire. His image of wood, that was greatly venerated, 
was taken to Smithfield in 1 538, and was there burned. Der- 
fel's wooden "horse" and "stick" were in existence at Lland- 
derfel not many years ago, and may be still. There Bryn 
Derfel (Derfel's Hill) was much resorted to by the common 
people at Easter, in order to have a ride on Derfel's horse. 

Probus and Grace have a magnificent church dedicated to 
them in Cornwall, with a tower splendidly wrought in carved 
granite. They were probably Cornish saints, husband and wife, 
according to tradition. 

The church was made collegiate by Athelstan in 926. In 
front of the chancel screen is the legend, "Jesus, hear us, thy 
people, and send us Grace and Good for ever " — a play on the 
names of the patrons. Two skulls found under the altar, at the 
restoration of the church, are believed to be those of the two 
saints, and are placed in a reliquary in the north wall of the 
chancel. The proper name of the parish is Tressillian, or the 
Habitation of Sulien, but it is commonly called Probus. The 
village feast is on July 5, which is probably the right day ; but 
there is also a fair there on April 5. 

6 Elstan, B. Wilton^ a.d. 981. 

Celsus, Abp. Armagh, a.d. 1128 (L.). 

Elstan, a monk of Abingdon, trained under S. Ethelwold. 
Whilst building the monastery the workmen had their food 
supplied by Elstan, who acted as cook, and washed the dishes, 
swept the floors, and did all the menial work. One day S. 
Ethelwold chanced to find him thus engaged in scullery work, 
and was surprised that he had not committed the dirty task to 
an underling. The story is told by William of Malmesbury that 
Ethelwold said, " This obedience of thine has caught me un- 
awares ; but, as a good soldier, plunge your hand in the 
boiling caldron, and pluck me forth a piece of meat." The 
good disciple obeyed, and drew forth his hand unharmed. 
Everything miraculous in this story depends on whether the 
caldron was "boiling" or not. It was very easy for tradition 
to magnify into a marvel a very simple occurrence ; and as 
William of Malmesbury wrote in 1140, there intervened about 
one hundred and eighty years between the incident and the 



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April 7.] 



Celtic and Eno'lish Kalendar 



209 



record during which the story might grow. Elstan was after- 
wards abbot of the house, and eventually became fifth Bishop 
of Wilton. He died 981. 



] Brynach,/4(^. C. Wales and North Devon, circa A.D. 450. 
Llywelyn and Gwrnerth, CC. Montgomeryshire, 6t/i 

cent. 
GuRON or Goran, C. Bodmin, middle of 6th cent. 

Brynach Wyddel, or " the Irishman," was married to Corth 
or Cymorth, one of the daughters of Brychan, King of Breck- 
nock. He was a priest, and spiritual instructor to the king and 
his family. He had four children, all numbered among the 
saints. Not only was he priest, but also abbot. 

A Life in Latin, of the twelfth century, is apparently based on 
Welsh ballads. 

For a while he was in Armorica, and when he desired to come 
to Wales he put a stone on the water, mounted it, and was 
wafted over to Milford Haven, at the mouth of the Cleddau. 
There the daughter of the prince became enamoured of him, but 
as he resisted her advances, she sent men to murder him, and 
one stabbed him with a lance. Thereupon a swarm of winged 
ants fell on the man, and so stung him that he suffered great 
torture and died. The saint then bathed his wound in a spring, 
ever after called Ffynnon Goch, or the Red Well. 

Finding the place too hot for him he went on to the river 
Gwain, in Pembrokeshire, that flows into the sea at Fishguard, 
but did not remain there long. He proceeded to the river 
Caman, where an angel had informed him a site for a monas- 
tery would be pointed out to him by a white wild sow and her 
piglings. Here he lit a fire, and this was regarded as the 
assertion of a right to the place. The lord of the district seeing 
the smoke came hastily to know who had dared to light a fire ; 
but he was a good man, and was at once pacified, and he not 
only gave land to S. Brynach, but also committed his sons to 
him for instruction. The saint now built a church at the foot 
of Cam Ingli, above Nevern. Two stags from the forest drew 
his car, and the cow that gave milk to the monastery was com- 
mitted to the custody of a wolf. One day Maelgwn Gwynedd 
came that way, killed and cut up the cow, but no fire would 
heat the stew made of its flesh. Brynach then restored his cow 
to life, and gave the king a good repast off loaves he plucked 
VOL. XVI. O 



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Lives of the Saints. 



[April 8-9. 



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from an ancient oak-tree that grew near, and the brook for the 
occasion flowed with wine. 

Brynach is said to have travelled much, and to have visited 
Rome. A church in Devon, Braunton, is dedicated to him, and 
is locally said to have been founded by him on his way home 
from Italy. Perhaps he put into the bay for water, or repairs to 
be done to the stone on which he floated. On the roof is a repre- 
sentation of Brynach, or Branock as he is called at Braunton, 
being the site of his monastery indicated by the sow and her 
little pigs. Leland, in his Itinerary, says, " I forbear to speak 
of S. Branock's cow, his staff, his oak, his well, and his servant 
Abel, all of which are lively represented in a glass window of 
that church." This has long perished. Of Abel nothing is 
known. The mediaeval biographer, not relishing the fact that 
Brynach was a married man and the father of four children, 
changed his story into one of temptation by a beautiful damsel, 
daughter of a chieftain, and his strenuous resistance to her 
seductions. 

Llywelyn and Gwrnerth. Llywelyn was the son of 
Tegonwy. He founded a religious house at Welshpool, and 
ended his days at the monastery of Bardsey. Gwrnerth is said 
to have been his son, but according to another account was his 
brother, which is more probable. A religious poem by S. Tyssilio 
called "The Colloquy of Llywelyn and Gwrnerth" is found in 
the Red Book of Hergest. Both saints were commemorated on 
the same day. 

GuRON or Goran was a solitary who resided at Bodmin, 
surrendered his cell to S. Petroc, and probably retired to Gorran, 
near Mevagissy, where is a church dedicated to him. He died 
in the middle of the sixth century. When Petroc came to 
Bodmin, Guron very readily received him, surrendered his cell, 
and went elsewhere. 



8 



Materiana, W. in Merionethshire and Cornwall, circa 

A.D. 500. 
DoTTO, Ab. Orkneys, a.d. 502. 

Materiana, to whom two churches in Cornwall look as their 
founder, i.e. Tintagel and Minster, was probably Madrun, a 
daughter of Vortimer, who married Ynyr Gwent, petty king of 



* 



April 10-14.] Celtlc aud English Kalendar. 2 1 1 



10 



Gwent Below the Wood, or that portion of Monmouthshire that 
comprised the Caldecott level and the rolling land south of 
Wentwood. The chief town here was the old Roman city of 
Caer Went (Venta Silurum). In this town Ynyr received S. 
Tathan, a refugee from Armorica, who had been in Glamorgan- 
shire, where he had met with annoyance from Gwynllyw, the 
King of Wentloog. To him Ynyr gave land, and Talhan con- 
structed a monastery. Ynyr is numbered among the saints as 
well as his wife. Madrun's sister, Anna, was married to Cynyr 
of Caer Gawch, the mother of Non, who bore S. David. 
Madrun's own children were four, three of whom were saints. 
Probably on the death of her husband Madrun retired from the 
world. She took with her a handmaid, Anhun, and along with 
her founded the church of Trawsfynydd, in Merionethshire. 
Whether before or after this she went into Cornwall is not 
known. It is worthy of notice that the church of Trevalga, 
which lies between the two foundations of Materiana, is one 
of S. Petroc's churches, and that Davidstow is not far off. 
Petroc was probably cousin of Gwynllyw, who had retired 
from the world, and lived near the Usk. The whole of this 
district was thickly colonised from Gwent and Brecknock. 



II GuTHLAC, H. Croyland, a.d. 714 (L.). 
12 

13 Buriana, v. Cornwall (also May 29). 
WiNOC or GwYNOCH, B. Scotland, circa a.d. 878. 
Caradog, P.C. Wales, a.d. 1124 (L.). 

WiNOC or GuiNOCH was a bishop, and is said to have ex- 
communicated the Scots in their war against the Picts, and to 
have assisted King Kenneth by his advice and prayers in a great 
battle, in which he completely broke the power of the enemy. 

He is said to have died about 838. 

14 GwODLOEW or Wyllow, C. Cornwall, end of 6th cent. 

GwoDi.OEW was the son of Glywys the Cornishman, son of 
S. Woolo, of Newport, or (iwynllyw Filwr. Glywys was called 
a Cornishman because he left South Wales and settled in the 

^ ^ 



212 Lives of the Saints. [April 15-17. 

western peninsula, where, probably, he married, and where his 
son remained and founded the church of Lanteglos, by Fowey, 
where he is venerated under the name of S. Wyllow. His 
father is called in Cornwall S. Gluvias. 

According to the Welsh pedigrees, there was a son of 
Gwynllyw, called Gwyddlew, the father of S. Cannen, whereas 
Gwodloew is the son of Glywys the Comishman. But of 
Gwyddlew nothing whatever is known, and we may be pretty 
sure that there is a mistake, and that Gwodloew and Gwyddlew 
are one and the same. That Gwodloew is the Gudwal who 
became Bishop of Aleth, now Saint Malo, in or about 627, is 
possible. The old Calendar of S. Meven and the Litany of 
S. Vouge call him Guidgual ; but this can only be conjecture, as 
no particulars are given us in the Breton legend as to his parents. 
What is more probable is, that we have in Gwyddlew the original 
founder of S. Olave's, in Exeter, and S. Olave's, at Poughill, 
near Bude. Gwynllyw of Newport, now called Woolo, was by 
the English transformed into S. Olavus, and it is likely enough 
that the same process took place in Exeter and on the confines 
of Cornwall. 

There is an inscribed stone at Stowford, near Launceston, 
with on it GUNGLEi, which in modern Welsh would be 
Gwynllyw or Gwyngllew. This shows that a very similar 
name was current in the sixth century in the district, which 
is probably the date of the stone. 

The church of Lanteglos, by Fowey, was dedicated, according 
to Leland, to a hermit named Wyllow. In Wyllow it is probable 
that we have again Gwodloew. If so, this would be his last 
foundation. Leland says that Wyllow was murdered by a kins- 
man named Mellyn. The Assize Roll of 12 Edward I. (12S4) 
gives this dedication at Lanteglos, so also does a will by Laurence 
Cok, dated 1502, and another by John Mohun, 1507. 

T 5 Padarn, B. Cardiganshire and Radnorshire, and in 
Brittany, circa 560 (L.); see also November i. 
RUADAN, Ab. Lothra, in Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 

16 Magnus, M. Orkney, a.d. mo (L.). 

1 7 DoMNAN or DoNAN, H.M. Scotland, circa a.d. 600 
(L.). 

Stephen Harding, Ab. CiteaiLx, a.d. 1134 (I-.). 

iji^ _ ^ 



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April 18-20.1 Celllc and EugHsIi Kalendar. 2 1 3 



18 Olcan, B. Ireland (see February 20). 
Laserian, B. Leighlin, Ireland, a.d. 639 (L.). 
Maildulf, H.C. Malmesbiiry, circa a.d. 673. 

Maildulf or Maidulf was an Irish solitary, who about 660 
appeared in the forest tract of Braden, off the Roman road from 
Cirencester to Bath. This woodland was a northern continua- 
tion of the great Selwood, and it ran, an unbroken sea of green, 
as far as the outskirts of Bath. Into this green sea Maildulf 
plunged, attracted by its solitude and its beauty, and there he 
constructed a rude hermitage, and opened a school. The Irish 
monks were at the time great masters of learning — Roman, 
Greek, and even Hebrew. Maildulfs school became a great 
centre of learning and of religion. One of his ablest and best 
pupils was S. Aldhelm, who succeeded him, and who saw Mail- 
dulfs burgh grow into an important abbey. The founder died 
about 673. He is named in a document of Sergius I., in 701 or 
thereabouts, as the founder of a church in honour of SS. Peter 
and Paul. 

19 Alphege, Abp. M. Canterbury, ad. 1012 (L.). 

20 Ceadwalla, K. West Saxons, a.d. 689, 

Ceadwalla mounted the West Saxon throne in 685, and 
after crushing the rival under-kings of the house of Cerdic, he 
prepared to extend his power. He fell on the kingdom of 
Sussex, and killed the king, Ethelwalch, but was driven back. 
He returned to the attack later with little better success. He 
subdued the Isle of Wight with the deliberate intention of putting 
all the inhabitants to the sword, and this he carried out with 
ferocious, unpitying savagery, killing men, women, and children, 
that he might replace the population with his own West Saxons, 
the first colonists having been Jutes. Having accomplished his 
bloody purpose, he handed over the spoil as vowed to S. Wilfrid, 
who does not seem to have lifted a finger to avert the massacre, 
and whose only eagerness was after the loot. 

Ceadwalla threw down his crown in disgust in 688, and with 
drew from the land to seek baptism at Rome. There he was 
received by Pope Sergius I., who baptized him on Holy Satur- 
day, and he died a few days after. The Pope ordered a laudatory 
epitaph to be inscribed on the tomb of this murderous monster. 
He died 689. 



*- 



2 14 Lives of the Saints. [airilzi. 



2 1 Beuno, Ab. Wales, 6ih to 1th cents. 

Maelrubh, M. Ireland and Scotland, a.d. 772. 
Anselm, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1109 (L.). 

Beuno was uncle and spiritual guide to S. Winefred ; he w as 
grandson of Gwynllyw Filwr [see March 29). He was nearly 
related to both S. Cadoc and S. Kentigern. He was a native 
of Powys, and the son of the old age of his parents, who com- 
mitted him to be educated by S. Tangwn, son of the Welsh bard- 
saint Talhaiarn, a contemporary of Taliesin. Ynyr Gwent, who 
married Madrun, daughter of Vortimer, "gave him a gold ring 
and a crown," and gave up to him land and the people on it 
to form a sacred tribe in the West of Herefordshire, at Llan- 
veino, near Clodock. Later on Beuno went to Berriew, in Mont- 
gomeryshire, where he was given lands also. But one day whilst 
there he heard a Saxon shouting to his dogs to pursue a hare on 
the further side of the Severn, and he at once resolved to leave 
a place made odious to him, because within sound of the English 
tongue. In a rage he returned sharply to his disciples, and 
said, " My sons, put on your clothes and shoes, and let us leave 
this place, for the nation of this man has a strange language 
which is abominable, and I heard his voice. They have in- 
vaded this land, and will keep it." Then he went deeper into 
the Welsh land and visited S. Tyssilio, and remained with him 
forty days. Thence he went to Cynan, son of Brochwel, king 
in Merioneth, who gave him Gwyddelwern. One day some 
nephews of Cynan came there and asked for food. Beuno killed 
an ox, and began to cook it, but the young men became im- 
patient and rude, and this roused the anger of the saint, and he 
cursed one of the company, so that he died next day. Probably 
he got on badly with the nephews ; anyhow, he left and went 
to the banks of the Dee, and settled there. The king of the 
country was one Caradog, who attempted to force Winefred 
to become his mistress, a beautiful girl, daughter of the man 
Temic, who had given shelter to Beuno, and when she ran 
away from him, he cut off her head as she was taking refuge 
in the church. The head fell within. At that moment Beuno 
came up and cursed the king, who at once dissolved into a 
puddle, and nothing solid of him was left. Then he put on 
the girl's head again, and she was sound, but a spring gushed 
from the place where her blood had fallen. This is the famous 
well of S. Winefred in Flintshire. 

Then Beuno went to Cadwallon and gave him a gold sceptre 



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April 21.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



215 



"worth sixty cows," which Cynan, son of Brochwel, had given 
him, and this was in Carnarvon. 

The king gave him a tract of land that really belonged to a 
widow and her son ; and whilst Beuno was building there the 
widow came and remonstrated. Beuno was so angry with Cad- 
wallon that he went to him and cursed him. But the matter 
was compromised, and another piece of land was granted to 
Beuno. 

Now it happened that among the workmen employed by 
Ynyr Gwent was a very good-looking youth, and the king's 
daughter, Digwg, fell in love with him. The king "chose to 
give the young man in marriage to his daughter, lest she should 
have him in some other way." But the youth did not much 
relish being saddled with a princess, was oppressed with her 
highness and mightiness, or ashamed to show her the ancestral 
quarters, and whilst conducting her to his home took occasion, 
during her sleep, to cut off her head and leave her. He was in- 
cautious enough to commit the crime on the lands of S. Beuno, 
who, discovering the corpse, set on the head again, whereupon 
the princess sat up, opened her eyes, and asked what had 
happened. On learning the circumstances she resolved not 
to pursue the runaway husband, but to remain near S. Beuno. 
A fountain sprang up here, also, where her blood had fallen. 
Soon after Digwg's brother, Iddon, came to investigate into the 
matter, and understanding that the husband had bolted with 
"the horses, the gold and silver" that belonged to Digwg, and 
had gone to Aberffraw, he asked Beuno to go with him after 
the youth. Beuno did so, and when Iddon saw the husband he 
cut off his head. Beuno immediately replaced his head, also, on 
the shoulders, and the man lived. Whether he was reconciled 
to his wife is not related. Beuno now obtained a settlement 
near Aberffraw, and there died. 

This strange legend is at least of this use, that it shows us 
how the Celtic saints moved about from place to place with 
extreme restlessness, founding churches in different localties. 
Beuno lived during parts of the sixth and seventh centuries. 
He was buried, it is said, at Clynnog, but the honour is also 
claimed for Bardsey and Nevin. The Jesuit College of S. Beuno 
is at Tremeirchion, near S. Asaph. There are two fourteenth- 
century Lives in Welsh of S. Beuno, and he also figures in the 
Life of S. Winefred. A saying attributed to him is, "From 
death flight will not avail." 

Maelrubh was born in 642, and was descended from Niall 
of the Nine Hostages. In 671, at the age of twenty-nine, he 



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Ki- 



2l6 



Lives of the Saints. 



[April 22-27. 



22 



went to Scotland and founded Apurcrossan, where he presided 
for fifty-one years. According to Irish accounts he died a 
natural death, but the Scottish story makes him to have been 
murdered by Norse pirates in 722. In Scotland he is com- 
memorated on August 27. 



23 George of Cappadocia, M., circa 285 (L.). 
Dyfnan, C. Wales, circa 460. 

Ibar, B. Begery, Ireland, circa a.d. 500 (L.). 

Dyfnan was one of the family of Brychan, reimtcd to have 
been a son. He founded a church in Anglesea, where he was 
buried about 460. 

24 Mellitus, B. London, and Abp. Canterbury, A.D. 624 

(L.). 
Egbert, Mk. lona, a.d. 729 (L.). 
Translation o/S. Ivo, B. Huntingdon, a.d. iooi. 

25 Maughold or Maccald, B. Man, early 6th cent. (L.). 



26 



27 Enoder or Cynidr, Ab. Brecknockshire and Corn- 
wall, 6th cent. 

Cynidr was son of Cynon, son of Ceredig of Cardigan, by 
Rhiengar, daughter of Brychan. Cynidr founded Llangynidr, 
on the Usk, and Render Church, in Herefordshire, called 
Llanncinitir in the Liber Latidavensis. He had a chapel, 
according to Dugdale, in an island on the Wye at Winforlon, 
" Capella S. Kenedri." That S. Enoder or Enodoc, in Corn- 
wall, was one of his foundations is probable, as so many of 
his family settled there. The name S. Enoder is to this day 
popularly known in north Cornwall as Sinkinedy, i.e. S. Kenedy. 
S. Cynidr was buried at Glasbury. The Latin clerks, knowing 
nothing of the native saints, transformed Enoder or Cynidr into 



>£<- 



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-* 



April 28-30.] CelUc and English Kalendar. 2 1 7 



Athenodorus, a pupil of Origen and a martyr under Aurelian. 
In Brittany he is known as S. Quidi or Quidic. A chapel is 
dedicated to him in the parish of S. Caradoc, in the diocese of 
S. Brieuc. 

28 Cronan, Ab. Roscrea, Ireland, circa a,d. 615 (L.). 
WiNWALOE, C. {see March 3). 

WiNVVALOE. The Life of this saint, by Wrdestan, has been 
printed in the Analecta Bollandiana, T. vii. (iS88). 

29 Wilfrid II., B. York, a.d. 744. 

Wilfrid II. was educated at Whitby under S. Hilda, and 
was one of the five holy prelates whom Bede mentions as having 
issued from that house. Wilfrid attached himself to the service 
of S. John of Beverley as attendant priest and master of his 
household. When S. John retired from his see he consecrated 
Wilfrid to be his successor. After some years he retired like 
his master, and ended his days at Ripon, in or about 744. 

30 Cynwyl, C. Carmarthenshire, Cardigan, and Carnar- 

vonshire, 6th cent. 
Erkonvvold, B. London, Ab. Chertsea, a.d. 693 (L.). 

Cynwyl, the son of Dunawd and brother of Deiniol, the 
first bishop of Bangor. He assisted in the foundation of Bangor 
Iscoed. After a while he went south and settled in Carmar- 
thenshire. He took up his residence on a promontory of land 
between two streams, confluents of the Cothi, and seems to have 
obtained control over a large tract of land, some fourteen to 
sixteen miles across, and extending from the mountainous core 
that throws out two arms, between which lies the great basin of 
the Cothi. Over the whole of this region he must have exercised 
jurisdiction. Five miles south the rock of Pendinas shoots up 
in the midst of the basin, and this certainly was at the time the 
residence of the chief of the district who gave to Cynwyl a place 
on which to establish his settlement at the head of the basin, on 
the Annell, that flows into the Cothi, and hard by the gold 
mines of Ogofau, that had been worked by the Romans. 

Here, then, Cynwyl resided. To be away from the throng of 
men, and to be alone with God, he was wont to retire up the 



^^- 



-^ 



2i8 Lives of the Saints. [Aprilso. 



lovely valley of the Annell, between the heathery and bracken- 
covered mountain sides, to a point where a great boulder that 
has fallen from above lies at the junction of a little rill and the 
Annell, where it conies down foaming from its mountain cradle. 
Here the old saint was wont to kneel in the bed of the stream 
and pray, till his knees had worn two holes in the rock. Such 
is the local legend. More probably he employed the boulder 
top. But till within the memory of man, the farmers were wont 
to drive their cattle to this spot and scoop the water out of the 
hollows over their backs as a preservative against all ills. 

There are three saints named Conval in the Scottish kalen- 
dars ; one was a disciple of S. Kentigern, and his name 
occurs as among the bishops next after Kentigern in the 
Litany of Dunkeld. It has been suspected that Conval and 
Cynwyl are one ; but according to the Scottish authorities, 
Conval was an Irish prince, who floated over to Scotland on 
a stone, and landed on the banks of the Clyde. The stone 
was afterwards called S. Conval's chariot, and men and cattle 
were brought to touch it to be healed. His body was sup- 
posed to lie at Cumnock. Another Conval was trained at 
Crossraguel. He is commemorated on September 14, and the 
first on September 28. A third Conval was king, and is in- 
voked as such in the Litany of Dunkeld. He was a ruler in 
the time of S. Columba. There was again another, who was 
king in 819, and reigned till 824. 

Whether the disciple of Kentigern was Cynwyl, who after- 
wards settled at Caio, or not, cannot be decided. There are 
several reasons for believing in an association of Kentigern with 
the Apostle of the Cothi Valley, but the Welsh authorities do 
not mention any expedition by him to Scotland, although that 
he went there is by no means unlikely. 

Cynwyl also had an establishment at Cynwyl Elfed, in Car- 
marthenshire, and at Aberporth, in Cardiganshire. Penrhos, 
in Carnarvonshire, is also dedicated to him. Close to both 
Cynwyl Gaio and Cynwyl Elfed are dedications to the Pump- 
saint, that is, to the Five Brother Saints, sons of Cynyr Farfdrwch, 
and of the family of Cunedda. Cynyr lived at Caio, and it is 
quite possible that he may have given the land to his saintly 
sons, who received and transferred it to Cynwyl, and placed 
themselves under his direction. They were certainly older than 
he. The Five Brothers lie at Pumpsaint, in Caio parish, but 
their church is in ruins. Some association between them and 
Cynwyl there must have been. There was formerly a church 
in Brittany in the time of S. Convoyon, Abbot of Redon, in the 

* 4 



-* 



May 1-3.] Celtic and EngUsk Kaleudar. 219 



middle of the ninth century, dedicated to him, as S. Cumvolus, 
so that apparently those of the British who fled to Armorica 
before the Saxons carried with them the thought of the apostle 
of the Cothi Valley. For an account of the Five Saintly Brothers 
see November i. 



MAY 

1 BuRlANA, V. Cornwall, also April 13, May 12 ana 29, 

and June 4 and 19. 
Asaph, B. Flintshire, 6th cent. (L.). 
Translation of S. BiiioCH, B. Wales and Brittany, 

6th or 'jth cent. (L.) ; also August 8. 
Kellach, B. Ireland, ^th cent. (L.). 

2 Gluvias, C Cornwall, 6th cent. 

Gluvias or Glywys the Cornishman, was one of the sons 
of Gwynllyw the Warrior (see March 29), Prince of Gwentloog, 
who was the founder of S. Woollos, Newport, and of Gwladys 
of Brecknock, who lies buried under a mound in Lord Tredegar's 
Park. Why Glywys was called "of Cornwall" does not 
appear clearly, but he probably fell under the influence of 
his brother S. Cadoc of Llancarvan, who certainly exercised 
authority and made a foundation in Cornwall, and it is pro- 
bable that he sent his brother Gluvias to superintend them. 
After a long time spent in Cornwall he returned to his native 
land, and founded a church at Coed Cernw, "The Cornish- 
man's Wood." A parish bears his name in Cornwall. His son 
Gwodloew, under the name of Wyllow, is founder and patron 
of Llanteglos, by Fowey (see April 14). 

3 FuMAC, B. Botriphnie, date not known. 
Ethelwin, B. Lindsey, a.d. 720. 

Ethelwin was second bishop of Lindsey after its separation 
from the diocese of Mercia. A part of his life was spent in 
Ireland, where he studied, the renown of the learning in the 
Irish monasteries being great. But he returned to his native 



•J«- 



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* — —^— ►J, 

2 20 Lives of the Saints. imay4-i.. 



land, and at the request of Ethelred was consecrated bishop by 
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury. This was about 680, 
and he died in 720, having been given Eadgar as coadjotor in 
701 on account of his infirmities. 



4 Melangell or Monacella {see May 27). 



5 Hydroc, C. Cornwall^ ^th cent. 

Hydroc. The church of Llanhydrock, in Cornwall, bears 
this dedication, and the parish revel is held on this day. 

6 Eadbert, B. Liiidisfarne, a.d. 698 (L.). 



7 Lintard or Letard, B. at Canterbury; also February 

24, IV hie h see (L.). 
John of Beverley, Abp. York, a.d. 721 (L.). 

8 Indract and Company, MM.; see February 5 (L.). 

Indract and Company are said to have been Irish, and to 
have settled near Glastonbury, where they were murdered. 
Probably Indract was the Abbot of lona murdered by the English 
on March 12, 853. It is said that Ina, King of Wessex, brought 
the relics to Glastonbury, but this is doubtless a mistake, and 
for Ina we must suppose Edgar to be meant. 

9 GoFOR, C. Monmouthshire, uncertain date. 

GoFOR. A saint of unknown date. He is the patron of 
Llanover, Monmouthshire, in which are, or were, nine springs 
close to each other, called S. Gofor's Well. 

10 CoMGAL, Ab. Bangor, in Ireland, a.d. 601 (L.). 

11 Fremund, M. Offchurch, Wanvickshire, circa 796. 



*- 



May 12-14.] Celtic and Eriglish Kalendar. 221 



1 2 BuRiANA, V. Cornwall. The parish feast is held on 
this day at S. Burian, as being old S. Burian's 
Day, that day being May i {see May 29). 
Ethelhard, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 803. 

Ethelhard was first Bishop of Winchester, and appointed to 
Canterbury in 780. He corresponded with Alcuin, and died 803. 

I 3 Mael and Sulien, CC. Wales, early 6th cent. 
Merewenna, V. RttiHsey, circa 970. 

Mael or Mahael was one of the companions of S. Cadfan 
from Armorica to Britain. He became a member of the College 
of S. lUtyd, and afterwards removed to Bardsey. Sulien, called 
also Silin, with his brothers, Rhystud and Cristiohis, accom- 
panied S. Cadfan from Armorica, and also retreated fmally to 
Bardsey. There are dedicated to him the churches of Llan- 
silin and Wrexham, in Denbighshire, and Silian, in Cardigan- 
shire. (See his Life, November 8.) He is coupled with Mael 
in tl\e dedication of the churches of Corwen, in Merionethshire, 
and Cwm, in Flintshire. 

Merewenna, Virgin Abbess of Rumsey, after it had been 
remodelled by Edgar in 967, was probably of British origin, 
judging from her name. She must not be confounded with either 
S. Morwenna of Cornwall, or S. Modwenna of Burton. She 
died about 970. S. Modwenna died three centuries earlier, and 
Morwenna five centuries before. 

14 Dyfan, M. Glamorganshire, 2nd cent. ; also May 24. 

Dyfan or Deruvianus was one of the company of whom 
Elfan, Ffagan, and Medwy were others, said to have been sent 
by Pope Eleutherius to Britain at the request of Lucius. The 
names come from the Book of Llandaff, a compilation of the 
twelfth century, and from William of Malmesbury. The whole 
story is more than doubtful. Dyfan was certainly a Briton, and 
his pedigree has been preserved. Medwy and Elfan were also 
British. Churches dedicated to these saints are in the neigh- 
bourhood of Llandaff, and there only ; consequently, it is pro- 
bable that there were such people. It is also possible that they 
may have visited Rome. That is about all that can be said 
concerning them. We may conclude from the name of the 
church dedicated to S. Dyfan, Merthyr Dyfan, i.e. his Mar- 
tyrium, that he suffered martyrdom. 



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Lives of the Saints. 



[May is-iQ. 



-* 



15 Britwin, Ab. Beverley, a.d. 733 (L.). 

t6 Carnech, ^^. B. Ireland, circa a.d. 530 (L.). 

Carantog or Caranog, Ab. B. Cardiganshire and 

Cornwall. In Ireland called Cairnech, dth cent. 

(L.). 
Brendan, Ab. Clonfcrt, a.d. 577 (L.). 
Simon Stock, C. England and Bordeaux, a.d. 1265 

(L.). 

Caranog or Carantog, of whom the life is given in the 
text, is patron of a church in Cornwall. Both Wales and Ireland 
claim to have given him birth. In Ireland he is called Cair- 
nech. When the Exeter Domesday was compiled, the Church 
of Crantock, in Cornwall, was already in existence. 

Among the rocks on the cost of Llangranog, in Cardiganshire, 
is one formed like a throne, which is called the Eisteddfa (seat) 
of Carannog. According to the Welsh pedigrees, Caranog was 
the son of Corun, grandson of Cunedda. He is honoured as 
well in Brittany, in the diocese of S. Pol de Leon. 

17 Mathernus, H.C. Cornwall, circa a.d. 460 (L.). 
Cathan, C. Carmarthenshire, circa a.d. 600. 
Cathan, B. Bide, circa a.d. 710. 

Mathernus or Madron is the patron of a church in Corn- 
wall. Mr. Borlase conjectures that Llanpadarn has been 
corrupted into Madron. This does not seem probable, as there 
does not seem in Cornish to have been such a permutation of 
p to m. He was probably a local saint, or one connected with 
Brittany, where he is also honoured, and two churches are dedi- 
cated to him. 

Cathan was the son of Cawrdaf, son of Caradog Freichfras, 
thus being of princely family. Cawrdaf was prince of Brecknock. 
Cathan passed to Scotland, and became a bishop in Bute. 

18 Elfgiva, Q.W. Shaftesbury, a.d. 971 (L.). 

19 Alcuin, P.Mk. at Tours, a.d. 804 (L.). 
Dunstan, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 988 (L.). 



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MAY20.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 223 

20 CoLLEN, C. Denbighshire^ and as Colan in Cornwall, 
1th cent. 
Ethelbert, K.M. Hereford, a.d. 792 (L.). 

CoLLEN was a Welsh saint of the seventh century. He is 
the patron of Llangollen in Denbighshire, and Colan in Corn- 
wall. According to some of the Welsh pedigrees he was the 
son of Pedrwn, the son of Coleddog (mentioned in the Triads as 
one of the "Three Ineloquent Men of the Court of Arthur") ; 
but, according to others, the son of Gwynog, of the family of 
Caradog Freichfras. His Life, written in Welsh, and still un- 
translated, says that he was the son of Gwynog, and adds that 
his mother was Ethni Wyddeles (the Irishwoman), the daughter 
of Matholwch, an Irish princeling. His Life states that he went 
to be educated to Orleans, where he remained for eight years 
and a half, during the wars of Julian the Apostate, which is an 
absurdity. Just at that time, in order to bring to a speedy 
termination the incessant wars between the Pagans and the 
Christians, a Pagan of the name of Bras challenged, as the 
champion of Paganism, to fight any Christian that might be 
pitted against him, laying down that the losing side should 
henceforth adopt the religion of the conqueror. To this the 
Pope consented, but when he came to look for his man he could 
find no one that would consent to enter the combat. However, 
he was directed at last by a voice from heaven to S. Collen, who 
was at that time at Porth Hamwnt. The challenge was accepted 
without the slightest hesitation, and both met, armed for the 
conflict. Collen, in the first encounter, had the misfortune to 
have his hand a little bruised, but Bras very kindly gave him a 
little ointment to put upon it, at the same time endeavouring to 
persuade him to give in, and believe in his Pagan god. The 
hand was forthwith healed, but instead of returning the ointment 
box, Collen threw it into the river, lest either should get further 
benefit from it. This time Collen felled his antagonist, who 
implored him not to kill him, and promised to embrace the 
Christian religion. He was in due time baptized by the Pope, 
and thereupon "the whole Greek nation believed and was 
baptized." As a souvenir of this signal victory, the Pope gave 
Collen a wonderful lily, which he afterwards brought to this 
country, "and it is said that that lily is still at Worcester." 

Collen afterwards came to Glastonbury, where in three months' 
time he was elected abbot. This post he soon resigned for a 
mode of life that was "heavier and harder," which consisted 



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^ : >}« 

224 Lives of the Saints. [May 21-22. 

principally of preaching here and there. He again got tired of 
this, and returned to Glastonbury, where everything went on 
quite smoothly for five years, when he happened to quarrel with 
some of the people, and, cursing them, left for " the mountain of 
Glastonbury " (probably Glastonbury Tor), and made his cell in a 
quiet spot beneath a rock. As he was in his cell one day, he 
heard two men talking about Gwyn ab Nudd, and saying that 
he was ihe King of Annwn (the Under-World) and the Fairies. 
CoUen put his head out, and told them to hold their peace, as 
those were merely demons. They told him to hold his peace, 
and, besides, he would have to meet Gwyn face to face. By- 
and-by Collen heard a knocking at his door, and in answer 
got the reply, " It is I, the messenger of Gwyn ab Nudd, King 
of Annwn, bidding you to come to speak with him on the top of 
the hill by mid-day." The saint persistently refused to go day 
after day, until at last he was threatened with the words, " If 
you don't come, Collen, it will be the worse for you." This 
disconcerted him, and, taking some holy water with him, he 
went. On reaching the place, Collen beheld there the most 
beautiful castle that he had ever seen, with the best-appointed 
troops ; a great number of musicians with all manner of instru- 
ments ; horses with young men riding them ; handsome, sprightly 
maidens, and everything that became the court of a sumptuous 
king. When Collen entered, he found the king sitting in a 
chair of gold. Collen was welcomed by him, and asked to seat 
himself at the table to eat, adding that beside what he saw 
thereon, he should have the rarest of all dainties, and plenty 
of every kind of drink. Collen said, " I will not eat the tree- 
leaves." "Hast thou ever," asked the king, "seen men better 
dressed than these in red and blue?" Collen said, "Their 
dress is good enough, for such kind as it is." " What kind is 
that?" asked the king. Collen said that the red on the one 
side meant burning, and the blue on the other, cold. Then he 
sprinkled holy water over them, and they all vanished, leaving 
behind them nothing but green tumps. 

Collen certainly passed into Brittany, as the church of Lan- 
golen, near Quimper, in ancient Cornouaille, venerates him as 
founder. 

In some old Welsh kalendars his festival day is given as the 
2 1 St. 

21 GoDRiCK, H. Finchale, a.d. 1170 (L.). 

22 




GWELY MELANGELL. 



Appendix Vol., p. 224.] 



tfl _ ^ 

May 23-27.] Celtic a7id E7iglish Kalendar. 225 

23 William, M. Rochester, a.d. 1201 (L.). 

William. P'lom the Annals of the Church of Rochester it 
appears that his death took place in 1201. 

24 Ffagan, C Glamorganshire, 2nd cent.; also August 2>. 

25 Aldhelm, B. Sherborne, a.d. 709 (L.). 

26 Augustine, Abp. Canterbury, Apostle of Kent, a.d. 604 
(L.). 

2 7 Melangell, v. Wales, end of 6th cent. ; also January 
3 1 , and May 4. 
Bede the Venerable, Mk. farrow, in Northumber- 
land, a.d. 734 (L.). 

Melangell or Monacella was a daughter of Cyfwlch, the 
son of Tudwal, according to some accounts, but of Tudvval 
according to others, and was descended from the Emperor 
Maximus and his British wife Elen. Her mother was an Irish- 
woman. The story goes that her father desired to marry her to 
a chieftain under him, but either she disliked the man or the 
thought of marriage, and determined to run away. Accordingly 
she found an opportunity to escape, and secreted herself at 
Pennant, one of the most lonely and lovely spots in Mont- 
gomeryshire, at the head of the Tanat. Her story is repre- 
sented on the frieze of the carved oak screen of the church 
there. 

In this spot, sleeping on bare rock, she remained for fifteen 
years. One day Brochwel Ysgythrog, Prince of Powys, was 
hunting and in pursuit of a hare, when puss escaped into a 
thicket, and took refuge under the robe of a virgin of great 
beauty, whom the huntsman discovered. She faced and drove 
back the hounds. The huntsman then put his horn to his lips, 
and there it stuck as if glued. Upon this up came the prince, 
and he at once granted a parcel of land to the saint, to serve as 
a sanctuary, and bade her found there a convent. This she did, 
and she lived in a cell which still remains, though somewhat 
altered, at the east end of the church. She was buried in the 
church, after her called Pennant Melangell, and fragments of a 
VOL. XVI. P 

* 



*- 

2 26 Lives of the Saints. [May 28-29. 

very beautiful shrine remain built into the walls, but sufficient to 
allow of its reconstruction. 

The cell of S. Melangell is, as said, to the east of the church, 
and has no communication with it. It goes Ijy the name of 
Cell y Bedd, or Cell of the Grave, and it has a door and a win- 
dow. In this originally stood the shrine. Her gwely, or bed, lies 
on the opposite side of the valley, a quarter of a mile south of 
the church. 

Melangell is considered the patroness of hares, which are 
termed her Iambs. Until last century so strong a superstition 
prevailed that no person would kOl a hare in the parish ; and 
even later, when a hare was pursued by dogs, it was believed 
that if any one cried "God and Melangell be with thee," it 
would surely escape. In the Welsh calendars she is also 
commemorated on January 31 and on May 4- 

28 Lanfranc, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1089. 

29 BuRiANA, V, Cormvall; also April 13, May i and 12, 
June 4 and 19. 

Erbin, C. Wales, as Ervan in Cormvall, circa a.d, 

450- 
Dagan, B. Ireland and Scotland, circa a.d. 609. 

Translation of S. Dyfrig or Dubricius. 

BuRiANA. This saint is commemorated on many days in 
Cornwall, but this is the special day of her cult ; on the same 
day in Ireland, Bruinech the Slender, daughter of Crimthan. She 
came to England along with S. Piran (Kieran). In the Life of S. 
Kieran we are told, " The mother of the saint, who had become 
a faithful Christian and holy servant of God through the ministry 
of her son, wished to reside with him, so he built her an abode 
not far from his cell, and she dwelt there with a community of 
devout women, whom she had gathered about her: among these 
was Bruinech, a virgin exceedint;Iy fair, and daughter of a 
chieftain. The holy mother of S. Kieran loved her deeply, be- 
cause she was her foster-child, and also because she was as 
lovely in character as in person. But the chief of the country of 
Hy Fiach, by name Dymna, having heard of her beauty, came 
with soldiers and carried her off from her cell. Many days he 
kept her imprisoned in his rath, for he was bewitched by her 



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-¥* 



H-«- 



May 2g.] 



Celtic and Enzlish Kalendar. 

<3 



227 



beauty. Then Kieran arose and came to Dymna, to demand his 
sister ; but on no account would the chief ijive her up. ' Never,' 
said he scornfully, ' will I let her go, unless to-morrow at day- 
break a cuckoo shall wake me from sleep.' It was mid-winter, 
and in the night there was a great fall of snow, but not a flake 
fell where the man of God and his companions tarried. When 
morning dawned, behold on every turret of the chieftain's castle 
a cuckoo was perched, uttering plaintive cries. The tyrant arose 
in alarm, threw himself before the saint, and dismissed the 
damsel." However, the chief was quailed only for a while, and 
he recommenced his persecution. According to the legend, 
Bruinech died of fright, but was brought to life again by S. 
Kieran — that is to say, she fainted, and was revived. When 
Kieran left Ireland and came to Cornwall he must have taken 
the virgin with him, or rather, his mother took her, to avoid 
further persecution. 

" Nothing has been recorded of S. Buriana's life and labours in 
Cornwall, except the general tradition that she spent her days 
in good works and great sanctity; but the place where she dwelt 
was regarded as holy ground for centuries, and can still be 
pointed out. It lies about a mile south-east of the parish church 
which bears her name, beside a rivulet on the farm of Bosliven, 
and the spot is called the Sentry or Sanctuary. The crumbling 
ruins of an ancient structure still remain there, and traces of 
extensive foundations have been found adjoining them. If not 
the actual ruins, they probably occupy the site of the oratory 
in which Athelstan, after vanquishing the Cornish king, knelt 
at the shrine of the saint, and made his memorable vow that, 
if God would crown his expedition to the Scilly Isles with 
success, he would on his return build and endow there a church 
and college in token of his gratitude, and in memory of his 
victories. It was on that wild headland, about four miles from 
Land's End, that S. Buriana took up her abode ; and a group 
of saints from Ireland, who were probably her friends and com- 
panions, and who seem to have landed on our shores at the 
same time, occupied contiguous parts of the same district. 
There she watched and prayed with such devotion, that the fame 
of her goodness found its way back to her native land ; and 
thenceforward Bruinsech the Beautiful, by which designation 
she had been known there, was enrolled in the catalogue of 
Irish saints ; but her Christian zeal was spent in the Cornish 
parish that perpetuates her name." — (J. Adams: "Chronicles 
of Cornish Saints," in the Journal of the Royal Institution 
of Cornwall, 1S73.) 



* 



^ 

228 Lives of the Saints. [May 30-31. 

Erbin was a son of Constantine the Cornish king, and brother 
of Digain. Erbin was father of Geraint, Prince of Devon. lie 
was in all probability uncle of the Constantine of Cornwall 
inveighed against with such gall by Gildas. (See, for fuller 
notice of him, January 13, the day on which he is also comme- 
morated.) 

Dagan was a Celtic saint, educated at Banchor, in Ireland. 
He mistrusted Augustine, and resented his claims to exercise 
authority over bishops of an ancient church that had existed for 
three centuries at least in Britain before he appeared on the scene. 
He refused to break bread and eat under the same roof with .S.S. 
Laurence and Mellitus, so wrathful at their astounding pretensions 
was this stalwart old saint. 

Tra7islation of S. Dyfrig or DUBRICIUS. His body was 
taken in 1 120 from Bardsey Island, where it reposed, to be en- 
shrined in Llandaff Cathedral. 

30 TuDGLYD, C. Wales, 6th cent. 

Walstan, C Baber, in Norfolk, a.d. 1016. 

TuDGLvn was one of the sons of Seithenyn, and when his 
father's territories were overwhelmed by the sea, he and his 
brothers, left without earthly inheritance, sought one above that 
was heavenly and eternal. They became members of the college 
of Dunawd at Bangor Iscoed, on the Dee. There are no churches 
founded by him or dedicated to him in Wales. He belongs to 
the sixth century. 

Walstan was the son of wealthy parents at Baber, near 
Norwich. From them he received a pious education. At the 
age of twelve he renounced his inheritance, and engaged himself 
on a farm at Cossey, in the neighbourhood, and remained as a 
poor humble farm-servant till the day of his death, unmarried, 
and setting such an example of piety, that after his death he was 
regarded as a saint. That he was the son of rich parents is 
almost certainly a fable, invented to enhance his merits. He 
was probably born in the same class of life in which he lived and 
died. The date of his decease is 1016. 



31 



A — — 144 



► ^- 



juNE 1-3.] Celtic and Etiglish Kalendar. 



229 



JUNE 

1 RoNAN, H. Brittany, 6th cent. (L.); see also Rumon, 

January 4. 
Tegla, V. Denbighsliirc and Radnorshire, A.D. 750. 
WiSTAN, K.M. Evesham, a.d. 849 (L.). 

Tegla or Thecla is commemorated on this day in Wales, 
also on September 23 and October 15. At Llandegla, in 
Denbighshire, her Holy Well was celebrated for the cure of 
epilepsy, called S. Tegla's evil. It is questionable whether 
this saint be the companion of S. Paul, because a dedication 
of the kind would have been quite contrary to Celtic usage. 
It is probable that the Welsh Tegla was some local saint. 
September 23 is the day on which the companion of S. Paul 
is commemorated, and the Welsh Tegla having June i and 
October 15, looks much as though she were some different 
personage. She must not be confounded with Thecla, Abbess 
ofKitzingen (October 15), who almost certainly was a Saxon, 
and was a disciple of S. Boniface. It is due to a confusion of 
persons that the Welsh Tegla is commemorated on October 15. 

2 BoDFAN, C. Carnarvonshire, middle of ph cent. 

Odo, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 959; also July 4, ivhich 
see (L.). 

BoDFAN, son of Helig, whose territory was destroyed by the 
great inundation that formed the Lafan Sands. This low land 
on the coast of Carnarvon now suffered a like fate to that which 
had overtaken the cantref of Gwaelod nearly a century before. 
The Lafan Sands are in Beaumaris Bay. lielig, called Foel, or 
"the Bald," embraced a religious life together with his son. 
The date is about the middle of the seventh century. 

3 CoEMGEN or Kevin, Ab. Gkndalough, a.d. 618 (L.). 
CwYFAN, C. Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, and Denbigh- 
shire, 1th cent. 

Malcolm, K. Scotland, a.d. 1093. 



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230 Lives of the Saints. [June4-6. 



CwYFAN or CwYFEN, in Irish Ciarban, was the son of 
Brwyneu Hen, or "the Aged," of the family of Caradog 
Freichfras. Sometimes on June 2. For the 2nd we have 
Welsh Almanacks of last century, and a note by Edward Llwyd, 
given in "Celtic Remains." For the 3rd some glosses, in an 
old hand, in a book of " Preces Privatse," published in 1573; 
the Calendar in "Allvvydd neu Agoriad Paradwys," 1670; 
"lolo MSS Cal.," and Rees. The 3rd, therefore, is the best 
supported day. 

4 Nennocha or Ninnoc, V. Abss. Brittany^ Zth cent. 

(L.) ; see also p. 107. 

Breacha, V. Cornwall, ^th or 6th cent. (L.). 

BURIANA, V. (see May 29). 

Petroc or Pedrog, Ab. Carmarthenshire, Pembroke- 
shire, Cornwall, and Devon, 6th cent. (L.). 

Croidan, Medan, Dagan, CC. disciples of S. Petroc, 
end of 6th cent. 

5 TuDNO, C. Carnarvonshire, early 6th cent. 
Boniface, Abp. M. Mainz, a.d. 755 (L.). 

TuDNO, the son of Seithenyn, and brother of SS. Gwynodl 
and Merin, was founder of Llandudno, in Carnarvonshire (see 
GviynoAX, January i). The Whetstone of Tudno was one of 
the Thirteen Treasures of the Isle of Britain, "which Merlin 
took with him when he sailed away in the House of Glass, 
no more to be seen." The whetstone would sharpen the sword 
of every hero immediately, and always destroy the weapon of a 
coward. According to another account, it so poisoned the blade 
of whoever employed it, that whoever was wounded with the 
sword that had been whetted was sure to die. 

6 Gurwal, B. Brittany, 6th cent. (L.). 

GuLWAL or GUDWAL, B. Brittany and Ghent, ^th cent. 
(L.). 

Gurwal, whose life is given in the text, is thought to have 
been the same as S. Gudwal, and if so is probably Gwodloew, 



► ^- 



JUNE7-8.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 231 



son of Glywys of Cornwall, who was one of the sons of 
Gwynllyw Filwr. But if so, then he cannot be the same as 
Wyllow, the martyr of Lanteglos (see April 14). Gurwal or 
Giidwal succeeded S. Malo as Bishop of Aleth in 627. In the 
ancient Kalendar of S. Meen, and in the Litanies of S. Vougay, 
he is called Guidgual, and his festival is observed in the diocese 
of ,S. Malo on June 7. But in most martyrologies he is inserted 
on the 5th. 

7 CoLMAN, B. Dromorc, in Ireland, ']th cent. (L.). 
Meriadoc, B. Valines, Brittany, ']th cent. 
Robert, Ab. Newininstcr, in Northumberland, a.d. 

1159 (L.). 

Meriadoc was of the' royal race of Cynan Meiriadogor Conan 
of Brittany, and was born about 626, and brought up in the 
court of Armorica. He devoted himself to the ecclesiastical 
state, and received orders from the hands of Hincweten, Bishop 
of Vannes ; but instead of labouring for the salvation of the 
souls of other men, he considered only the perfection of his own, 
and for this object retired into a solitude near Pontivy, where 
he made a point of conscience of bending his knee a thousand 
times a day at the name of God, and as often during the night, 
which, as a judicious writer, the Pere Lobineau, reckons, implies 
eighty-six or eighty-seven genuflexions per hour, or about one 
and a half per minute. On the death of S. Hincweten, Meriadoc 
was elected in his room, and as he refused the dignity, was 
carried from his cell by force. He seems to have gained great 
goodwill by his gentleness and pitifulness to all in trouble, and 
several churches in Brittany are dedicated to him. His popu- 
larity extended to Cornwall, and he is the patron saint of Cam- 
borne. A curious old Cornisii miracle-play exists that contains 
his legend. 

8 Lkvan, C Cornwall, 6th cent. 
William, Abp. York, a.d. 1154 (L.). 

Lf.van or Levin is supposed to have been an Irish saint 
who came to Cornwall. It is possible that his name may 
be a corruption of Silvanus ; in Carew's " Cornwall," Porth- 
levan is called the Port of Siluan, and it is significant that 
in the parish of Burian, his fellow Irish saint, there was a 
chapel dedicated to S. Siluan. If so, it is also possible that 



one of the earliest inscribed stones in S. Just, not far off, 
bearing the inscription " Sil ... hie jacet," may mark his 
tomb. S. Just is not far from S. Levan, and a Celtic church 
was named after the founder, and not the saint buried in it. Of 
S. Levan no records remain, but plenty of local legend, which 
is not more untrustworthy than the collections of fables concern- 
ing Celtic saints made by biographers in the twelfth century 
in Ireland and Wales. S. Levan's cell is still shown at Bodellen, 
in the parish that bears his name. Between that and the church 
is a three-cornered garden ; this belonged to a woman named 
Joanna. She was there one Sunday picking pot-herbs, and 
seeing S. Levan go on his way to the sea to fish, she abused him 
for desecrating the holy day. He retorted that there was no 
more harm in fishing than in picking vegetables. Angry because 
she answered him again, he declared that, if any girl were 
baptized in the water from his well and called Joanna, she would 
prove a bigger fool than his interlocutor. From that day to this 
no parents will have a daughter so named at S. Levan, unless 
baptized at S. Sennen. The path by which the saint walked to 
the rocks from which he fished is said to be greener than any 
other turf, even to this day. On the south side of the church is 
his seat, a rock split in two, and it is said that the split widens 
annually, and when so wide that a pack-horse with panniers can 
pass between, then the world will come to an end. 

One day, as S. Levan was fishing, he caught two breams on 
his line. Not w.inting so much, he threw both back into the 
sea, but again caught both ; he caught them a third time, and 
then saw that there was some reason for it, so he took them 
home, and found there his sister Breacha, who had come over 
with her two children to lunch, and who was hungry herself, 
and the children simply ravenous. These latter ate so greedily, 
that both choked with the fish-bones. This produced a lasting 
coolness between Breacha and her brother. 

But there is another conjecture admissible, relative to S. 
Levan, that he was the disciple of S. Tugdual. This Levan 
drew up a collection of the grants made to his master. 

Madryn or Materiana {see April 9). 
CoLUMBA, Ab. lona, A.D. 597 (L.). 
Baithen, Ab. lona, a.d. 601. 

Baithen or Baitan was cousin-german and immediate suc- 
cessor to S. Columba in the government of the establishment at 



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June 10-13.] Celtic aiid EfigHsJi Kaleiidar. 233 

lona. The story is told that the great saint and founder saw in 
vision three chairs set in heaven, made respectively for Kieran, 
Baithen, and himself, the first of gold, the second of silver, and 
the third of glass, because he himself was "brittle and fragile, 
in consequence of the battles fought on his account." When 
eating, Baithen invoked Ciod between every mouthful, and when 
reaping, he held up one hand in prayer whilst he reaped with 
the other. He ruled four years, and died in 600. 

I o Rhychwyn, C. Carnarvonshire, middle of 6tJi cent. 
Ithamar, B. Rochester, a.d. 671 (L.). 
Ivo, B. Huntingdon, 'jth cent. (L.). 
Margaret, O. Scotland, a.d. 1093 (L.); also Novem- 
ber 16. 

Rychwyn was one of the twelve sons of Helig the Bald, who 
devoted themselves to religion when their father's territories 
were submerged (see Bodfan, June 2). 

II 

12 Ternan, B. Scotland, a.d. 431. 
Translation 0/ S. Odulph, P.O. Evesham. 

Ternan or Torannan was High Bishop of the Picts, and 
had been baptized by S. Palladius. He is said to have gone to 
Rome, where the Pope gave him a bell, which however he forgot, 
and left behind at his lodgings, probably not valuing it. The 
bell followed him with the instinct of a dog. Being without 
seed corn, he sent to the Pictish chief and asked to be given 
some. The Pict forwarded to him a sack full of sea-sand. 
Ternan, nothing abashed, sowed the sand, and gathered from it 
a harvest of yellow wheat. This is a rendering into hagiogra- 
phical language of a very simple fact, that Ternan, having no 
wheat, employed "maram," a wild corn that grows on sandy 
districts near the coast, and makes passable cake. It is still 
employed in Iceland and the Faroe Isles. Ternan died about 431. 

13 Sennan or Senanus, B. Ireland, a.d. 544; see March 

8 (L.). 

Sennan or Senanus, of Iniscathy, is commemorated in the 
Welsh calendars on this day, also on March 1 and 7. In Brittany 



*- 



^ 

234 Lives of the Saints. qune 14-15. 

on March 6. He is the patron of Plousane. In Cornwnll S. 
Sennen, at Land's End, is dedicated to him. There are churches 
named in his honour at Llansannan, in Denbighshire, and Bed- 
welly, in Monmouthshire. In Irish martyrologies he appears on 
March 8, and under this his life is given in the text. He was 
intimately acquainted with S. David. 

14 DOCMAEL or DoGMAEL, H. Pembrokeshire, beginning 
of 6th cent. ; also October 3 1 . 

DocMAEL or DoGFAEr,, son of Ithel ab Ceredig, was a founder 
of four chapels in Pembrokeshire, and of a chapel, now destroyed, 
in Anglesey. He belongs to the beginning of the sixth century. 
He was commemorated also, according to the Welsh calendars, 
on October 31, He is said to have had a chapel in Liskeard, 
Cornwall. 

15 NoN, W. Mother of S. David (see March 3). 
Trillo, C. Denbighshire and Merionethshire, early 6th 

cent. 
Veho or VouGA, B. Brittany, 6th cent. (L.). 
Elfleda and Ethelhilda, VV. Winchester, circa 

A.D. 950. 
Eadburga, v. Winchester, a.d. 961. 

Trillo, one of the sons of Ithel Hael, who came with S. 
Cadfan from Armorica to Wales, and became a member of the 
college of Bardsey. He is still remembered in Brittany as 
S. Drel, but there it is fabled of him that he came with Joseph 
of Arimathaea. The Latin form of his name is Drennasus. 

Veho or Vouga was an Irishman by birth, born about 518, 
who came to Brittany rather than occupy the see of Armagh, to 
which, according to the legend, he was elected, but to which he 
probably had a hereditary right, after the custom of the Irish 
Church. The remembrance of him seems not to have remained 
in his native land. The Irish form of the name is Fiech. 

He stepped on to a stone on the coast, and the stone floated 
away with him, and conveyed him to Brittany, where it grounded 
at Penmarc. The people on shore, seeing this swimming rock, 
thought it must be a ship that had lost mast and sail, and came 
out to pillage it. To their amazement and disappointment they 

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^ 



I 



June .6.1 Ccltic aud EngUsIi Kalendav. 235 



found nothing on it but one man and any amount of limpets. 
No sooner had Veho left the rock than it swam away again and 
returned to Ireland ; but a fragment remained, which is now 
shown in the churchyard of the chapel of S. Vouga, at Treguenec. 
This piece of stone had served Veho as a pillow on his voyage, 
and in it remains the impress of his head. Veho lived as a 
hermit near where he had come on shore. However, he was 
resorted to by so many people that he left, and retired into a 
forest at Landebecher, near Lesneven, where he died in or about 
585. S. Feock, in Cornwall, is dedicated to him. 

The very curious litany of S. Vougay is valuable as containing 
a number of names of Celtic saints. It is reprinted in Graveran 
and Kerdanet's edition of Albert-le-Grand's " Lives of the Saints 
of Brittany," Brest, 1837. The church and parish of S. Vougay 
lies half-way between Lesneven and S. Pol de Leon. 

Edburga or Eadburg was the daughter of King Edward 
the Elder and Elgiva his third wife. When only three years old, 
so the tale was told, her father called her to him, and set before 
her, on one side a number of jewels and female ornaments, and 
on the other a book of the Gospels and a chalice, and offered her 
the choice. vShe at once seized on the latter. This is perhaps 
not remarkable, as books of the Gospels were in richly-chased 
metal covers, studded with jewellery, and doubtless much more 
sparkling and attractive than the ornaments. However, the 
king, her father, accepted the choice as an indication of her 
vocation, and he gave her up to be educated for the religious 
life at Winchester. There she soon won the hearts of the sisters. 
She rose at night and cleaned the sandals of the nuns whilst 
they slept. She died about 960. 

On the same day are commemorated her half-sisters, Elfleda 
and Elhelhilda, who were nuns with her at Winchester. 



16 IsMAEL, B. Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire, 6th 
cent. 
CuRiG or Cyricus, B. Wales, 6th cent. 

IsMAEL was the son of a chieftain in Brittany, who was 
forced by a dynastic revolution to leave his native land. This 
chief was Budic. Budic landed in Dyfed or Pembrokeshire, 
and married Arianwedd, the sister of S. Teilo, by whom he had 
two children, Ismael and Tyfei. Both children were devoted to 
religion by their mother, probably because at the time there 
seemed to be no prospect for Budic of restoration to his posi- 



*- 



-*< 



* 

236 Lives of the Saints. [Junei6. 

tion in his own land, and because there was no inheritance for 
her sons, as she had married out of her tribe. S. Teilo took 
charge of the children. S. Teilo and Ismael attached them- 
selves to S. David, and were with him when he came to Glyn 
Rosyn, the valley of the Alun, where now stands the Cathedral 
of S. David. They arrived at evening, and lighted a fire. 

About half a mile down, nearer the coast, is a porphyry 
rock, starting up somewhat abruptly, which had been enclosed 
with rude walls, and turned into a caer or fortress by Boia, an 
Irish Goidel, who held the land around. When he saw the 
rising column of smoke he was very wroth, and went to the spot 
to demand by what right squatters had planted themselves on 
his land without permission. But the grave and saintly appear- 
ance of David, and the obvious harmlessness of the three men, 
allayed Boia's fears, and he returned to his fortress, where at 
once his wife stormed at him for not killing the intruders. This 
wretched woman, unable to work her husband into resentment, 
sent her serving-girls to bathe in the river near where the saints 
were settled. Then Ismael and Teilo, in disgust, begged their 
superior to leave the place, saying, "We cannot endure this, 
nor look on those naughty women." But David Ijade them be 
comforted — the annoyance would not last long ; their patience 
and indifference would tire the girls out. 

The persistence of Boia's wife at last prevailed, and the Irish 
chief would have expelled, and perhaps killed, David and his 
companions, had not another chief named Paucant, son of Liski, 
come upon him when unawares, penetrated at night by an un- 
guarded entrance into the caer, and murdered Boia and his wife 
in their sleep. After that he set fire to the wooden buildings 
in the camp. The remains of Boia's fortress remain, and bear 
his name, Clegr Fwya, and the port into which Liski and his son 
ran their keels is still called Forth Lisky. 

Tyfei had been murdered whilst a child (see March 27). 
Budic returned to Brittany, and had the good fortune to recover 
his principality, and to extend his supreme authority over the 
whole of Cornouaille. Soon after his return there he became the 
father of S. Oudoc. Ismael remained with S. David, and was 
consecrated suffragan-bishop of Menevia, we are told ; but this 
must be understood in the Celtic sense, as one of the bishops 
maintained in the monastery of David. One church in Car- 
marthenshire and five in Pembrokeshire are dedicated to him. 

CURIG or Cyriacus, termed "the Knight" or "the 
Blessed " in Welsh literature, is said to have settled in Wales in 
the sixth century, and to have landed at Aberystwyth. Accord- 

»!« ^ 



-* 



June i6.] Celtlc aiid EfigHsh Kalendar. 



237 



ing to one Welsh MS. (lolo MSS. 145) he was the son of Urien, 
son of Cynfarch. He is supposed to have been Bishop of Llan- 
badarn, and Giraldus Cambrensis speaks of his pastoral staff as 
being preserved in his time in S. Harmon's Church, Radnorshire. 
When Latin monks invaded Celtic churches, they got rid of the 
native dedications, or altered them to suit saints in the Roman 
calendar. This has been largely done with dedications to or 
foundations of S. Curig. There was a child, Cyriacus, whose 
head was dashed against a marble stair, when his mother, Juliita, 
was brought before the Roman magistrate at Tarsus, in Cilicia, 
and Curig, the Welsh bishop, has been converted into the child 
martyr. Thus Newton S. Cyres, near Exeter, and S. Juliot's, 
on the Cornish coast, as well as Llangarig, in Wales, are now 
supposed to honour the child Cyriacus and his mother, in place 
of the Bishop of Llanbadarn. There are six Welsh hymns in 
honour of the martyr Curig, wherein he is represented now as 
an infant, then as an adult, showing the confusion between the 
bishop and the boy of Tarsus. 

Egloskerry, near Launceston, was dedicated to him originally, 
as the name indicates. In later times, here also the dedication 
was altered to S. Cyriacus. 

Curig is probably the same saint as is known in Brittany as 
Kerec or Guevroc. In the Legendaries of Leon and Foelgoat 
he is described as having been of obscure or uncertain birth, and 
the Welsh lists of saints likewise say nothing of his ancestry. 
He left Wales with S. Tugdual, both having been disciples of S. 
Illtyd at Llantwit, and settled at the mouth of the Menou, in 
Domnonia, where his foundation afterwards bore the name of 
Loc-Kirecq. Thence he migrated to Ploudaniel, in Leon, where 
he founded a college called Traun Guevroc, in a gloomy valley. 
Here S. Paul of Leon met him, and saw him in the midst of 
a blaze of light. S. Paul induced him to leave the place and 
settle among the ruins of the old Roman city of Occismor, near 
the now decayed town of Lesneven, and the famous pilgrimage 
resort of Folgoat. 

One Sunday morning he saw a peasant cutting a bunch of 
rushes, wherewith to stop a gap in his hedge, through which 
the cattle got in and spoiled his corn. The saint cursed him, 
and thereupon the rushes remained glued to his arm and breast. 
It was only after he had acknowledged his fault that the saint 
released him of- the adhesive rushes. The date of his death is 
about 547. 

In Brittany, Kirecq or Guevroc is venerated on February 17, 
but Curig is commemor.ited in the Welsh calendars on June 16. 



*- 



-+ < 



238 



Lives of the Saints. 



[June 17-21. 



17 Alban, M. Vemlaju, a.d. 304, see June 22 (L.). 
Myllin, C. Montgomeryshire, uncertain date. 
Nectan, B.M. Devon and Cornwall, ^th cent. 
Briavel, H. Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire. 
BoTULPH, Ab., and Adulph, B. Lincolnshire, a.d. 655 

(L.). 
MoLLiNG, B. Ferns, in Wales known as Myllin, a.d. 

697 (L.). 

Nectan is said to have been a brother of S. Morwenna, and 
one of the family of Brychan of Brecknock. He settled on the 
headland of Devon that forms one of the horns enclosing the 
Bristol Channel, but his name is also associated with a stream 
and waterfall near Tintagel, in Cornwall, and a chapel in the 
parish of S. Winnow. There is a local tradition that when S. 
Morwenna was dying, her brother ministered to her, and raised 
her head that she might with her dying eyes look on Wales, 
whence she had come. Nectan died a martyr at Hartland, and 
was there buried. His name does not occur among the sons 
of Brychan in the Welsh lists, and in this, as in other cases, 
" son " means no more than a member of the Brecknock 
princely tribe — a nephew, a grandson, or one even more re- 
motely related. 



18 



19 BuRlANA, V. Cornwall {see AJay i). 

20 Translation of S. Edward, K.M. Shaftesbury, a.d. 

982 (L.). 

2 1 Cor MAC, Ab. Durrow, Ireland, end of 6th cent, 

Maen or Meven, Ab. Brittany, called in Cornwall 
Mewan, ']th cent. (L.). 

Meven is the Mewan of S. Mewan near S. Austell, in Corn- 
wall, and also the S. Mewan of Mevagissy. 

In the life of S. Meven, Maen or Conard Maen, he is said to 



•z* 



~*P 



/UNE2I.] Celtic and Ejiglisk Kalendar. 239 



have been a son of one Ere, and to have been a native of Gwent, 
and akin to Samson of Dol, on his mother's side. 

Samson was consecrated by S. Duljricius about 55°- ^^^ 
resolved on leaving Wales for Armorica, and was in Cornwall 
at some time after his consecration, and there he met S. Petroc, 
as is related in the life of the latter saint. As he attended the 
Council of Paris in 557, it was probably between 550 and 557. 
The Life of S. Maen says that he accompanied his uncle to 
Brittany. 

It was on their way to Brittany that .Samson with his disciples 
and retinue halted in Cornwall. They tarried first at Southill, 
near Callington, then went on to the mouth of the Fowey, where 
they remained till news reached them that they might safely 
adventure themselves in Brittany. At this time S. .Samson 
founded the church of Golant, and Mewan those of S. Mewan 
and Mevagissy. 

On reaching Brittany he remained some while at Dol, and 
was much employed by Samson. The latter went to Paris to 
see whether he could not obtain Judual, the rightful prince of 
Domnonia, and set him up against Conmor, the usurper. Whilst 
Samson was in Paris, Mewan travelled to and fro, working up 
the minds of the dissatisfied against Conmor. On one of these 
expeditions he was traversing the vast central forest of Brecilian, 
when he came on a clearing about a ^/'i?/" occupied by a refugee 
Briton named Caduo. He had lived there in peace with his 
family ; but his children had all died, and he felt his loneliness. 
He received Mewan as a fellow-countryman with warmth ; 
"Come in," said he, "I have plenty of hay and straw on 
which to litter you." He fed them well, and Mewan and his 
followers made the night musical with psalms. Before they left, 
Caduo said to his guest, *' I am solitary, come and live here 
with me as long as I am above ground, and then take it all 
for yourselves." 

After a little meditation Mewan agreed to this. And this 
was the first instance of one of the ecclesiastical colonists 
founding a monastery in the forest. All previous monastic 
settlements had been by the seaside. It was more than this, it 
was the first real attack made on the mighty forest which held 
the centre of the land. During his life, Caduo placed Mewan 
at Trefoss, a farm beyond the river, true to the principle that 
the lann and the //(?« should be separated, and not too near each 
other, as distinct organisations under distinct heads. 

It was to the monastery of .S. Mewan that Judicael fled from 
his brother lloeloc or Alan I., and there the prince acquirel 



*- 



-► i 



► <- 



240 



Lives of the Saints. 



[June 22-25. 



such a love for monastic life, that after he left it to mount the 
throne and take to himself a wife, he sighed for the peace of 
the forest retreat, and finally resigned a crown he had not much 
capacity to bear, and reverted to the life of a monk. Mewan is 
thought to have died about 640. The touching story of his 
disciple Austell is told under the name of the latter. The date 
given is that considered probable by M. de la Borderie. Lobineau 
gives it as 617, but that is perhaps too early. Judicael's retreat 
was in 605 to 610, and Mewan was then his abbot. But it is 
quite uncertain how long Judicael remained on the throne after 
his accession. Probably his incapacity declared itself pretty 
speedily, and he retired after a short reign to place himself once 
more in the hands of Mewan. I should be disposed to think 
this was in 627, and that this would be also about the date of 
the death of the saintly abbot. 

2 2 Alban, M. Verulam, a.d. 304 (L.). 

WiNEFRED, V.M. Flintshire; see November 3 (L.). 

23 Etheldreda, V. Abss. Ely^ a.d. 679 ; also October 17. 

24 Veep, V. Cornwall {see July i). 
Germoc, K.C. Cornwall. 
Bartholomew, P.H. Fame, a.d. 1182 (L.). 

Germoc or (Jermoe was a member of a tribe in Ireland, 
related to the chief, but perhaps on account of a quarrel or out 
of restlessness, he and his sister Breaca came to Cornwall and 
settled on the south of the Tregonning and Godolphin range, 
near Mount's Bay. A local Cornish saying is that Germoc was 
a king, and Breaca a midwife. This means that he was of 
princely race, and that she was invoked by women in labour. 
In the churchyard outside S. Germoc's Church is a granite seat 
called S. Germoc's chair. 

25 MoLOC or Mo-LUOCH, B. in Scotland, circa a.d. 592. 
Solomon, K.M. Cornwall and Brittany, circa a.d. 547. 

MOLOC or Mo-LUOCH is not to be confounded with the illus- 
trious Molua, of Clonfert. His original name was Lugardh or 
Lua, with the honorific prefix mo, and the endearing suffix of 



► i- 



Jl'nk25.] Celtic and English Kalcndar. 241 



I 



oc. He is mentioned by S. Bernard in his Life of S. Malachi, 
where, in describing the reconstruction of the abbey of Bangor, 
in Ireland, he goes back on its past history, and relates how 
that Congal had been the spiritual father of many thousands 
of monks. "Verily, the place was holy, and fruitful in saints, 
plentifully rendering a harvest to God, so that one of the sons 
of that sacred congregation, Luan by name, is said himself alone 
to have been the founder of a hundred monasteries. . . . Finally 
their shoots so filled both Ireland and Scotland, that the words 
of David seem to be a prophecy of these very times : " Thou 
visitest the earth, and blessest it ; thou makest it very plen- 
teous.' " In the Irish martyrologies, Moluach is remembered. 
/Engus calls him "the pure and brilliant, the son of Lismore, 
in Alba." The Aberdeen Breviary has some wonderful stories 
concerning him. He was educated by .S. Brendan, and he went 
about founding churches. One day, requiring a square iron bell, 
he asked a blacksmith to hanniier him out one, but the man 
replied that he had no charcoal. Thereupon S. Moloc brought 
rushes, and the fire was kept up with them till the bell was 
made, and this bell was long preserved in Lismore, He was at 
the time in the north of Ireland, and he wanted to take ship for 
Alba, but as he was unable to procure one, he stood on a stone and 
drifted on the waves, using the stone as a vessel, till he came to 
the mouth of the Firth of Lome, and sailed up it, past Mull, and 
landed on the island of Lismore, and thus his bell was lost to 
Ireland for ever. Not finding the islanders amenable to his 
teaching, he went to Melrose, but the abbot sent him back to 
Lismore, and now success attended his ministrations. He went 
much about, and founded churches in many places. He was 
buried in the church of Rosmarley. His staff is still in exist- 
ence, and is in the possession of the Duke of Argyle. He died 
in 592 or thereabouts. 

.Solomon or Selyf was the son of Geraint ap Erbin (S. Ervan), 
and brother of S. Cyngar, Caw and S. lestyn. He was duke oi 
princeling in Cornwall, and married S. Gwen, sister of S. Non 
and by her was father of .S. Cybi. It may be suspected that both 
Launcells (Llan Selyf) and Lansallos were of his foundation ; 
though in later days, when the Latin Church obtained the 
mastery, Launcells was dedicated to S. Andrew. Lansallos was 
thought to be dedicated to a female saint, Ildierna or Salwys. 
The latter is a corruption of Selyf. Of Ildierna nothing is 
known. Tiern is king, and the name is made up of Selyf-tiern, 
that is to say, Selyf the King. In Brittany he is reverenced as a 
martyr, and his date is advanced a century. But as he is there 
VOL. XVI. Q 



* 



-* 



44 — 

242 Lives of the Saints. uunezs. 

represented as father of S. Cybi, there can be no doubt as to his 
identity with Sil-Tiern, or Solomon, king in Cornwall. The 
Bretons represent him as the son of Congar, whereas he was 
actually the brother of that saint and martyr. They also make 
him the father, instead of uncle, of S. Constantine, as likewise 
of S. Eldad, whom they confuse with S. Illtyd ; whereas Eldad 
was son of a different Geraint, not the Prince of Devon. 
According to the legend, Solomon or Selyf became a king in 
Leon, and it is probable enough that in some of the disturbances 
and rivalries that distracted the principality he may have left 
Cornwall and established himself in Leon. The princes and 
saints of Cornwall and of Brittany are so inextricably mixed up 
together, as to lead us to suspect that in the sixth century the 
Domnonian and Cornish kings held sway in the portions of 
Armorica they had colonised, and that the Breton Cornouailles 
and Domnonia were portions of this realm, just as the Duchies 
of Normandy and Anjou were afterwards appanages of the 
English crown, though in inverse manner, as England was con- 
quered by the Normans, whereas Armorica was occupied and 
annexed by the British. 

If this be the explanation, then it is not surprising to find 
Selyf in the Continent as well as in Cornwall. 

In Armorica we are told the natives by no means relished 
the forcible occupation of their land by colonies from Britain, 
and were in constant revolt. Unquestionably the inhabitants 
of Armorica were pagans, and had not received the Gospel 
before the arrival of the fugitives from Britain. The legend 
represents King Solomon as imposing Christianity on the natives, 
and as their resenting it and rising in revolt against him. A 
fight ensued, and he was killed. But all this is very uncertain. 

Great confusion has reigned among Breton hagiographers rela- 
tive to Solomon. There were three of the name — Solomon I., 
of whom an account has just been given, who died about 550 ; 
Solomon II., who died about 632 ; and Solomon III., who was 
killed in S57. The first and last are both reckoned as saints and 
martyrs. Solomon III. was a great scoundrel, who obtained 
his throne by murder. Nevertheless, as he died a violent death, 
he is considered to have been a martyr. The Bretons throw back 
Solomon I. to a much earlier period, so as to make him grandson 
of Cynan Meiriadog, and give him as wife a daughter of Flavins 
Patricius, daughter of Avitus, but the only authority is a fabulous 
Life in the Breviary of Vannes. In Brittany he is called Salaun, 
and the scene of his death Merzer (i.e. Merthyr, in Welshl 
Salaun, 



June 26-28.] Celtic uuci EjigHsk Kalendav, 243 

26 TwROG, disciple of S. Beuno, C. Carmarthenshire and 
Merionethshire, 6th cent. 
Translation of S. Brynach, C. in Wales. 

TwROG, son of Ithel Hael, attended S. Cadfan from Armorica 
to Wales ; he was a disciple and amanuensis of S. Beuno. 
Twrog's book, called Tiboeth, which he wrote for his master, 
and which was kept in Clynog church, is now supposed to 
be lost. 



27 



28 Austell or Austle, H.C. in Brittany and Cornwall, 
'jth cent. 

Austell was a disciple and friend of S. Mewan or Mevan, 
who is commemorated on June 2L There is, unfortunately, no 
record as to whence he came or who was his father ; but as 
Samson and Mewan left Gwent on account of the Saxon inva- 
sion shortly after 550, it is probable that Austell was one of the 
company. S. Samson, we are told, took with him a large band 
of disciples, and tradition accuses him of carrying off with him 
into Brittany all the manuscripts he could collect. " Scarce 
am I reconciled to this Samson," says old Fuller, " for carrying 
away with him the monuments of British antiquity. Had he 
put them out to the Bank, by procuring several copies to be 
transcribed, learning thereby had been a gainer, and a saver 
had he only secured the originals ; whereas now her loss is 
irrecoverable, principal and interest. Authentics and tran- 
scripts are all embezzled ; nor is the matter much whether 
they had miscarried at home by foes' violence, or abroad by 
such friends' negligence." But it must be remembered that 
everything that was left would have been destroyed by the 
Saxons. On reaching the coast, Samson dismissed his ship, and 
procured a waggon to convey his load of holy vessels and choice 
manuscripts across the country. This was in Cornwall. From 
hence they cros.sed to Brittany. 

According to Welsh tradition, Samson returned in his old 
age to Wales, and his cross is still shown at Llantwit Major. 
On which occasion Maen and his companion and friend, Austell 
were in Cornwall, must be left in uncertainty. All we know of 
Austell we derive from the life of S. Maen, and that is little. 



► 1- 



244 Lives of the Saints. [June 29-30. 



He was a priest and a solitary, and he was under the direction 
of S. Mewan, and loved him as his own soul. 

A pretty story is told of the death of the old abbot. As he 
lay a-dying, he saw his friend at his bedside, with his face 
bathed in tears. The dying man put out his hand and wiped 
away the tears from Austell's eyes, and said, " Weep not. I, 
your father, go before. In seven days prepare to follow me." 

S. Maen or Mewan died on June 21, and on June 28 he was 
followed by S. Austell. The brethren resolved on laying him 
beside his spiritual guide and friend, and opened the sepulchre 
of Maen, when they saw that the body they had laid in it on the 
back was moved away to the right side, to make place for the 
loved disciple. 

It is very probable that S. Austell, in Cornwall, is a founda- 
tion of this companion of S. Maen. Two churches, that of S. 
Mewan and that of Megavissy, that adjoin S. Austell, have this 
Mewan or Maen as their founder. On the tower of the church 
is represented Christ between a pilgrim or hermit with a rosary, 
on the right, and an archbishop on the left, withcrozier. Leland 
says that Austulus, t© whom the church was dedicated, was a 
cenobite. Doubtless, the figure on the left hand of Christ is S. 
Samson of Dol, who, in the middle ages, was represented as an 
archbishop, and it was fabled that he had been Archbishop of 
York, and had received the pall from the Pope. 



29 



30 EURGAIN, V. Flintshire, 6ih cent. 

EURGAIN was the daughter of the tyrant Maelgwn Gwynedd, 
King of the Britons, who died of the yellow plague in 560. .She 
was married to Elidyr Mynfawr. There was another saint of the 
same name, daughter of Caradog, a princeling of Glamorgan. 
She founded Cor Eurgain, which afterwards became S. Illtyd's 
College of Llantwit. 



>i« tjf 



July i.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



245 



JULY 

Julius and Aaron, MM. Caerleon, Monmouthshire, 

A.D. 304 (L.). 
Servan or Serf, B. Orkney and Fife, circa a.d. 

460 (L.). 
Cewydd, the Welsh Raiit-Snint, C. Radnorshire and 

Glamorgan, 6th cent. 
Veep or VVennapa, V. Cornivall, early 6th cent. 
Leonore, B. Leon, circa a.d. 560 (L.). 

Julius and Aaron. Alihough tliere is no early record of 
their martyrdom, it is difficult not to acknowledge the tradition 
of their having suffered at Caerleon, the Roman Isca Silurum, 
as well founded. The names so singularly united, one Latin, 
the other Hebrew, seem unlikely of being invented in this 
combination. The martyrs were probably soldiers of the second 
Augustan legion, which was quartered at Caerleon, although 
Gildas says they were citizens. The churches or martyria over 
the spots where they suffered were of early foundation. That 
of S. Aaron was at the camp of Penrhos, half a mile north of 
Caerleon. The site of S. Julius' chapel is near a point of land 
about which winds the Usk, about half a mile down the river, 
where some remains of the building still exist, built into a 
modern residence. The name Julius is locally changed into Julian. 

Cewydd, the Welsh S. Swithun, was a son of Caw of Prydyn 
(North Britain), who was lord of Cwm Cawlwyd in the north, 
but being compelled to leave his territory, settled in Anglesey, 
lie is the saint who among the Welsh was credited with deter- 
mining the weather for them for forty days, like S. Swithun, 
according as it rained or otherwise on his festival. A curious 
story is told in the Life of 8. Cadoc relative to his father, Caw: — 
"On a certain day Cadoc was digging the ground about his 
monastery" — which he was founding in Scotland — "when he 
found a collar-bone of some ancient hero of incredible size." 
Then he vowed he would not eat nor drink till he had learned to 
whom it had belonged. That night an angel appeared to him 
and bade him resuscitate the giant whose collar-bone he had 



► 4- 



^ 



* 

246 Lives of the Sai7its. [July i. 

got hold of. This he did next day. He dug up a great skeleton, 
and further, he infused into it new life. The resuscitated giant 
knelt at the feet of Cadoc and announced that he was Caw of 
Prydyn, who had been killed in battle. Cadoc then set him 
to dig the ground for his garden. " Therefore, from that day to 
the death of the man of God, the digger performed by digging 
what had been commanded him." 

Veep, Wvmp, Wennapa, are probably the same person ; 
Veep being, indeed, a modern corruption of Wymp or Wennapa. 
This saint is the Welsh Gwenafwy, daughter of Caw, and sister 
of SS. Samson of York, Eigron, and Peirio. Eigron came into 
Cornwall, and Gwenafwy must have come with him. No 
foundations by her brother can now be recognised, but there 
are two of hers, one of which preserves her name in its Latin 
form or approaching it, Gwennap, and the other in its popular 
contraction as Veep. In the fourteenth century Bishop Grandis- 
son reconsecrated the church of S. Veep and dedicated it anew, 
this time to SS. Cyriacus and Julitta. Probably the legend of S. 
Wennapa had been lost, and it was inconvenient for a church 
to be deficient in proper lections for the festival of the founder. 
But another object was to get rid as far as might be of the local 
saints and bring all to the dull uniformity of the Latin Kalendar. 
But the people would not forget their ancient patron, and the 
village feast of July i remains as her commemoration. In the 
parish was in 1236 a cell of S. Carrocus, that is to say of S. 
Caradoc, father of S. Malo ; and a Llan of S. Gwynog, her 
nephew, son of Gildas, a disciple of S. Cadoc, adjoins her settle- 
ment. Caw, the father of S. Veep, had been a chief in North 
Britain at the end of the fifth century, but the invasion of tlie 
Picts and their repeated ravages drove him south. He settled in 
• Anglesey, where lands were given him by Maelgwn Gwynedd ; 
but his children went into South Wales, where King Arthur 
granted them lands ; some, however, clearly were obliged to go 
elsewhere, into Cornwall and Brittany. Caw's family is reckoned 
as the third holy family of Britain. Aneurin the poet was one 
of his grandsons, otherwise known as that acrimonious Gildas 
who thought it seemly to pour out his ill-temper in abuse of his 
native race. Another son, and brother of Veep, was .(4idan, 
disciple of S. David, and Bishop of Ferns, in Ireland. 

Leonore. In the text a summary has been given of the 
fables related of him. It is possible to come to a tolerably 
clear understanding relative to him by comparison of the lives 
of the saints of his family. Lobineau considered him to be the 
son of Hoel the Great and of Alma Pompsea ; but his father is 

* 



r 



July i.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 247 



t 



also called Eloc, which is merely a form of Hoeloc, oc being 
a common Celtic diminutive. His brother was S. Tugdual 
or Tudwal. In one of the dynastic revolutions that occurred 
so frequently in Armorica as in Wales, his father had to fly to 
Britain, and he committed Tugdual and Leonora to the care of 
S. Illtyd. Leonore was ordained by S. Dubricius at Caerleon. 
Then, about 535 he went to Brittany at the head of a large 
colony of monks and lay-folk, and disembarked on the shore 
at Crevelin, on a spot of land just west of S. Malo. The land 
was dense with forest a little way back from where the blast 
from the sea twisted and withered the trees, and Leonore set 
his disciples to work to make a clearing. The lay colonists 
who had placed themselves under his leadership did not like the 
situation, and deserted to found settlements elsewhere. The 
monks worked hard at cutting down the timber. They used fire 
to clear the wood, but were unable to consume it, because green. 
The ground was encumbered with trunks. The legend is to 
the effect that these were miraculously transported to the sea by 
a flood. Probably the monks managed to roll the logs down 
into the water at low tide, and they were carried away when the 
tide rose. The legend is picturesque. It represents the whole 
forest as floating away like islets of verdure. The ground 
cleared, the next thing to be done was to till it, and here we 
have introduced the oft-repeated tale of stags harnessed and 
drawing the plough. 

Whilst engaged in this work, one day the share turned up a 
statue of a ram of pure gold, which he put aside, saying, " Gold 
is for kings and not for priests." 

It was to the settlement of .S. Leonore that Judual fled from 
Conmor, who sought to murder him. Conmor learned where 
he was, and went to the monastery in quest of him. Leonore 
put the prince in a boat, and when Conmor demanded that 
he should be surrendered, pointed to the vessel ready to sail. 
Conmor, furious at losing his victim, boxed Leonore on the ear, 
then mounted his horse to ride away. As he was shortly after 
thrown and broke his thigh, he supposed that he was thus 
punished for having struck the saint. However, he continued to 
annoy him, and Leonore entered into the conspiracy started by 
Samson of Dol to obtain the restoration of Judual and the 
expulsion of Conmor. Judual was at the court of Childebert. 
Leonore now took the gold ram which he had found, and went 
with it to Paris, where he was well received, and the king was 
delighted with the statue, and in return promised his protection 
against Conmor, and gave Leonore rights of sanctuary as far as 



^+- 



-** 



248 Lives of the Saints. (Julv2-s. 



the sound of his bell reached ; but he could effect nothing with 
Childebert towards the restoration of Judual. 

The legend of his life describes the mode of existence in 
the monastery: — "At cockcrow the monks celebrated matins 
{noctiirnas vigilias) and lauds {?natutinas laiides). As soon as 
dawn broke they returned to their duties of hard labour. While 
thus engaged they said the canonical hours, that is to say, prime, 
second, terce, and sext. A little before nones (3 p.m.) they 
left work and went to the church, praising the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost by saying Beitedicite omnia opera, to the end of the 
psalm. Then they said the office, and after that took their re- 
fection. But before going to table, they tithed their repast 
and cast the tenth to the birds and beasts, for there were no 
poor in those parts, they had all in common." 

Leonore in Brittany is Lunaire. His tomb is shown in the 
parish church that occupies the site of his foundation. His 
festival was kept in the diocese of Leon on July I, at Dol on 
February 16, at S. Malo on July 16, and at Coutance on July 3. 

2 OuDOC, B. Llandaff, a.d. 564 (L.). 
SwiTHUN, B. Winchester, a.d. 862 (L.). 

3 Peblig or PuBLicius, C. Carnarvon, ^th cent. 
Germanus, B. Man, e,th cent. (L.). 

Peblig (Pubijcius) was either son or grandson of Maxeii 
Wledig (Maximus) and Elen, and lived in the fifth century. lie 
settled in Carnarvon. 

4 Translation of S. Martin, of Tours. 

5 MoDWENNA, V. Abss. Bnrton-on-Trent {see fiily 6). 
MoNGUNNA, V. Abss. Ireland, circa a.d. 650. 
Odo, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 958 (L.). 

EuRFYL, V. Montgomeryshire, uncertain date. 
Probus and Grace, CC. Cormvall {see April 5). 

EuRFYL or Erfyl, who founded the church of Llanerfyl, in 
Montgomeryshire, is of uncertain date, and next to nothing is 
known of her. The old inscribed tombstone in the churchyard 
of Llanerfyl is not hers, as has been generally supposed. 



-* 



^ 



JULV 6-7. 



Celtic mid English Kaloidar. 



249 



MoRWENNA, V. Cornwall, ^th cent. (L.). 
Palladius, B. Ireland, circa a.d. 430 (L.). 
MoNYNNA, V. Ireland and Scotland, circa a.d. 518 

(L.). 
MODWENNA, V. Abss. Bnrlon-on-Trcnt, ^th cent. (L.), 
Sexburga, W. Abss. Ely, a.d. 699 (L.). 

Iltut or Illtyd, Ab. Wales, 6th cent. 
Medran and Odran, CC. Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 
Merryn, C. Cornwall {see January 6). 
Ethelburga, V. Abss. Farenioutiers, a.d. 695 (L.). 
Hedda, B. Winchester, a.d. 705 (L). 
Willibald, B. Eichstadt, a.d. 786 (L.). 
Translation 0/ S. Thomas a Becket, a.d. 1220. 

Iltut or Illtyd was a native of Brittany or Armorica, 
where his festival is observed on November 7, and was the great- 
nephew of S. Germanus, of Auxerre. The Welsh authorities 
call him "the Knight," and it is probable that he was engaged 
in a military career for some time. He served in the court of 
Saul, King of Morganwg. One day the king was out hunting, 
when, feeling hungry, and being near Llancarvan, he ordered 
his men to go to S. Cadoc's abbey and take what was required 
for their meal. This they did, Illtyd alone refusing compliance. 
He " stood afar witli a hawk, which he sometimes loosed and 
directed after birds." 

Then a miracle occurred : the earth swallowed up the men 
and the stolen meal. This so affected Illtyd as to work his 
conversion. All the land about Llancarvan was at this time a 
great unreclaimed swamp, and the truth of the story probably is, 
that in hunting that day several of the king's men were smothered 
in a bog, and that Illtyd was for a while in extreme danger 
himself, and when almost despairing of escape from the morass, 
vowed his life to religion. 

He left the king, and, with his wife and attendants, retired to 
the banks of the Dawnon, and built himself a cabin, and others 
for his servants, of bushes and reeds. The huts they thatched, 
" that it might not rain on their beds." Then he dreamt that 
the place was unsuitable. 



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250 Lives of the Saints. (July 7. 



Next morning, early, he hade his wife get out of bed and 
collect the horses. She at once obeyed, and went out to catch 
the steeds without a stitch of clothes upon her, covered only by 
her flowing hair. On her return, leading the horses, and that 
in a high wind that was keen with frost, Iltut, instead of being 
ashamed of having lain comfortably in bed whilst sending 
his wife out naked to run after the horses, " greatly regretted 
that he had loved such a person ; and he vowed to desert 
her," which the monkish biographer considers the height of 
virtue. 

The story goes on to say that the poor woman, shivering with 
cold, having brought the horses, wanted to go back to bed and 
get warm, but Iltut threw her garments at her head, and bade 
her pack, and kept her out of bed. " She put on her clothes 
and sat down, and begged with a trembling heart to be allowed 
to get into bed again at his side." But Iltut absolutely refused 
to share the blanket with her, and drove her away. 

The real truth of the story is, that the first community founded 
by Iltut was one in which the married people lived together, as 
was usual in Celtic religious communities of the first period, and 
probably the transition to the second stage is marked by the 
settlement at Llantwit Major. At Llantwit, Iltut made a square 
enclosure, enclosed within a mound and palisades, and within 
were bee-hive huts occupied by the monks, and seven small 
stone churches. 

One day the chief of the country was hunting a stag, and the 
poor beast, much harassed, fled to the religious settlement, 
entered the hut of Iltut, and lay down at his feet. The chief 
followed and demanded the stag ; this the saint refused to 
give up. 

It is a pity that the saint did not exhibit as much humanity to 
his wife as he displayed to the stag. 

She remained where he had left her for some time ; but at last, 
moved by affection, she went to Llantwit, where she found him 
clothed in skins, his face soiled, his hands hard with work. He 
drove her away, and for having dared to come after him she was 
afflicted with blindness. However, she sought him once again, 
and then he interceded for her ; she was cured of her blindness, 
but forbidden ever to come near him again. 

Iltut had much difficulty with the chief of the tribe of the 
land, who demanded tribute of the ecclesiastical tribe, and 
doubtless also called forth the retainers for war. The super- 
intendent of the prince, for making this demand, was cursed by 
the saint, and thereupon he melted down into a lump of bee's- 



•T 



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»4- 



juLv8-i2.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 251 



wax. Nevertheless, the prince insisted on his rights, and at 
last Iltut left Llantwit and took refuge in a cave. One day a 
messenger of Gildas was passing the cave, carrying a bell as 
a present to S. David, when suddenly the bell began to ring 
violently of its own accord. Hearing the bell, Iltut looked out 
of his cave and asked to be allowed to ring the bell. This was 
granted, and he then returned it. But when the bell reached 
its destination it was mute, and remained so till surrendered to 
Iltut. Then Iltut returned to Llantwit, but it was to fresh 
quarrel with the chief of the land. He paid a visit to Brittany, 
and in a time of famine was able to send corn from Wales for 
the relief of the famishing people. He died in Armorica, at 
Dol. None of the Welsh calendars give the 7th July as his 
feast ; only Wilson in his second edition of the " Martyrologe " 
(1640), and Father Stanton, "An English Menology" (1887). 

8 KiLiAN, B.M. Witrzburg, a.d. 689 (L.). 
WiTHBURGA, V. Dereham, in Norfolk, a.d. 743. 
Grimbald, Ab. Winchester, a.d. 903 (L.). 
Edgar, K. English, a.d. 975 (L.). 

WiTHBURGA was the youngest daughter of Anna, King of the 
East Angles. As a child she was brought up at Holkham, 
where subsequently a church was dedicated in her honour, but 
when her father fell in battle she took refuge at Dereham. For 
some time she was sustained by the milk of a hind. She died 
about 743. 

9 Everildis, V. England, ph cent. (L.). 



10 



II Drostan, C. Scotland, circa a.d. 600 (L.) 

Cywair or CowAiR, V. Merionethshire, uncertain date. 

Cywair or CowAiR is a virgin saint of whom nothing is 
known. The little church of Llangower, in Merionethshire, is 
dedicated to her. 



12 



HH _ 

252 Lives of the Saints. [July 13-15. 

13 MiNVER, V. Cornivall [see November 24). 

DoGFAN or DoEWAN, M. Pembrokeshire and Denbigh- 
shire, ^th cent. 
Translation of S. Jutwara, V.M. at Sherborne, circa 

A.D. 700. 

Mildred, V. Abss. Thanet, 8//z cent. (L.). 

DOGFAN, DOGWAN, or DuEWAN, was one of the many sons 
of Brychan Brycheiniog. He was slain by the pai^an Saxons at 
Meilhyr Dogfan, meaning his inartyrium, in Pembrokeshire, 
where a church in his memory was erected. It is not easy to 
understand how the Saxons could have got into Pembrokeshire 
at this time. It is more probable that he fell a victim to some 
of the corsairs who were continually harassing the coast. 

The cloudberries growing on the Berwyn mountain are 
popularly called Mwyar Doewan, his berries. 

Jutwara or Jutwell was the sister of S. Sid well, con- 
sequently also of S. Paulus Aurelianus. Pier sister Wulvella 
was settled at Laneast, in Cornwall. The adjoining parish is 
Lanteglos, dedicated to S. Julitta, and in it is the holy well 
called Jutwells. The rededication to Julitta probably tocjk place 
when reconsecrated by one of the bishops of Exeter. It is not 
possible to say l)y whom Lanteglos was originally founded, and 
who was its first patron, but it is within the range of proba- 
bility that it was Jutwara or Jutwell, the sister of the two com- 
memorated at Laneast. Jutwara was killed by her brother, to 
whom she had been falsely accused of incontinence. He cut 
off her head. Where it fell a well bubbled up. She rose, 
took up her head and carried it to the church. Her body was 
translated to Sherborne Abbey. 

14 

15 Adeodatus or Deusdedit, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 664 
(L.). 
Donald, C. Scotland, circa 716 (L.). 
Edith of Polesworth, Abss. Warwickshire ; see 

September 16 (L.). 
Translation of S. Swithun, at Winchester, a.d. 970; 
see July 2 (L.). 

* — A* 



I 



-* 



July 16-22.] 



Celtic and English Kalenda^'. 



253 



16 Helier, H.M. Jersey, 6th cent. (L.). 
Tenenan, B. Brittany, 6th cent. 

Tenenan, son of Tinidor, an Irish prince, probably Tigher- 
nach, is venerated in Brittany, at Lauterneau. Tliere exists 3 
suspicion that he is one and the same as the Irish Tighernach, 
Bishop of Clogher and Clones, whose day, however, is, in Wales 
and Ireland, April 4. 

17 Cynllo, K.C. Wales, circa a.d. 460. 

Kenelm, Boy M. Winehelambe, in Gloucestershire, a.d. 
819 (L.). 

Cynllo, son of Mor, was uncle of Pabo post Prydain and of 
Jalhaiarn. He is tutelary saint of three churches in Radnor- 
shire, and of two in Cardiganshire. He is termed Cynllo the 
King, and it is probable that he was a chief, who, towards the 
end of his days, embraced the religious life. His date is 
about 460. At Llangoedmor, in Cardiganshire, the marks of 
his knees and the prints of his hcjrse's hoofs are still shown in 
the rock, also his " brewing tubs" in the rocky bed of the river. 

18 Thenew, W. Scotland, a.d. 574 (L.). 

Nine Daughters of S. Donald, VV. Scotland, 8th 
cent, {see Jidy 15). 



19 



20 Etheldwitha, Q. W. Winchester, a.d. 903. 

Ethei.dwitha or Ealsitha, widow of King Alfred, was 
daughter of Ethelred and Eadburg of Mercia. She began the 
foundation of a convent for women at Winchester along with 
King Alfred, and after his death she retired into it, but did not 
survive her husband many years, and died in 903. 



21 



23 



254 Lives of the Saints. [Julv 23-28. 

23 

24 WuLFHAD and Rufinus, MM. at Stone, in Stafford- 
shire, circa a.d. 658 (L.). 

Declan, B. Ardmore, Ireland, 6th cent. (L.), 

25 Cyndeyrn, C. Carmarthenshire, 6th cent. 
JuDOC, P.H. Brittany, circa a.d. 668 {see December 13). 
MoRDEYRN, C. Nantglyn, in Denbighshire. 
Translation of S. Lewina, V.M. Seaford, in Sussex, 

and at Berg, in Flanders, a.d. 1058. 

Cyndeyrn was the son of Arthog, of the family of Cunedda, 
and is not to be confounded with Cyndeyrn or Kentigern, the 
founder of the bishopric of Llanelwy or S. Asaph. 

Lewina was a virgin martyr of whom nothing is known, save 
that she reposed at Seaford, in Sussex, whence her body was 
transported to Berg, in Flanders, in 105S. This day is a fair- 
day in Seaford. The usual miracles were supposed to attend 
the translation. 

26 

27 Hugh of Lincoln, Boy M., a.d. 1255 (L.). 

28 Samson, B. Dot, in Brittany, circa a.d. 565 (L.). 

Samson. In the text an inaccuracy occurs (viii. p. 607), 
When Samson left Wales, it was not merely the vision that 
induced him to depart, but the fact that the yellow plague was 
raging there, and also that he was desirous of recovering his 
patrimony in Armorica. 

In the more genuine Life of the saint, the story of his ordina- 
tion is told quite differently. It was an accident. The bishops, 
among whom was S. Dubricius, were assembled on the Feast 
of the Chair of S. Peter (January 18 or February 22) in the 
monastery of S. German to consecrate two bishops, " but," says 
the biographer, "according to ancient usage" three bishops 
were always ordained together, and to make up the third they 

►}. ^ 



JULV28.] Celtic and English Kalejidar. 255 



consecrated Samson. He did not, as stated in the text, cross 
at once to Brittany, but to Cornwall, and landed at Padstow, 
where, as we learn from the Life of S. Petroc, he was visited 
by that saint. He founded a chapel at Padstow on the height 
near Place House. Then, we are told, he was visited by and 
took counsel with a certain Winiau, a monk endowed with the 
gift of prophecy. Probably this saint accompanied him ; he is 
the Withenoc who was commemorated at Bodmin on November 
7, and was the brother of S. Winwaloe, and was founder of 
Lewannick, near Launceston. From Padstow, Samson made 
his way, we may conjecture, to Petherwyn, where his cousin 
Padarn had a large settlement. 

Petherwyn was a really extensive territory, and it was after- 
wards annexed to Tavistock Abbey. And probably it is to this 
visit that the story belongs of Padarn running to meet Samson 
with one shoe and stocking on his foot and the other bare. 
Samson went thence to Southill parish, where he founded the 
church. It was apparently on his way thither, at Trecor or 
Tregeare, that the incident occurred of the interference with the 
people who were performing idolatrous rites about a menhir. 
S. Samson is said to have cut a cross on the stone. The stone 
has disappeared, unless it be that which bears an inscription to 
Cumregnus, son of Maucus, and which does carry on it a cross. 
This stone is nine feet high, and is now in the rectory grounds. 
The chieftain of the district was Gwedian or Gwythian, and we 
may suppose that his tre/wfas the great manor of Killiland, to 
which in later times S. Samson's was attached. 

From Southill, Samson went to the mouth of the Fowey, and 
founded Golant, whilst his companions, Mewan and Austell, 
made other foundations near. Probably at this time also he 
made an excursion to the Scilly Isles, where one has ever since 
borne his name. 

He tarried in Cornwall till the time seemed ripe for him to 
make a descent on Brittany. He arrived there about 548, and 
he landed near Dol. On reaching the shore he found there 
only a poor little hovel, before which sat a man plunged in 
despair, with his eyes on the sea. Within were two women, his 
wife and daughter, very ill. The new-comer was able to treat 
them, so that they recovered, and the man in gratitude offered 
to Samson any l)it of land on his claim that he fancied. Samson 
searched the "desert" as it is called — that is to say, the wild, 
uninhabited country — and found an old Roman well choked 
with earth and overgrown with brambles. He selected the spot, 
and set to work to establish there his monastery. When, in 



^■■*~ 



256 



Lives of the Saints. 



[July 28 



550, S. Mewan was sent across country by Samson to Vannes, 
with a commission, he found the whole country entirely given 
over to forest and moor, with hardly any population. As the 
country was so thinly inhabited, the missionary work of Samson 
must have consisted mainly in planting in suitable positions the 
several colonies that continued to arrive from Britain. On the 
left bank of the Couesnon, at no great distance from the mouth, 
is a great granite basin, nearly five feet in diameter and three 
feet deep, decorated with eight granite crosses ; apparently a 
font for baptism by immersion. This font is in a village of the 
commune of Pleine-Fougeres, called L'lle Saint-Samson, and it 
is supposed to date from the mission of the saint. But Samson 
had not come to Brittany merely to found settlements. The 
Dumnonian sovereignty had been usurped by one Conmor, and 
the rightful prince was a refugee at the Frank court. 

Samson resolved to obtain his restoration. Leaving his 
monastery in charge of one of his cousins, he went to Paris, and 
there endeavoured to persuade King Childebert to take up the 
cause of the prince, whose name was Judual. The Frank, how- 
ever, would not actively interfere, but he was quite ready to 
allow Samson and Judual to make an attempt against Conmor. 
" The more these British fight one another, the less trouble they 
will occasion me," thought Childebert. So he let Judual go. 
Samson at once took him off to the Channel Islands, where they 
collected a band of adventurers and disciplined them, whilst his 
agents on the mainland did their utmost to rouse the people to 
revolt. When ripe for action Samson and Judual crossed to 
Armorica, and many people flocked to their standard. Conmor 
was defeated in three battles, and killed in 555. 

Samson attended the third Council of Paris in 557, and died 
about 565. 

When in the ninth century Nominoe founded Dol as an arch- 
bishopric with jurisdiction over all the dioceses of Brittany, the 
story was invented that Samson had been Archbishop, some said 
of Menevia, others of York. We find Giraldus Cambrensis in 
the twelfth century gravely relating that Samson had been 
Archbishop of S. David's. The connection with York rose out 
of an error. There was a Samson, son of Caw, who was priest 
at York, but he was a very different person from Samson, son of 
Amwn. Then to give the Archbishop of Dol a quasi-official 
right to bear the pall, it was further fabled that Samson had re- 
ceived this ornament and symbol of authority from the Pope. 
Accordingly he is usually represented as an archbishop, with 
crozier and pall. As much misconception exists as to what the 



* 



*- 



->it 



jLLY 29-31.] Celtic and English Kalendar. 257 



pall implies, a word may here be added relative to it. The pall 
was originally a part of the dress of the Emperors of Rome, and 
they specially allowed a few persons to wear it, as, for instance, 
eminent philosophers whom they desired to favour. Without 
special license, it was treason to wear the imperial dress. The 
bishops of Rome received their palls from the emperor as 
symbols of his favour. When the seat of government was 
removed to Constantinople, and later, when the Western Em- 
pire broke up altogether, then the Popes took it on themselves 
to grant palls as symbols of good-will. It had no other mean- 
ing whatever. It did not symbolise the conference of archi- 
episcopal rank. And, indeed, S. Faulinus consecrated Honorius 
to be Archbishop of Canterbury in 627, without having received 
any pall himself, and Honorius lived as archbishop for seven 
years before a pall was sent to him. Paulinus, also, received a 
pall for York in 634, but he had fled from his see before it 
arrived, and he took it with him to Rochester, and wore it as 
suffragan to Canterbury till his death. 

The earliest and only really trustworthy Life of S. .Samson has 
been tampered with by some later hand, which has introduced 
a number of miracles that did not exist in the Life when written. 
But the style in which these latter are composed is smooth and 
flowing, whereas the original is written in very rugged Latin. 
It is consequently easy to eliminate all this fabulcus matter 
intruded into an otherwise trustworthy biography. 

29 Lupus, B. Troyes, a.d. 479 (L.). 

30 Ermengytha, F. Thanei, a.d. 680. 
Tatwin, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 734 (L.). 

Ermengytha was one of the daughters of Ermenred, King 
of Kent, and sister of S. Ermenburga or Domneva, the foundress 
of Minster-in-Thanet. Ermengytha retired to her sister's con- 
vent, and spent her life there in peace. She does not occur in 
any early martyrologies or kalendars. 

31 Germanus, B. Auxerre, a.d. 448 (L.). 
Neot, H. Cornwall, circa a.d. 877 (L.). 



VOL. XVI. 



* 



^ ■ ^ 

I 

258 Lives of the Saints. [August 1-2. 



AUGUST 

1 Cennydd or Kenneth, H. Gower, 6th cent. (L.). 
Almedha, V.M. Brecknockshire, 6th cent. (L.). 
SiDWELL or Sativola, V.M. Exeter, 'jth cent. 
Ethelwold, B. Winchester, a.d. 984 (L.). 

Almedha or Elined [see Life in text). The churches of 
Llanelien, in Brecknockshire, and of Helland, in Cornwall, are 
perhaps dedicated to her. There is a parish of Lanhelen, in the 
diocese of S. Brieuc, in Brittany, that was probably dedicated to 
her originally, though now supposed to have as patroness the 
mother of Constantine the Great. 

SiDWELL or Sativola is said to have been a virgin saint of 
British origin, and to have had three sisters — Jutwara, whose 
translation is celebrated at Sherborne on the 13th July, also 
Eadwara and Willgith, but these are certainly not Celtic names. 
But Willgith we find as Wulvella or Wilvella at Laneast 
associated with her sister Sidwell, and I strongly suspect that 
Eadwara or Jutwara is the Jutwell of Lanteglos. Sidwell 
is said to have been sister of Paulus Aurelianus. If, as is 
probable, the church of S. Paul at Exeter, which is within the 
confines of the ancient British city, was founded by Paulus 
Aurelianus, then it is not surprising to find near it the church of 
S. Sidwell. But in Exeter she is said to have suffered martyr- 
dom, her head having been cut off by a scythe, and then 
thrown into the well, since reputed holy, in the parish. But 
it is very doubtful that she was a martyr, and it may be sus- 
pected that the symbols of a scythe and well were adopted from 
her name and originated the fable of her martyrdom. More 
probably she and her sisters moved west and settled beyond the 
Tamar. At Laneast, where she and Wulvella are commemorated, 
is her holy well, called Jordan, whence water is always drawn 
for baptisms. In one of the church windows is a fragment of 
stained glass representing Wulvella as a crowned and veiled virgin. 

2 Etheldritha, V.R. Croyland, circa a.d. 834 (L.). 
Plegmund, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 914. 

Plegmund lived for many years as a hermit. He was one 
of the preceptors of King Alfred. He was elected Archbishop 

>j^ ■ — »J< 



-»^ 



August 3-8.] 



Celtic and English Kale7idar 



259 



of Canterbury, and received consecration at the hands of Pope 
Formosus. Several sees were vacant at the time, and Plegmund 
consecrated on one day seven bishops in his cathedral church 
of Canterbury. He it was who crowned Edward the Elder at 
Kingston-on-Thames in 900. He died in 914. 

3 Waltheof, Ab. Scotland, a.d. 1160 (L.). 

4 Buan, C. Carnarvonshire, 'jth cent. 
MOLUA, Ab. Clonfert, Ireland, a.d. 606 (L.). 

5 Ceitho, C. Cardiganshire, 6th cent, {see Nov. i). 
Oswald, K.M. Northnmbria, a.d. 642 (L.). 



6 Acca, B. Hexham, a.d. 740 (L.). 



Ffagan, C. Glamorganshire, 2nd cent. 
Hychan, C. Denbighshire, ^th or 6th cent. 
Illog, B. Montgomeryshire, as Ellidius in the Scilly 
Isles, 'jth cent. 

Ffagan was, according to the legend, sent by Pope Eleu- 
thesius, with Dyfan, Medwy, and Elfan, to Britain (stQ January 
l). He and his companions lived and died in Morgan wg, and 
were not known beyond its limits. 

Hychan was a son or grandson of Brychan of Brecknock, 
and is the patron of a church in the vale of Clwyd. 

Illog or Ellidius is the patron of the church of Hirnant, in 
Montgomeryshire. He is there commemorated on this day, as 
also, under the name of Ellidius, in the Scilly Isles, to which he 
doubtless retired. After the Latin Church had overwhelmed the 
national Celtic churches, the monks, knowing nothing of the 
native saints, altered their names to such as were familiar to 
them, and so S. Ellidius became S. Hilary. Not far from 
Hirnant church is his well, and there is a tumulus close by 
called Carnedd Illog. According to the Tavistock Kalendar, 
quoted by William of Worcester, Ellid of Scilly, bishop, was 
commemorated on the same day as Illog in the Welsh kalendars 



^- 



-* 



^ — >J« 

260 Lives of the Saints. [August 9-10. 

9 Fedlimid, B. Kilmore, in Ireland, circa a.d. 550 (L.). 
Nathy the Priest, C Achonry, in Ireland, circa a.d. 
605 (L.). 
10 Geraint, K.M. Devon and Cornwall, a.d. 530. 
Blane, B. Bute, a.d. 590 (L.). 
Betellin, H. Staffordshire and Croyland, circa a.d. 

720 {see September 9). 
Malchus, B. Lismore, circa a.d. 1130 (L.). 

Geraint or Gerontius was a chieftain of Devon, grandson 
of Constantine of Cornwall, and son of S. Erbin or Ervan. He 
carried on the prolonged agony of struggle against the advancing 
Saxons. According to local tradition, the ancestral abode of 
Geraint was at Dinas Gerein, i.e. the palace of Geraint, near 
Veryan (Trans. Roy. Inst, of Cornwall, vol. ii. p. 314). His 
wife Enid, daughter of a chief at Caerleon, is one of the purest 
and sweetest characters of mediaeval romance. If there be any 
basis of genuine tradition at the bottom of the Mabinoge of 
Geraint, then the Prince of Cornwall delivered her father from 
great distress, he having been deprived of his lands and position 
by an usurping kinsman. Geraint married Enid, and took her 
home to Cornwall, where his father Erbin, exhausted by old 
age, resigned the conduct of government to him. 

Geraint was so much in love with his beautiful wife that he 
spent all his time with her and could not bear to be absent from 
her for a day. Once he was lying asleep, and her tears fell on 
his breast, and she sighed. She was lamenting that he had thus 
lost his courage and dignity. But he misunderstood her tears, 
and believed that she had ceased to love him, and had given 
her heart to another. So he resolved to go to King Arthur, and 
he bade Enid run ahead of him and never speak a word on the 
way, till they reached Caerleon ; and he further bade her wear 
the old and faded dress in which he had seen and loved her. 
Of the adventures on the way there is no need to tell, till near 
Caerleon, when Geraint was sore wounded, and in his sickness 
was nursed tenderly by Enid. 

" Her constant motion round him, and the breath 
Of her sweet tendance hovering over him, 
Fill'd all the genial courses of his blood 
With deeper and with even deeper love. 
As the south-west that blowing Bala lake 
Fills all the sacred Dee." 

■ ■ — >i< 



q<- 



-1^ 



August lo.] Celtic auci EngHsk Kalendav. 261 



And so all his doubt and mistrust passed away, and he loved 
Enid better, if that might be, than he had before. 

" They called him the great Prince and man of men ; 
But Enid, whom her ladies loved to call 
Enid the Fair, a grateful people named 
Enid the Good ; and in their halls arose 
The cry of children, Enids and Geraints 
Of times to be. Nor did he doubt her more, 
But rested in her fealty, till he crowned 
A happy life with a fair death, and fell 
Against the heathen of the Northern Sea 
In battle, fighting for the blameless king." 

Tennyson, who composed the " Idylls of the King " at Caer- 
leon, in a room overlooking the tidal Usk, did not describe 
Enid as more typical of a holy and sweet woman than does 
the old story-teller of the middle ages. Geraint fell in 522, 
some years before the death of Arthur, at Llongborth, which is 
doubtless Langport, in Somersetshire. He was possessed not 
only of an army, but also a fleet in the Severn, and Llongborth 
signifies the quay for ships. His death is thus described in a 
poem to his memory by Llywarch the Aged : — 

" In Llongborth I saw the rage of slaughter. 
And biers beyond all number, 
And red-stained men from the assault of Geraint. 

In Llongborth I saw the edges of blades in contact. 
Men in terror, and blood on the pate. 
Before Geraint, the great son of his father. 



In Llongborth Geraint was slain, 

A brave man from the region of Dyvnaint [Devonshire], 

And before they were overpowered, they committed slaughter," 

A saying attributed to Geraint is, "Short-lived is the hater 
of the saints." His own designation was, "the Friend of the 
Saints." 

Geraint is the subject of a tale in the Mabinogion, but it is of 
no historic value. 

His sons were Cyngar, Selyf, Icstyn, Caw, and Cado, of wliom 



*- 



.J< (^ 

262 Lives of the Saints. [August 10. 

four are numbered among the saints, and possibly Tegau Eurfron 
was his daughter, the virtuous wife of Caradog Freichfras. 

Much confusion has arisen through there having been three 
or four of the same name, princes of Devon. 

The first, called by the Latin historians Gerontius, was 
appointed by the usurper Constantine, in 406, to the command 
of his army in Gaul. Eventually, mortified in his pride, 
Gerontius revolted against Constantine, and proclaimed Maxi- 
mus emperor ; but, deserted by his troops and defeated, he put 
an end to his own life, after having killed his wife and a faithful 
servant, 408. 

From him, Geraint, son of Erbin, was removed by more than 
a century. But, if we may trust the Welsh genealogies, there 
was about the same time another Geraint, son of Caranog, and 
father of S. Eldad, Bishop of Gloucester. 

There was another Geraint again. Prince of Devon, men- 
tioned in a letter addressed to him in 705 by Aldhelm, Abbot 
of Malmesbury, accordingly nearly two centuries later than the 
times of Geraint ap Erbin. This last Geraint, at the beginning 
of the eighth century, fought against Ina, King of Wessex, and 
was driven back by him into the west, and Ina was able to 
erect a fortress at Taunton to guard the frontier. The Saxon 
Chronicle records a battle between Ina and Geraint in 710. A 
church in Hereford is dedicated to Geraint, the son of Erbin ; so 
also is one in the diocese of Nantes. That of Gerrans, in Corn- 
wall, was founded by him. 

S. Geran, in the deanery of Porhoet and bishopric of Vannes, 
has him for patron. 

There was anciently a chapel dedicated to this saint in the 
parish of Philleigh, in Cornwall, and the inlet or loop of the 
river Fal was called Polgerran. A headland in Mevagissey 
bears his name, and on Veryan or Carn Beacon is a mound 
traditionally held to be his tomb. Excavations made in this 
barrow in 1855 revealed the remains of a chieftain enclosed in 
a kistvaen or stone chest. Happily, however, it was not the 
saintly king who was disturbed, but a prehistoric warrior. The 
local tradition is that Geraint was a refugee from Wales, driven 
away by the Saxons, and being well received in Cornwall, fixed 
on a place called Curgurrell, where he built the castle called 
after him, Dingerain. After some years he resigned his crown 
to his son, and was buried in the mound above mentioned, along 
with a golden boat with silver oars. The treasure seekers in 
1855 were sadly disconcerted not to recover these valuable 
deposits. 

^ ^ 



^ __ © 

August H-13.] Celtlc cind Eiiglisli Kaleudcir. 263 

IT 

12 Merewenna, v. Marhamchtirch, Cormvall. 

MuREDACH, B. Killala^ Ireland, circa a.d. 580 (L.). 
Jambert, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 790. 

Merewenna is a reputed sister of Morwenna, and a daughter 
or grandchild of Brychan, of Brecknock. She is the patroness 
of Marhamchurch, near Bude. The Welsh genealogists do not 
know of her, and we may strongly suspect that she is identical 
with Morwenna, the foundress of Morwenstow ; but Morwenna is 
also not in the lists of Brychan's children. Morwyn, in Welsh, 
signifies a virgin, and might have been applied to any of his 
maiden daughters who lived religious lives and founded churches. 
At Marhamchurch the festival of the foundress is observed on the 
nearest Sunday to the 12th August. 

Jambert was abbot of S. Augustine's, at Canterbury, when 
chosen successor to Bregwin in that see. The lime was that 
when Offa, King of Mercia, was striving to assert his supremacy 
throughout England. In the anarchy that had succeeded the 
death of Ethelbald, in 757, the kingdom of Mercia had shrunk 
to narrow bounds, and Kent, Essex, and East Anglia had 
thrown off her yoke, while the Welsh were rallying to fresh 
inroads over her western border. None of the Mercian losses 
were more felt than that of Kent, for through it ran the main 
line of communication with the Continent. Kent, moreover, 
was the seat of an archbishopric, to which the entire Church in 
the Anglo-Saxon realms looked as head. Some years elapsed 
before Offa could attempt the recovery of Kent, and the Mercian 
king sought to withdraw the midlands from the supremacy of 
Canterbury. To effect this, he petitioned Pope Adrian to erect 
an archiepiscopal throne at Lichfield. Adrian consented, and 
sent the pall to Adulf, the first and only Archbishop of Lichfield 
and the kingdom of Mercia. This division took place about 
786. But, in the meantime, by the battle of Oxford, in 775, Offa 
had recovered control over Kent. Nevertheless, he desired to 
have the whole of Mercia in independence of Canterbury. 
Jambert naturally resented this, and Offa seems to have disliked 
him accordingly. It was not till after the death of Jambert, 
in 790, that the division ceased, and the archbishopric of Lich- 
field came to an end. Offa died in 794. 



13 



■* 



->^ 



^ 

264 Lives of the Sahits. [august 14-16. 

14 Fachnan, B. Rosscarbery, Ireland, circa a.d. 590 (L.). 
Just, C. Cornwall and Montgomeryshire, 6th cent. 

Just or Ust and Dyfnig or Dominicius accompanied S. Cadfan 
from Armorica, and the two in conjunction founded the church 
of Llanwrin, in Montgomeryshire. The festival of S. Just was 
marked in the old breviary of the abbey of S. Melanie, at Rennes, 
on 2nd September. There was a chapel near this abbey that was 
dedicated to him, and there is a parish under his patronage in 
the diocese of Vannes. In Brittany he is held to have been a 
bishop. But this Just is thought to have been the second Bishop 
of Rennes, and to have been a martyr. He is also called Justus, 
and his festival is observed variously on 2nd June and 2nd Septem- 
ber. If he ever lived, it must have been in the fourth century, 
but nothing is known of him. Anyhow, this cannot be the Just 
of Cornwall and Montgomeryshire. But, indeed, it is most pro- 
bable that the Cornish saint is not Ust of the Welsh kalendars, 
and that both are distinct from the saint of Brittany. Probably 
the Cornish saint Just in Roseland is lestin, the Prince of Dom- 
nonia, son of S. Geraint, and uncle of S. Cybi ; brother also 
of Cado, Duke of Cornwall, and of S. Cyngar. 

The dedication festival of S. Just in Roseland, Cornwall, is on 
this day. He is not commemorated in the Welsh kalendars. 

16 S. Ermel, Armel, or Erme, C. Cornwall and Brittany, 
6th cent. 

Ermel or Armel, the patron of Plon-ermel, was a Briton, 
cousin of Faulus Aurelianus or Pol de Leon, and he doubtless 
accompanied him to Brittany. He was trained by a certain 
Caron-cinal. A Caron of uncertain date, and reputed to have 
been a bishop, lived in Cardiganshire (March 5). Or Caron may 
be Guron, the hermit of Bodmin. All we know is that Ermel, 
after returning to the world, regretted having done so, and he 
revisited his director, who advised him to go to Armorica along 
with his kinsman, Paulus Aurelianus. 

The party went over the Severn Sea, and Paul was probably 
the founder of the church that bears his name in Exeter. Ermel 
or Arthmael accompanied him when he went farther west. In 
the deanery of Powder he founded a church now called S. Erme. 
He does not seem to have crossed to Armorica along with S. 

^ ^ 



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* 



August 17-19.] 



Celtic and English Kalenda7' 



265 



Paul, but to have gone independently, and at the head of a 
separate colony. 

Ermel and his companions landed in Lyoness, at a haven 
called Aber-Benniguel. At once he organised a. plow or people, 
and this bears his name as Plouermel. On account of the dis- 
turbances through the usurpation of Conmor, Ermel thought it 
advisable to visit Paris, and crave the protection of Childebert. 
This was accorded him, and he was granted a bit of land near 
Rennes, where he founded a lann, now S, Armel des Boschaux. 
He himself lived in a cell. When Conmor had been killed, in 
555, and Judual was king, he returned to Plouermel. One day 
he was told that a dragon infested a cave near the river Seich. 
He at once went to it, bound his stole about it, drew it to the 
river, and cast the monster in. 

He died about 562. 

In Cornwall, the Latin ecclesiastics, not knowing much, if 
anything, about him, converted his name into Hermes, and made 
that saint patron of S. Erme. 

17 James, Deac. at York, circa a.d. 650 (L.). 



r 



18 Helena, Empss. IV., circa a.d. 328 (L.). 
Dag^eus, B. Inniscathin, Ireland, circa a.d. 560. 
Ernan, .(4(5>. B. Ireland, a.d. 625 (see Marnoc, October 

25)- 

Inan, C Irvine, Scotland, ^th cent. 

DaG/^us (in Irish, Deghadh) attended S. Mochteus in his last 
illness, and ministered to him the viaticum. He lived in Iniskin, 
near Dundalk. 

19 Cledog or Clydog, K.M. Brecknockshire, and as 

Clether in Cornwall, circa a.d. 482 (L.). 
Mochteus, B. Louth, in Ireland, a.d. 535 (L.). ; also 

September 19. 
Credan, Ah. Evesham, circa a.d. 781. 

Clether, founder of a church in North Cornwall, near 
Launceston, was one of the saintly colony from Brecknockshire, 
is said to have been a son of Clydwyn, and grandson of Brychan. 



«- 



-* 



266 Lives of the SaijltS. [August 20. 

This means no more than that he belonged to the clan or family. 
There was a descent of the Goidels from Brecknock on North 
Cornwall, and the land was portioned out, so much amonr; the 
secular tribal chiefs, and so much among the ecclesiastical chiefs. 
Of these Clether was one. Clether is probably the Clechre of 
the Life of S. Brynach. Brynach so moved Clechre by his 
exhortations that he left Carmarthen and went into Cornwall, 
where he died at an advanced age. At S. Clether is a sacred 
well, and chapel over it, with an altar in it. Clether is the 
Cledog or Clydog of the Welsh kalendars. 

In a Welsh kalendar of the twelfth century, in the British 
Museum, November 3 is given as the day of S. Cledog. At S. 
Clether, October 23 is observed as the feast, because that is the 
day on which the church was reconsecrated in 1239. There 
can be little doubt that S. Cleer, near Liskeard, was originally 
founded by S. Clether. His chapel and well at S. Clether are 
in a singularly romantic situation. The great Laneast common 
stands up as a wall to the north ; the south slope into the Inney 
valley bristles with horns of rock, and among these clefts, on a 
warm, sunny slope, secure from every wind, are the remains 
of the cell, and chapel, and well of the royal saint. If, as is 
probable, he was grandson of Brychan and son of Clydwyn, he 
was there with kinsmen about him. He must be distinguished 
from Cledog who is said to have died at Clodock, in Ewyas, 
now in Herefordshire ; for this latter was the son of Gwynnar, 
and father of Cynfarch, from whom Taliesin was descended 
(lolo MSS., p. 459). 

20 OswiN, K.M. Northumbria, a.d. 651 (L.). 
Edbert, K. York, a.d. 768. 
Ronald, M. Orkney, a.d. 1158 (L.). 

Edbekt became King of Northumbria on the abdication of 
Ceolwulf, who, after eight years of rule, laid down his sword in 
disgust and withdrew to a monastery. Edbert and Egbert were 
sons of Eata, and Egbert became Bishop of York. It was the 
object now of the Northumbrian kings to detach their realm from 
Canterbury as much as possible, and to give to York supremacy 
over Northumbria. Accordingly, Ceolwulf obtained from Rome 
the recognition of the see of York as archiepiscopal, and his 
brother Egbert became the first archbishop in 735. In 738 the 
archbishop's brother Edbert became king, and the joint character 
of their rule was shown in the "stycas" or copper coins issued 

»J,— »i« 



^ . ^ 

August 21-22.] CelHc a7id EngHsfi KaUudar. 267 

from the mint at York, bearing on the obverse the legend of the 
king, and that of the primate on the reverse. 

" Never had the kingdom shown greater vigour, within or 
without, than under these two sons of Eata. Edbert showed 
himself from the outset of his reign an active and successful 
warrior. Though attacked at the same time on his southern 
border by Ethelbald of Mercia, he carried on in 740 a success- 
ful war against the Picts, and ten years later recovered from 
the Britons of Strathclyde the district of Kyle, in Ayrshire. 
So great was his renown that the Frank King Pippin sent 
envoys to Northumbria with costly gifts and offers of friendship. 
... In 756 Edbert, allying himself with the Picts, made himself 
master of the capital [of Strathclyde], Alcluyd or Dumbarton. 
But at the moment when his triumph seemed complete, his 
army was utterly destroyed as it withdrew homewards, only a 
few days after the city's surrender, and so crushing was this 
calamity, that two years after it, not only did Edbert withdraw 
to a monastery and leave the throne to his son Osulf, but the 
archbishop joined his brother in retirement, till both were 
laid side by side in the minster at York."^ (For Egbert see 
November 19). 



21 



2 2 GwYDDELAN, C Montgomeryshire and Carnarvottshire, 
uncertain date. 
SiGFRiD, Ab. Monkswearmottth, a.d. 689. 
Arnulf, Ab. S. Neots, in Huntingdonshire, ()th cent. 

SiGFRlD was elected in the room of Easterwin to govern the 
united monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow whilst Benedict 
Biscop was absent in Rome. He was a man of a delicate con- 
stitution, and suffering from lung complaint. When Benedict 
returned he also was in failing health, and after three years both 
Benedict and Sigfrid were obliged to resign themselves to their 
beds in their several cells ; they, however, so desired to be together 
that Sigfrid was carried to where Benedict lay, and was placed 
in bed with him, and thus the two abbots lay, their heads on 
one pillow. Sigfrid died two months after, and Benedict sur- 

1 Green, "The Making of England," ed. 1897, vol. ii. p. 182 setf. I 
have merely cleared away the afToctation in the writing of Anglo-Saxon 
names introduced by Freeman, and followed servilely by Green. 



^ .^ 



* 

268 Lives of the Saints. [August 23-26. 

vived him only four months. They were laid in one grave, 
A.D. 689. 

Arnulf was a hermit living in the fens at the border of 
Huntingdonshire, in the region of the Gyrwas or Mid-English. 
The tradition is that he was of British origin. This is not so 
improbable as it would seem, for the fens proved a refuge for 
the Britons against their conquerors, and at the beginning of the 
eighth century they still spoke there the British tongue, as we 
learn from the Life of S. Guthlac. The name of Arnulf is, 
however, Scandinavian. His cell was destroyed in an incur- 
sion of the Danes. The name of this hermit does not occur in 
English kalendars, but is inserted here, as in French kalendars 
an Arnulph, bishop, occurs. The place where the saint had his 
cell is now called Eynebury or Arnulf s-bury, and is half a mile 
from S. Neots. 

ZT) EoGAiN, B. Ardstraw, Ireland, circa a.d. 558 (L.). 
Tydfyl, M. Wales, circa a.d. 460. 

Tydfyl was a daughter of Brychan. The story goes that 
she with her father, then an old man, and Rhun, one of her 
brothers, were massacred by a party of pagan Picts and Saxons 
about 460, at a place afterwards called Merthyr Tydfyl. She 
was the wife of Cyngen, son of Cadell Deyrnllwg, and the 
mother of Brochwael Ysgythrog. 

24 Yarcard, B. Scotland, circa a.d. 450 (L.). 

25 Ebba the Elder, V. Abss. Coldingham, a.d. 683 (L.). 

26 Pandwyna, V. Eltisley, Cambridgeshire. 
Bregwyn, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 762. 

Pandwyna, whose life was written by Richard, rector of 
Eltisley, from popular tradition, was said to have been the 
daughter of a petty prince in Ireland or North Britain, who fled 
to the Cambridge fens to escape from a marriage designed for 
her by her father. She took refuge with a kinswoman who was 
prioress of a nunnery at Eltisley. There she lived a godly life, 
and was regarded as a saint. She was buried near a well, in 
sublime disregard of sanitary principles, which still bears her 
name, but was dug up and translated to the parish church in the 

1J4 (j, 



^. 



-* 



August 27-30.] Ccltic aiicL EfigUsk Kale7idar. 269 



\ 



fourteenth century. The nunnery in which Pandwyna or Pan- 
diania lived was destroyed by the Danes. Eltisley also possessed 
the relics of S. Wendretha, a personage of whom even less is 
known than of Pandwyna. Whatever may be the origin of the 
name Pandwyna, that of Gwendraeth is distinctly Celtic. Not- 
withstanding the general impression that the Britons were ex- 
terminated from the east of England and the Midlands, there 
are indications that a good many remained. Even the name 
given to the supposed Angles who occupied Huntingdonshire 
and Cambridgeshire is suspiciously like a Celtic name Gyrwas 
(men reduced to slavery). 

Bregwyn succeeded Cuthbert as Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and ruled the Church but three years ; he died in 765. It 
appears to have been considered that investment with the office 
of Archbishop of Canterbury entitled the occupant of the see to 
be regarded after death as a saint. 

27 Decuman or Dagan, H.M. near Dimster, Somerset- 

shire, and Pembroke, circa a.d. 706 (L.). 
Maelruth, Mk. M. Mearns, a.d. 722. In Irish 
kalendars on April 21 (L.). 

28 Samson, B. Dol, in Brittany, and Cornwall, circa a.d. 

565 (L.); see July 28. 

Translation of S. Rumwold, Child C. at Brackhy, 

Northamptonshire, circa a.d. 650. 

Rumwold was of princely race in Northumbria ; he was 
perhaps the son of Alcfrid by S. Kyneburga, daughter of Penda ; 
but this is all very doubtful. The legend says that no sooner 
was the infant baptized than he at once spake and professed the 
Christian faith, and died whilst still in his baptismal innocence. 
But this seems to have grown out of what is probably the truth, 
that he was baptized as an adult and died shortly after. His 
death took place on November 3, at King's Sutton, in Northamp- 
tonshire, but his body was translated to Brackley, in the same 
county, on the aSih August, and three years after to Buckingham. 
The death took place about 650. 

29 Sebbi, K.C. East Arigles, a.d. 694 (L.). 

30 Fiacre, C. Breuil, 'jth cent. (L.). 



*- 



-* 



2 /O Lives of the Saints. [ ^s'St^'i!" 



31 Eanswitha, v. Abss. Folkestone, a.d. 640 (L.). 

AiDAN, B. Lindisfarne, Ap. Northunibria, a.d. 651 

(L.). 
CuTHBURGA and QuENBURGA, VV. Wimbonu, in 

Dorset, circa 725 (L.). 



SEPTEMBER 

I SuLlEN, At. Wales, 6th cent. 

SuLiEN or SiLiN is said to have founded churches in Den- 
bighshire and Cardiganshire, and to have spent most of his days 
in Bardsey. He accompanied S. Cadfan from Brittany. There 
S. Sulian is commemorated as the son of a Welsh prince, 
Brocmael. His brother is called Maen, and this may be the Mael 
who, according to the Welsh, was brother to Sulien. The 
Sullen known in Wales was son of Hywel ap Emyr Llydaw. 
No Brocmael is known there, but Brochwael Ysgythrog, Prince 
of Powys, is perhaps meant The Breton story is that Sulian 
entered the religious life at a very early age ; in fact, ran away 
from home and placed himself under the Abbot Guimarch, at 
Meibot — that is to say, Gwyddfarch, at Meifod, in Montgomery- 
shire. Gwyddfarch seems to have been the founder of this school, 
which passed afterwards under S. Tyssilio, son of Brochwael. 

The father, very angry, sent to have the abbot killed, but his 
emissaries did not carry out his orders. Instead, Gwyddfarch 
dismissed the boy, who crossed the Menai Straits and settled in 
Bardsey, which took his name as Ynys Sulien. There he 
remained seven years, till recalled by his old master, who desired 
to entrust to him the charge of Meifod. On reaching the place, 
Sulien found that the old man was bent on making a pilgrimage 
to Rome, and he used his best endeavours to dissuade him from 
so doing, on account of his advanced age. On the death of 
Gwyddfarch, Sulien was elected in his room. In the meantime, 
his father had died, and his brother had succeeded to be head of 
the tribe. The wife of this brother fell desperately in love with 
the young abbot, and to escape her he lied. He retired to 
Builth, in Brecknockshire. But still an object of pursuit, he 
fled still farther, crossed into Brittany, and settled near Aleth, 
now S. Malo, where he remained till his death, on November 8 

lj( ^ 



•J.- 



September 2-6.] 



Celtic and English Kaleridar. 



271 



-* 



according to the S. Malo Breviary, but his festival is celebrated 
on October l. He was succeeded at Meifod by his brother S. 
Tyssilio. The Breviary of Leon marks his festival on July 29, 
and his tomb is shown at Plouer, on the Ranee. It is quite 
possible to reconcile the Breton story with what particulars we 
know about Sulien. Bardsey was certainly called Ynnys Silin 
after him, and he founded churches in Denbighshire and Car- 
diganshire, but not in Brecknockshire. Sulien in Wales is 
commemorated on the same day as Sulian in Brittany. The 
date of his death would be about 570. The real discrepancy is 
in the name of the father. In some Welsh kalendars Sulien is 
also commemorated on September 2 and October i ; also with 
S. Mael, on May 13. 



3 Macriess, B. Connor, a.d. 510 (L.). 

4 MoNESSA, V. Ireland, circa a.d. 456 (L.). 
Rhuddlad, V. Anglesey, 'jih cent. 
Translation 0/ S. Cuthbert, B., a.d. 995. 

Rhuddlad was a daughter of a king of Leinster who came 
to Wales and founded a church in Anglesey. 

5 Marchell or Marcella, F. Wales, 6tk cent. 

Marchell or Marcella was the daughter of Arwystli Gloff. 
She founded Ystrad Marchell, near Welshpool, Montgomery- 
shire, where the Cistercian abbey of Strata Marcella was after- 
wards erected. Capel Marchell, in Llanrwst, Denbighshire, is 
now destroyed. 

6 Bega, V. Al)ss. Cumberland, end of yth cent.; see also 

October 31 (L.). 

Idloes, C. Montgomeryshire, 'jlh cent. 

Idloes was the son of Gwyddnal)i, and lived in the early 
part of the seventh century. In the Welsh proverbial triplets, 
called "The Sayings of the Wise," he is thus referred to : — 

" Hast thou heard what Idloes, 

A man of meekness, amiable in his life, sang? 
' The best quality is a good deportment.' " 



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272 Lives of the Saints. [September 7-10. 

7 Modoc, B. Ferns, circa a.d. 632 (L.). 
DuNAWD, Ab. Flintshire, 6th cent. 
Alkmund and Gilbert, BB. Hexham, a.d. 780 and 

789 (L.). 

DuNAWD Fawr was the son of Pabo Post Prydain, and in 
early life a distinguished warrior among the North Britons. 
Later in life he embraced the religious life, and in conjunction 
with his sons Deiniol, Cynwyl, and Gwarthan, founded the cele- 
brated monastery of Bangor Iscoed, on the banks of the Dee, in 
Flintshire. Dunawd was its first abbot. 

8 Cynfarch, C. Flintshire and Denbighshire, ^th cent. 

Cynfarch, the son of Meirchion, was a prince of the Northern 
Britons. He married Nefyn, one of the daughters of Brychan, 
by whom he had Urien Rheged. He dedicated the latter part 
of his life to religion. He is probably the author of the saying, 
" Whoso respects thee not, him respect not thou." 

9 KiERAN, Ab. of Clonmacnois, a.d. 548 (L.). 
WuLFHiLDA, Abss. Barking, end of 10th cent. 
Bertellin, H. Staffordshire, circa a.d. 720 (L.). 

WuLFHiLDA was of Doble Saxon family. She built and 
endowed the abbey of Horton, on her estate in Dorsetshire. 
When the abbey of Barking was reconstituted after having been 
wrecked by the Danes, Wulfhilda was appointed abbess, but at 
the same time governed her abbey at Horton. In the troubles 
that followed the death of King Edgar, she was driven away by 
Elfthrytha, the widow of the king, but was restored by Ethelred. 
She died about 980. 

10 FiNiAN or Finbar, B. Maghbile, Ireland, a.d. 576. 
Frithestan, B. Winchester, a.d. 933. 

Fin IAN, of Maghbile or Moville, was an Irishman of noble 
birth. He received his education under Colman, of Dromore, by 



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September 11-12] CelHc aiid EngHsJi Kaleiidar. 273 



whom he was afterwards recommended to the Abbot Caylan. 
This holy man sent him to Whithern, S. Ninian's monastery. 
Having spent some time there, he is said to have visited Rome, 
where he spent seven years, and was ordained priest. It is not 
certain when he founded Maghbile, in Down, but it was about 
540, and S. Columba studied under him. He is not to be con- 
founded with Finian or Frigidian, who became Bishop of Lucca. 
Finian, sometimes called also Finbar, was buried at Moville. 
He died in 576. 

Frithestan was one of the seven consecrated on the same 
day by Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, and was appointed 
Bishop of Winchester. He ruled for twenty-three years, and 
died in 933. Shortly before his death he consecrated Birstan to 
be his successor. 



1 1 Deiniol the Carpenter, B. Bangor^ in Wales, 6th 
cent.; also December 10. 

Deiniol or Daniel the Carpenter was first Bishop of 
Bangor, and is said to have been consecrated by S. Dubricius in 
516. (See also Life, December 10.) He was a son of Dunawd, 
of North Britain, who was driven from his territories and took 
refuge in Wales, and placed himself under the protection of 
Cyngen, Prince of Powys. Dunawd and his sons Deiniol, 
Cynwyl, and Gwarthan embraced the religious life, and founded 
the celebrated establishment of Bangor, on the banks of the 
Dee, in Flintshire. When Pelagianism spread in Britain a 
second time, S. David sent Deiniol over to a certain Paulinus, a 
bishop, to come from Gaul to the aid of the distracted British 
Church. A synod met at Llanddewi Brefi, in Cardiganshire, 
and through the eloquence of Paulinus, supported by S. David, 
Dubricius, and Deiniol, the truth prevailed. Bede says that 
Dunawd, the father, was at the conference with Augustine in 
602. Daniel must therefore be placed as successor to his father 
about 608. The date of his death would be 620 or thereabouts, 
unless, what seems probable, Bede named another Dunawd, as 
the other circumstances of the life of Deiniol give him an earlier 
date. The synod at Brefi was before 569, and the slaughter of 
the monks of Bangor, at Chester, took place in 613. lie was 
buried in Bardsey. 



12 AiLBE, B. Emly, in Ireland, a.d. 527 (L.). 

VOL. XVI. 



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Ij( ^ 

274 Lives of the Saints. [September 13-15. 

1 3 Translation of S. Augustine of Canterbury. 

14 Tegwyn, C. Merionethshire, early in 6th cent. 
TuDY, C. Cornwall. 

Tecwyn or Tegwyn was the son of Ithel Hael, and came to 
Britain with S. Cadfan from Armorica. He was founder of a 
church in Merionethshire. There was another Tegwy, son of 
Dingad ab Nudd, but he had no festival. 

TuDY is sometimes in the Exeter Episcopal Registers entered 
as S. Tudius, and sometimes as S. Tudia. Among Brychan's sup- 
posed daughters was a Tydie. There is a S. Tudy venerated in 
Brittany on May II. He was a disciple of S. Maudez, known 
in Cornwall as S. Mawes, who certainly resided some time in 
the peninsula. S. Tudy plays no conspicuous part in the legend 
of his master. He was clearly young at the time, and in 
Brittany nothing is known of his after life. He is known in 
Wales as S. Tegwy or Tegwyn, and his festival in Wales is 
September 14, the same day as that of S. Tudy in Cornwall. This 
may be taken to establish the identity, and we must dismiss the 
notion that Tudy was a female saint. His n?me was made use 
of for a gross forgery. The archdiocese of Tours claimed juris- 
diction over the whole of Brittany, and the Breton bishops 
resisted this claim. To substantiate it, the clergy of Tours pro- 
duced a Life of S. Corentin, in which it was said that the church 
of Cornouaille, being without bishops, sent Corentin, Winwalloe, 
and Tudy to S. Martin to be ordained bishops by him, and that 
S. Martin consecrated Corentin to be Bishop of Quimper, and 
appointed Winwalloe and Tudy to their monasteries as abbots. 
But, unhappily for the composer of the story, S. Martin had 
been dead a century before these saints lived. 

S. Tudy founded the monastery of Loc-Tudy, and was the 
apostle of the south-west of Cornouaille. It is to be regretted 
that, except for a few incidents of his life in the legend of S. 
Maudez, nothing further is known of him. At some period of 
his life he, as also his master, Maudez, were in Cornwall, where 
he founded his lann, where is now the church that bears his 
name, whilst Maudez lived an eremitical life near the spot 
where rose later the castle of S. Mawes. 

r 5 Merryn or Meadhran, B. Ireland and Scotland, a.d. 
620 

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September i6.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



275 



16 NiNiAN, B. of the Eastern Pids, circa a.d. 432 (L.). 
AuxiLius, B. Ireland, a.d. 454. 
Laisren, Ab. lona, a.d. 605. 
Edith, Abss. Polesworth, circa a.d. 964 (L.). 
Edith, V. Wilton, a.d. 984 (L.). 

AuxiLius, In or about 432 S. Patrick, on his return to 
Ireland from Rome, summoned to his aid two missioners, named 
Auxilius and Iserninus. Probably he picked them up on his way. 
They would not have been of much use to him had they not been 
fluent speakers of the Celtic language, and we may assume that 
they were Celts, either from Armorica, Cornwall, or Wales. All 
we know of his career was that he passed through Auxerre and 
Evreux, and probably sailed for Britain from the mouth of the 
Seine. Probus says that he crossed the country without stop- 
ping long on the way ; but other writers assert that he spent 
some time in the country, and that he visited Menevia. There 
is a chapel near S. David's Head bearing the title of S. Patrick. 
Moreover, according to Welsh tradition the apostle of the Irish 
had been there before the birth of David. It is quite probable 
that he did go by the Via Julia to the old port of Menevia, 
whence the Irish coast can be seen in clear weather, and there 
took ship for Ireland. This will agree with what we learn, that 
he landed in Wicklow, but being repulsed by the natives, 
was obliged to take ship again, and finally came ashore in 
the Bay of Dublin. 

We may presume that Auxilius and Iserninus were with him, 
unless summoned later. 

About 456 S. Patrick held a synod, which was attended by 
Auxilius and Iserninus, and which drew up canons that are still 
extant. Auxilius died in 459, according to the Annals of Ulster ; 
but the Four Masters give as the date 454 — that is, actually 455 
— in which case the synod must have been about 454. 

In the Martyrology of Gorman, Auxilius or Usaille is given 
on February 7. In the Book of Obits, of Christ Church, 
Dublin, his day is October 19. Colgan collected what notices 
he could of him as commemorated on March 19, and tells us 
that some martyrologies gave as his feast April 16, and again 
September 16. In the Martyrology of Tallaght is the entry on 
March 19, of Auxilius, "companion of S. Patrick and bishop." 
The Annals of the Four Masters give as the day of his death 
August 27. 



I 



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iJH ^ * 

276 Lives of the Saints. [September 17-25. 

1 8 Translation of S. WiNNOC (^scc November 6). 

19 Theodore, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 690 (L.). 
20 

21 Mabyn, C. Cornwall, circa 560. 

Mabyx or Mabenna is a person unknown. It is much more 
probable that the church of Maben, in Cornwall, was founded 
by Mabon, the brother of S. Teilo, and the founder of the church 
of Llanfabon, in Wales. In Llandeilo Fawr there are two 
manors, one called that of Teilo, and the other the manor of 
Mabon. These were probably grants made by the King of 
Dynevor to the two brothers. In Cornwall Mabyn is supposed 
to be a maiden saint, but a mistake of gender is not uncommon 
where the history of the founder has been lost. There was 
another S. Mabon, son of Tegonwy ab Teon, to whom Ruabon 
church, Denbighshire, is dedicated. 

2 2 LoLAN, B. Scotland, ^th cent. (L.). 

23 Ordination o/S. Padarn. 
Adamnan, Ab. lona, a.d. 704 (L.). 
Tegla, V. Wales (see June i). 

24 MwROG, C. Anglesey and Denbighshire, uncertain date. 
Robert, H, Knaresborough, a.d. 12 18 (L.). 

25 Caian, C. Anglesey, ^th cent. 
Fin BAR, B. Cork, a.d. 623 (L.). 
Ceolfrid, Ab. Wearmouth, a.d. 716 (L.). 

Caian was son or grandson of Brychan, of Brecknock. He 
founded the church of Tregaian, in Anglesey. 



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»±«- 



-f^ 



September 26-29.] Celtlc aud Efiglisk Kalcudar. 277 



26 Elfan, C. Wales, 2nd cent, {see Elvan, January i). 

Meugant, C. Anglesey, Denbighshire, Monmouthshire, 

and Brecon, 6th cent. 

Meugant, or Meigan, or Maughan, was of princely descent, 
and a member of the college of S. Illtyd, from whence he re- 
moved to that of S. Dubricius at Caerleon, to be with his father, 
Gwyndaf the Aged, who was abbot there, and probably to 
assist him in his charge. He is believed to be the same as 
Maucannus, Bishop of Silchester, in Hampshire, and to have 
been driven from his see by the incursions of the Saxons. He 
must have retreated into Cornwall, where are two churches of 
his foundation, S. Mawgan, in the lovely vale of Lanherne, a 
church of singular beauty, and another in Kerrier. At the latter 
he is represented, on the keystone of the tower window, as a 
bishop with staff and mitre. In old age he retired to that Isle 
of Saints, Bardsey, where he died and was buried. There was 
another S. Meugant, son of S. Cyndaf. 



27 
28 



29 



Machan, B. Scotland. 

CoNVAL, C. Scotland, circa a.d. 630. 

LlOBA, V. Abss. Bischoffsheim, circa a.d. 779 (L.). 

Machan was early sent from Scotland to be trained in 
Ireland. On his return to Alba he was ordained priest, dedi- 
cating himself to the Lord as some expiation for the crimes 
committed by his parents. He went to Rome, where he was 
consecrated bishop. In the Aberdeen Breviary is a wonderful 
story of how some oxen of his that were stolen by robbers were, 
at his prayer, turned into stone. His date is uncertain. 

CoNVAL, son of an Irish prince, became a disciple of S. 
Kentigem. He mounted on a stone and used it as a ship to 
convey him from Ireland to Alba, and he landed in the Clyde. 
The stone was long after regarded as possessed with miraculous 
powers. He died about 630. 

Richard Rolle, H. Hampolc, near Doncaster, a.d. 

1349- 
Richard Rolle was born at Thornton, near Pickering, and 
under the patronage of Thomas Neville, Archdeacon of Durham, 
was sent to study at Oxford. At the age of nineteen a desire 



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278 Lives of the Saints. [October 3° 



came on him to live the life of a recluse. On his return home 
he patched up, with the assistance of his sister, a habit suitable 
for a hermit, and ran away from home. On the eve of the 
Assumption he arrived at a little village church, where his 
devotion stnick the lady of the manor, the wife of John Dalton, 
and one of her sons recognised him, having seen him at O.xford. 
Next day at mass, the young hermit, having obtained per- 
mission from the priest, mounted the pulpit and preached a 
respectable sermon. John Dalton invited the boy home to 
dinner, and after the meal had a chat with him, and finding 
the youth had quite made up his mind to live as a hermit, he 
gave him a cottage on his estate. There he remained for many 
years, writing a good deal, and in his old age he moved to 
liampole, where he died in 1349. 

30 NiDAN, C. Anglesey and Scotland, circa a.d. 620. 
Enghenedl, C. Anglesey, ith cent. 
HoNORius, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 653 (L.). 

NiDAN was the son of Gwrfyw, the son of Pasgen, and was 
confessor to the saints at the college of Penmon, in Anglesey. 
He lived in the first part of the seventh century. 

Enghenedl was the son of Cynan Garwyn, the son of 
Brochwel Ysgythrog. A church in Anglesey was dedicated to 
him. He lived in the early part of the seventh century. 



OCTOBER 

1 Melor, M. at Amcsbury ; see January 3 (L.). 

2 Kea, Ab. B. Cormvall and Brittany, 6tJi cent, {see 

November 5). 
Thomas Cantilupe, B. Hereford, a.d. 1282 (L.). 

3 Edmund, C. Scotland, circa a.d. iioo. 

Edmund, son of Malcolm Ceanmore and S. Margaret. He 
conspired with Donald Bane in an attempt to regain the Scottish 
crown from Duncan II., who was treacherously slain at Mon- 
dynes, on the banks of the Bervie. After a three years' restora- 
tion, in which it is hard to say what share Edmund had in the 



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October 4-7.] Ccltic and EngHsk Kaletidar. 279 

government, Edgar Atheling succeeded in enthroning his nephew 
Edgar, son of Malcohn, and in mutilating and imprisoning 
Donald. Edmund, probably, hardly voluntarily betook himself to 
the Cluniac monastery of Montague, in Somersetshire, where he 
spent the rest of his days in the exercise of great austerities, and 
begged that he might be buried in chains. He died about I loo. 

4 Cybi, Ab. Cornwall and Wales; see November 8 (L.). 

Cubert Feast is on this day. The church of S. Cubert, Corn- 
wall, was undoubtedly dedicated originally to S. Cybi, and 
rededicated to S. Cuthbert. 

5 Cynhafal, C. Denbighshire^ early in 'jth cent. 

MuRDACH, H. Argyleshire, date uncertain. (L.). 

Cynhafal was the son of S. Elgud, of the family of Caradog 
Freichfras. There is a poem by a fifteenth century Welsh bard 
that gives an account of a miracle performed by him upon Benlli 
the Giant, after whom the eminence Moel Fenlli, near Llangyn- 
hafal, is called. He tortured the giant, filling his body with agony 
and wildfire, which drove him to seek relief in the cool waters 
of the river Alun, which, however, refused its aid, and became 
dry thrice, retreating into the rock, so that the giant was con- 
sumed by heat, and left his bones on the bank. Nennius 
attributed the destruction of Benlli to the great S. Germanus. 

6 CUMINE THE White, Ab. lona, a.d. 669; also Feb- 

ruary 24 (L.). 
Failbhe, Ab. Scotland, date uncertain (L.). 
Ywi, Deac. C. Wilton, end of 'jth cent. (L.). 
Maccallen, Ab. Waalsor, a.d. 978 (L.). 
Malchus, B. Lismore, a.d. 1125. 

7 Cynog or Canog, M. Wales, circa a.d. 492. 

DuBTACH, Abp. Armagh, a.d. 513. 

OsYTH, V.M. in Essex, end of ^th cent. (L.). 

Cynog or Canog was the eldest son of Brychan, of Breck- 
nock. Shortly after his birth he was committed to a holy man 
named Gastayn, by whom he was baptized. He is believed to 
have been murdered by Saxons at Merthyr Cynog, in Brecknock- 
shire, in or about 492. This must have been in a piratical 



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^_. 

280 Lives of the Saints. [October a-io. 

incursion. The torque or collar that his father gave him at his 
baptism was preserved at Brecon amongst its precious relics in 
the time of Giraldus Cambrensis. There are several churches in 
Wales dedicated to him, mostly in Brecknocksliire. There is a 
church in Brittany that may bear his name, S. Cenneur, in the 
diocese of S. Malo. 

DuBTACH succeeded Cormac in the see of Armagh in 497. 
Little or nothing is recorded of him, except that he ruled the 
see for sixteen years, and died in 513. 

8 Ceinwey, Kainwen, or Keyne, V. Wales and Corn- 
wall, circa a.d. 490 (L.). 

Triduana, V. Scotland, uncertain date (L.). 

9 Cadwaladr, K.C. Anglesey, Denbighshire, and Mon- 
mouthshire, A.D. 664 ; also November 24. 

Cadwaladr, son of Cadwallon, was the last of the Welsh 
princes who assumed the title of chief sovereign of Britain. His 
power, however, was very limited, as Oswald the Bernician, 
after the defeat and death of Cadwallon, is said to have extended 
his sway over the Welsh as well as over the Saxons. After a 
few years, Penda, of Mercia, revolted, and Oswald was killed in 
battle ; and then, probably, the Welsh for a while recovered 
their independence. Cadwaladr would seem to have been of 
a quiet disposition, or else the British were too exhausted by 
their losses under Cadwallon, his father, to continue the struggle. 
A great plague broke out in Britain, and Cadwaladr rather 
ignobly ran away to Armorica to escape it. This was in 664 ; 
and notwithstanding his flight, he died of the pestilence. There 
has been some curious alteration of facts relative to the history 
of the reigns of Cadwaladr and Cadwallon, concerning which 
see Skene's " Four Ancient Books of Wales," i. 73-75- That 
Cadwaladr went on pilgrimage to Rome is a fiction, due to the 
confusion between him and Ceadwalla. 

1 o Ervan, C. Cornwall {see Erbin, May 2 9). 
Tanwg, C. Merionethshire, early 6th cent. 
Paulinus, B. York, a.d. 644 (L.). 

Tanwg was one of the sons of Ithel Hael, who accompanied 
S. Cadfan from Armorica to Wales. He became a member of 
the college of Bardsey. 

^ . ^ 



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October 11-15.] Celttc aud EngUsJi Kalciidar. 



281 



1 1 



1 2 



13 



14 



15 






Cainech or Kenny, Ab. Ireland, circa a.d. 599 (L.). 
Ethelburga, V. Abss. Barking, 'jth cent. (L.). 

FiECH, B. Sletty, Ireland, end of 6th cent. (L.). 
Edwin, K. Northiinibria, a.d. 633 (L.). 
Wilfrid, B. York, a.d. 709 (L.). 

Fyncana and Findocha, VV. Scotland, Zth cent. (L.). 
Coemgen or Comgan, Ab. Scotland, Sth cent. (L.). 
Translation 0/ S. Edward the Confessor, a.d. 1163 
(L.). 

Manaccus, Ab. Cornwall and Anglesey, 6th cent. 

Manaccus, bishop and confessor, according to William of 
Worcester, was buried at Lanlivery, in Cornwall. This is 
Mygnach, the son of Mydno, of Carnarvon, who was for some 
time registrar of the college of S. Cybi at Holyhead, and after- 
wards abbot. A dialogue in verse between him and Taliesin 
is published in the Myvyrian Archaeology, where he is called 
Ugnach. As his friend and master came to Cornwall, it is 
probable that he followed, and we have at least one church 
of his foundation in the peninsula ; though it must be admitted 
that though Lanreath is at a great distance from Manaccan, it is 
conceivable that the S. Manacca there commemorated may be 
the same saint ; but it is also possible that Manaccan is a mis- 
understanding of the Cornish mynach, a monk. The other name 
for the place is Minster, and it was a monastery. 

Levan, C. Cornwall {see June 7). 

Tudur, C. Montgomeryshire and Monmouthshire, late 

6th cent. 
Brothen, C. Merionethshire, 1th cent. 

Tudur was one of the sons of Arwystli GloflF, or *' the Lame." 
He was brother of Tyfrydog, Diheufyr, Tyrnog, Twrog, and 
Marchell. He is said to have been buried at Darowain, in 
Montgomeryshire, and belongs to the latter half of the sixth 
century. 

Brothen was a son of Ilclig ab Cjlanog. He and his brothers 
embraced a religious life when their territory was overwhelmed 
by the sea. 



-^ 



282 Lives of tJie Saints. [October 16-18. 

16 Co F.MAN, B. Killniadh, Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 
Gall, H.C, Sivitzerland, circa a.d. 645 (L.). 
KiARA, V. Killrea, Ireland, a.d. 680 (L.). 

1 7 Translation of SS. Ethelred and Ethelbert, MM. 
Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, a.d. 670 (L.). 

Translation o/S. Etheldreda, V. Abss. Ely, a.d. 679 

(L.). 
Nothelm, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 740. 
Regulus or Rule, B. Scotland, 8th cent. (L.). 

'Nothelm was a priest of the church of London when chosen 
to succeed Tatwin as Archbishop of Canterbury. He afforded 
help to Bede in the compilation of his ecclesiastical history, by 
collecting traditions relative to S. Augustine and his companions, 
and afterwards, when in Rome, by copying various letters of the 
Popes, and other documents relating to England ; thus we really 
owe to this prelate a deep and indelible gratitude for the pains 
he took, and for his appreciation of the importance of the work 
undertaken by Bede. He corresponded with S. Boniface in 
Germany. He died in 740. Many of the early archbishops 
leave names, and names only, in the history of the church of 
Canterbury, but this is not the case with Nothelm. 

18 Gwen, W.M. Wales, circa a.d. 492. 
Brothen and Gwendoline, CC. Wales, ^th cent. 

(L). 

Gwen was daughter or granddaughter of Brychan, and wife 
of Llyr Merini, by whom she was the mother of Caradog Freich- 
fras. She was murdered by the pagan Saxons at Talgarth, in 
Brecknockshire, about 492. No day is given her in the Welsh 
kalendars. 

She is not to be confounded with S. Gwen or Wenn, the wife 
of Selyf, Duke of Cornwall, and mother of S. Cybi, who belongs 
to the same period, and who founded a church in Cornwall. 

Challoner gives on this day S. Gwendoline, as a festival 
in Wales ; but S. Gwyddelan is commemorated on August 22. 
Possibly he means S. Gwen. 



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October 19-25.) Celtlc a)id English Kalendar. 



283 



19 Ethbin, H. Ireland, ^th cent. (L.). 

Frideswide, V. Abss. Oxford, circa a.d. 735 (L.). 
Eadnoth, B.M. Dorchester, a.d. 10 16. 



20 



2 1 



22 



Bradan, B. Isle of Man, 'jth. cent. (L.). 
FiNTAN MoELDUBH, Ab. Clenenagli, a.d. 625. 
AccA, B. Hexham, a.d. 740 (L.). 

TuDWEN, C. Wales, end of ']th cent. 

FiNTAN MuNNU, ^^. Taghuion, Ireland, a.d. 635 (L.). 

NwYTHON or NOETHAN, C Denbighshire, 6th cent. 
GwYNNOG, C. Wales; Welsh kalendar s on 22nd and 
2'^rd (see October 26). 

NwYTHON or NoETHAN was the son of Gildas y Coed Aur, 
and he and his brothers Dolfjan, Cennydd (Kenneth), and 
Gwynnog were members of the colleges of Illtyd and Cadoc. 
Two chapels founded by Gwynnog and Nwython formerly 
existed near the church of Llangwm, in Denbighshire. In the 
earlier Welsh kalendars both saints are commemorated on the 
same day, but Rees gives Gwynnog on October 26. 

Clether, K.M. Cornwall and Wales; see August 19 

(L.). 
CoLUMBA, V.M. Cornwall [see November 13). 
Elfleda, W. Glastonbury, middle of loth cent. (L.). 



24 Cadfarch, C. Montgomeryshire, 6th cent. (L.). 
Maglorius, B. Dol, in Brittany, a.d. 4S6 (L.). 

25 Caidan, C Ireland, 6th cent. 

Marnoc, B. Kilmarnock, Scotland, circa a.d. 625 ; 
also March i, and Ernan, August 18. 

Marnoc or Marnan is identified in the Irish kalendars with 
Ernan, who sought to touch the hem of S. Columba's garment 
at Clonmacnoise, that is to say, Ma or Mo- Ernan or Ernog, the 



23 



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* 

284 Lives of the Saints. [October ae. 

ma or mo being a prefix indicative of affection. He was for 
some time in vScotland, where he founded many churches. He 
died at Tighernach in 625, and was there buried. Nevertheless, 
the Aberdeen Breviary informs us his head was preserved at 
Kilmarnock, where it was washed every Sunday, and the water 
in which it had been washed was distributed, for a gratuity, to 
sick persons, to their great advantage. In Ireland he founded 
or governed Rathnew, in Wicklow. There he is venerated on 
August 18. 

26 GwYNNOG or Winnow, C. Wales and Cornwall, 6th 
cent. (L.). 
Aneurin, C. Wales, 6th cent. (L.). 
Eadfrid, C. Leominster, circa a.d. 675. 
Eata, B. Hexham, a.d. 685 (L.). 
CuTHBERT, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 758. 

GwYNNOG, grandson of Caw, founded churches in Breck- 
nockshire, and Glamorganshire, and Montgomeryshire. He is 
called Gwynno, as well as Gwynnog. 

He was son of S. Gildas, and must have settled in Cornwall, 
where he is known as Winnoc, and Pinnock, and Winnow. He 
was a disciple of S. Cadoc, and when this latter saint came to 
Cornwall and settled near the Fowey river, where already was 
a plantation of Veep, his aunt on his father's side, there he 
established a llan, now called Langunnet. He seems to have 
established a large ecclesiastical tribe, as he had churches at S. 
Winnow, S. Pinnock, and Boconnock (Bodd-Gwynnoc). When 
S. Samson, son of Amwn Ddu, came to Cornwall on his way to 
Brittany, after having visited S. Petrock, we learn that he was 
visited by Winnoc. This, however, was a different saint, Gwethe- 
noc, founder of Lewannick. Llanwnog, in the county of Mont- 
gomery, claims Gwynnog for its founder, and in the cliancel 
window he is represented in stained glass in episcopal habit, 
mitred, and a pastoral staff in his hand ; beneath is an inscrip- 
tion, which, when the window was perfect, ran: " Sanctus 
Gwinocus, cujus animse propitietur Deus. Amen." It is of 
the fourteenth century. 

Eadfrid was a Northumbrian priest who visited Mercia, and 
effected the conversion of Merewald, the king of the Hwiccas. 
He founded the priory of Leominster. Merewald was the 
brother of Wulf here, and is himself regarded as a saint. He had 

* 



*- 



October 27-29.] (_ clttC 



a7id English Kalendar. 285 



\ 






been appointed by his brother under-king over the region repre- 
sented now by Herefordshire, the British Ivingdom of Ewias. 

CuTHBERT was the fifth Bishop of Hereford, and thence he 
was translated to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. He 
corresponded with S. Boniface, and at his instance King Ethel- 
bald convened the synod of Cloveshoe. He governed the church 
at Canterbury for seventeen years, and died in 758. 

27 Ia and Breacha, VV. Cornwall^ 6th cent. (L.). 
Odvan, Ab. Melrose, a.d. 563 (L.). 

Abban, Ab. Magharnoide, Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 
CoLMAN, Ab. Ferns, Ireland, a.d. 632 (L.). 

28 DoRTHEN, Ab. lona, a.d. 713 (L.). 
Alfred the Great, K.C. England, a.d. 901. 
Eadsin, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1050. 

Alfred the Great, by some strange disregard, has not been 
inscribed authoritatively in the kalendars of the Church ; but if 
any Englishman merited inclusion it was he, towering above 
many nobodies whose claims we cannot now adjudicate upon. 
Certainly it is strange that a bloodthirsty ruffian like Ceolfrid, 
and mere feeble sanctimoniousness like Edward the Confessor, 
should be included, and not the greatest of Anglo-Saxon kings. 
He is in Wilson's Martyrology, of 1608, and in that of Father 
Stanton, of 1S87. 

Eadsin was chaplain to the Danish King Harold, and was 
consecrated Bishop of Winchester. When the Danish line closed 
with the death of Hardicanute, Eadsin had the satisfaction of 
crowning Edward the Confessor. On the death of Ethelnoth 
he was raised to be Archbishop of Canterbuiy, but failing health 
obliged him to resign some years before his death. He died in 
1050. 

29 CoLMAN MAC DuACH, B. Connaught, beginning of ^tJi 

cent. (L.). 
Kennera, V. Galway, date unknown (L.). 
SiGEBRRT, K.M. East Angles, a.d. 637 (L.). 
Elflida, V. Abss. Rumsey, in Hampshire, a.d. T030 

(L.). 



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->h 



1^ ^ 

286 Lives of the Saints. [ O'^J.rr^r/" 

Ethelnoth, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1038. 

Ethelnoth was dean of the cathedral church of Canter- 
bury, and he deserved to be entitled "the Good." Ethelnoth 
was advanced to be archbishop on the death of Living. He 
translated the relics of S. Alphege, and received the pall 
from Benedict VIII. He governed his church for about eighteen 
years, and died on 29th October 1038. 

30 Talarican, B. Scotland, 6th cent. 
FoiLAN, B. Fosses, A.D. 655 (L.). 
Arilda, V.M. Gloucester, date unknown. 
Issui or IsHAW, M, Wales, date unknoivn. 

Talarican was a purely Pictish saint, it is believed, although 
the Aberdeen Breviary says he was an Irishman ; but he is un- 
known to Irish historians. He is said to have been consecrated 
by Pope Gregory, and he was noted to have celebrated the 
liturgy daily. He laboured in the north of Scotland, and 
founded churches in the dioceses of Aberdeen, Moray, and Ross. 
S. Tarkin's Well is in Kilsyth. There is a chuich in Skye dedi- 
cated to him, so that apparently he extended his missionary 
labours so far. He probably died about 580. 

31 DoGFAEL, C. Pembrokeshire, 6th cent, {see June 14). 
Bega, V. Cumberland, circa 660 ; also September 6 

and November i (L.). . 

NOVEMBER 

I Rhwydrys, Morhaiarn, Peulan, CC. Anglesey, 6th 

and 'jth cents. 
Clydwyn or Cledwyn, K. Brecknock, circa a.d. 490. 
DiNGAD, C. Wales, t^th cent. 
GwYN, Gwynno, Gwynnoro, Celynin, and Ceitho, 

CC. South Wales, 6th cent. 
Aelhaiarn, C. Carnarvon and Montgomery, end of 

6th cent. 



^ >j, 



-^ 



November i.] 



Celtic and English Kalemiar. 



287 



GwENFYL and Callwen, VV. in Wales, e^tlt cent. 

GwYNLLEN, C. Cardiganshire, 6th cent. 

Clydai, V. Pembrokeshire, ^ih cent. 

Cad FAN, Ab. Bardsey, ^th and 6th cents. 

The Reconciliation of Padarn. 

Cynddilig, C. Somersetshire, late 6th cent. 

Bega, V. Cumberland, a.d. 660 (L.). 

The Dyfrwyr, CC. Wales, 6th cent. 

Dona, C. Anglesey, early 'jth cent. 

GwRYD, a Friar, in Wales. 

There are in all over twenty Welsh saints commemorated on 
this, All Saints' Day, in the kalendars. 

Rhwydrys was an Irishman, a son of Rhwydrim or Rhodrem, 
King of Connaught, who came to Wales at the end of the 
seventh century and settled in Anglesey. Morhaiarn was also 
a saint in the same island. Peulan, son of Paul Hen, or 
Paulinus, of Whitland, also settled in Anglesey in the early 
part of the sixth century. 

Clydwyn or Cledwyn was the eldest legitimate son of 
Brychan, according to some authorities. On the death of his 
father, in or about 450, Brecknock was divided between him 
and his brother, Rhun Dremrudd. The latter took the eastern 
and most fertile portion, and left the barren, mountainous region 
to Clydwyn. The latter was a warlike prince, but of him very 
little is known. He was probably engaged all his time in fight- 
ing against the Irish Picts, who were occupying the seaboard ami 
pushing inland up the valleys. Llangledwyn, in Carmarthen- 
shire, was founded by him. 

DiNGAD was brother of Clydwyn, and in his old age entered 
the congregation of S. Cadoc. He is said to have been buried 
at Llandingad or Dingstow, in Monmouthshire. 

GwYN, Gwynno, Gwynnoro, Celymn, and Ceitho were 
the five sons of Cynyr Farfdrwch, of the family of Cunedda. 
They are reported to have been all born at a birth. Their 
father was prince at Caio, and probably occupied the fortress 
on the hill above the old Roman gold-mines of Gogofau. There 
was a church, a daughter church to Caio, dedicated to the five 
saints, Pumpsant ; Init there is another as well near Cynwyl 
Elfed, in Carmarthenshire ; and Ceitho founded one at Llan- 



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288 Lives of the Saints. [November 



geitho, in Cardiganshire, where he was also commemorated on 
August 5. 

Probably their father made a grant of land to S. Cynwyl 
when he came there, and this saint planted his church on a 
tongue of land hard by, and gained an archi-priestal authority 
over a very large region, the rich broad basin of the Cothi. The 
five brothers, who were older than he, probably placed them- 
selves entirely under his direction, as their two foundations are 
found near his, and also occupying a subsidiary position. 

The story goes that in a storm of thunder and lightning they 
took refuge under a rock in one of the adits of the old Roman 
mine, laid their heads on a stone pillow and fell asleep, and are 
there still sleeping, not to wake up till either King Arthur 
reappears or a truly spiritual and apostolic prelate occupies 
the throne of S. David. They have worn the stone into hollows 
with their heads, and turned it three times, till each side is 
marked with depressions. This pillow they cast away, to take 
another, and it has been set up near a great tumulus at the 
entrance to the mines and to Dolaucothi grounds. They lived 
in the sixth century. An inquisitive woman named Gwen, led 
by the devil, sought to pry on the saints in their long sleep, but 
was punished by being arrested in the cave, there ever to re- 
main, save when there is storm and rain, when her vaporous 
form may be seen sailing about the old gold-mine in the air, 
and her sobs and moans are borne far off on the wind. 

Aelhaiarn was the son of Hygarfael, and brother of vSS. 
Llwchaiarn and Cynhaiarn. He was of a royal family, and his 
grandfather, Cyndrwyn, was prince of a part of ancient Powys. 
The valorous Cynddylan was his uncle. Aelhaiarn founded a 
church in Merionethshire, and another in Montgomeryshire. 

GwENFYL was one of the granddaughters of Brychan. Capel 
Gwenfyl, founded by her, formerly existed in the parish of 
Llanddewi Brefi, in Cardiganshire. 

Callwen was of the family of Brychan, and founded a church 
in Brecknockshire. 

GwVNLLEU was son of Cyngar, of the family of Cunedda, 
and is supposed to have founded Nantcwnlle, in Cardiganshire. 

Clydai was a daughter of Brychan. 

Cadfan, eminent among Welsh saints, was commemorated 
on this day in Wales. He was a native of Armorica, and was 
the son of Eneas Lydewig, by Gwenteirbron, a daughter of 
Emyr Llydaw, who was remarkable for having three breasts. 
He came over to Wales about the year 516, along with several 
others, in consequence of one of those dynastic revolutions 

* ^ 



*- 



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NoVEMBFn I.] 



Celtic and EnzHsJi Kalendar. 



289 



that occurred in every generation in Brittany as in Wales, owing 
to the distribution of lands and princely rights among all sons 
equally. His three-breasted mother was twice married, once to 
Eneas, and again to Fragan. By Eneas she had Cadfan, and by 
Fragan she had S. Winwaloe. The refugees in Cornwall and 
Wales, not having any tribal rights there, devoted themselves 
to religion, and were by this means ingrafted into one of the 
saintly or ecclesiastical tribes. Cadfan became first abbot of 
the monastery of Bardsey, after it had been founded by Einion 
Fremin. He has been considered the tutelar saint of warriors. 
He founded churches, Llangadfan, in Montgomeryshire, and 
Towyn, in Merionethshire. Towyn has been celebrated in a 
poem written in the thirteenth century, in which the author 
commends the church for its choir, its sanctuary, its music, its 
warriors, and its waters of grace ; as likewise for possessing three 
altars, one dedicated to S. Mary, the second to S. Peter, and 
the third — "happy was the town to possess the privilege of 
having it, for it was sent down by a hand from heaven," and 
was dedicated to S. Cadfan. He is called Catmon in the Life of 
S. Padarn. He is buried in Bardsey. Towyn claims his body, 
but this is due to a mistake, a misreading of a stone once stand- 
ing there. 

It is much to be regretted that no Life of this illustrious 
saint exists. 

Padarn. The story of S. Padarn demands closer attention 
than has been accorded to it in the text ; but the legend has 
been subjected to examination by M. de la Borderie {Saint 
Paterne, Vannes, 1893). 

In the first place, it must be remembered that there were 
three of the name of Paternus — one Bishop of Vannes, con- 
secrated in 465 ; another Bishop of Avranches, whose life was 
written by Forlunatus, and who was born at Poitiers about 480, 
and ruled as Bishoi) of Avranches from 552 to 562, and sub- 
scrilied the canons of the third Council of Paris in 557. The 
third Paternus was son of Pedrwn and (Iwen, and was akin to 
S. Samson, was contemporary with King Arthur, and belongs 
to the first half of the sixth centuiy. It must be remembered 
that the legend we have dates from the eleventh century, and 
the difficulty it provokes is that it has confounded Paternus of 
Vannes of the second half of the fifth century with Padarn who 
lived half a century later. 

According to the legend, Padarn's parents came from Armorica 
to Wales — in fact, fled from fear, in one of the dynastic revolu- 
tions so common there. With them went the brothers of 
VOL. XVI. T 



y.-y- 



>< 



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290 Lives of the Saints. [November i. 



Pedrwn ; and they settled in Morganwg, and several married 
daughters of Tewdrig, king of the country. 

Padarn was trained for the religious life in Ireland, to which 
his father had retired and where he had become a monk. 
When his education was complete he came into Britain with 
the purpose of returning if possible to Armorica. Among his 
disciples were three who were his cousins, variously called 
Iletinlau, Catman, and Titechon, or Tinlatu, Cathinam, and 
Techo, as they stand in the S. Malo Breviary In Cardigan he 
founded the great monastery of Llanbadarn, which was for a 
while an episcopal see. If we may trust the Latin hexameters 
of John ap Sulien, son of one of the pre-Norman bishops of S. 
David's, he ruled there for twenty-one years. At the end of 
this time he departed, and with his departure the difficulty 
about his further movements begins. The legend takes him at 
once to Brittany along with Caradog Freichfras, one of Arthur's 
great warriors, who promised him the bishopric of Vannes. He 
therefore made provision for the good government of his estab- 
lishments in Cardigan by confiding them to well-approved men, 
and then he departed for Armorica, where he was invested with 
the bishopric of Vannes. However, his taking possession of 
the see displeased the other bishops of Brittany, especially S. 
Samson, the metropolitan, and Samson started to make the 
round of the episcopal sees, receive the tribute due to him as 
primate, and the allegiance which he demanded. 

As he approached Vannes he sent word to Padarn that he 
was coming, and he did so to test his humility, and he required 
him to come and meet him just as he was. 

The messenger of Samson found Padarn in the act of cloth- 
ing himself. He had drawn on one stocking and one shoe. 
Instantly he ran out to meet his cousin, with one leg bare and 
the other clothed. When Samson saw his ready mind he 
rejoiced, and for ever exempted the diocese of Vannes from 
paying dues to the archdiocese of Dol. Then the seven bishops 
of Brittany assembled on a mountain, and Padarn with them, 
and they took a solemn vow to remain united in one faith and 
one order of government. This agreement of the seven bishops 
is commemorated by a festival called the Reconciliation of 
Padarn, which is observed on the ist November. 

But after a while, finding himself still an object of envy, 
Padarn resigned his see and departed to the territory of the 
Franks, where he died on the 15th April. The Bretons cele- 
brate three festivals in honour of the saint — one on the day of 
his death ; one on that of his consecration as bishop, on the 



November I.] CelHc aud EngUsJi Kaleudar. 291 



20th June; and one on the reconciliation of the bishops of Llydaw 
(Armorica), on the 1st Noveml)er. 

Now, in this extraordinary story we see an attempt to fuse 
into one the Paternus of Vannes of 465 with the Padarn of, say, 
525 ; and by his retreat into the land of the Franks is probably 
intimated that he was made Bishop of Avranches, 552-562. 

The writer of the eleventh century was himself perplexed. 
He had most assuredly old material at his disposal relative to 
Padarn, and he tried to accommodate what he found with what 
he had also heard, that there was a Paternus of Vaimes. 

Now, there is an element in the life of S. Padarn that has not 
hitherto been regarded, and which goes some way to solve the 
difficulty. Padarn, for some reason, probably with an ulterior 
intention of settling in Brittany, did leave Wales. But we find 
a considerable district on the Cornish side of the Tamar, sur- 
rounded on all sides by Cornwall, yet belonging to Devon. This 
is the district of Petherwin. It consists of two parishes, both 
with churches under the patronage of S. Padain. These are the 
parishes of North and South Petherwin. The Life of the saint 
says he went to Guenet. Is it not possible that the writer of 
the Latin Life found that his hero, harassed by King Arthur 
and by Maelgwn, left Wales and betook himself to a Gwyned 
in Cornwall, now called Petherwin or Padarn's Gwyned. The 
author of the Life was able easily to make this Gwyned one with 
the Venedetia, where Paternus had been bishop in 465. 

It is not advisable to altogether sweep away Caradog Freich- 
fras, as does M. de la Borderie, as having nothing to do 
with Padarn. It is possible enough that Caradog may have 
induced Padarn to join him in a raid on Brittany ; but if one 
were undertaken, it came to nothing. It is more probable that 
Caradog had some possessions in West Wales, and induced 
Padarn to settle on them. And we know that Samson landed 
at Padstow, and founded a church at Southill. On the way he 
must have passed by Petherwin, and the story of the abbot- 
bishop running out to meet his cousin half shod is too naive to 
have been invented by a mediaeval monk. It is proliably true, 
and the scene of the incident would be Petherwin, and the 
occasion this visit. 

In later times, when the Celtic monasteries languished, then 
this ecclesiastical //^M of Petherwin was given to the abbey of 
Tavistock, and was united to the county of Devon. 

The district over which Padarn held rule was elevated and 
wind-swept, whence perhaps its name, from Gwyned or Gwyntog. 
North I'etherwin is now in Devon, but South Petherwin in 



*- 



* 

292 Lives of the Saints. [November 1. 

Cornwall. The district was originally more extensive, if we 
may judge by the possessions of the abbey of Tavistock around. 

There is really no evidence that the Padarn of Wales ever did 
visit Brittany. 

The Dyfrwyr. Although these seven saints have no day 
specially devoted to them in the Welsh kalendars, it is deemed 
advisable to here insert them, as there are churches dedicated to 
them in Wales, wherein they must have been commemorated 
annually. The .luthority for their legend is the IJbei- Landa- 
vensis, ed. W. J. Rees (Llandovery, 1840), text, pp. 120-2 ; 
translation, pp. 367-9; or "The Book of Llan Dav," from a 
twelfth - century MS., ed. Evans and Rh^s (Oxford, 1893), 
pp. 127-9. 

There was a man named Cynwayw, of Dungleddy, in Pem- 
brokeshire, of noble family, but poor, and his wife was so prolific 
that she gave him a son every year in succession. However, 
this rapid succession came to an abrupt termination, and seven 
years elapsed without Cynwayw having more children, and he 
confidently hoped that his anxieties were at an end, when his 
wife was delivered of seven at a birth, thus at one stroke making 
up leeway. The unhappy father became desperate, and he 
resolved to drown them like kittens. 

"As by chance S. Teilo was passing on his way, he found 
their father at Rytsinetic, on the river Taf, by the instigation of 
the devil plunging his sons one by one in the river, on account 
of his indigence and poverty. S. Teilo, beholding such cruel 
work, received them all half alive, and, with the giving of 
thanks, he baptized them in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. Having taken away the seven sons from the un- 
fortunate father, the very pious man brought them up, sent them 
to study literature, and placed them on his estate of Llandeilo 
(now called Llanddowror, in Carmarthenshire), so that the place 
received from some persons the name of Llandyfwyr, because, 
on account of their religious life, they had no other food than 
aquatic fishes, which, according to their number, seven, were 
sent by God to them daily, on a certain stone on the river Taf, 
called in consequence Llech Meneich, that is, T/ie Monk' s Stone ; 
and, again, they were called Dyfrwyr, because they were found 
in the water, escaped from the water, and were maintained by 
the fishes of the water, Dyfrwyr signifying, in the British 
tongue, Alen of the Water. 

" At a certain time S. Teilo, who had frequently visited them 
along with his disciples, came that he might enjoy their con- 
versation, and one of the brothers, according to their custom, 

* ■'--^^ ^^^^ 1£ 



November 2-3.] Celttc aiid EngHsJi Kaleiidar. 293 



-^ 



went to the water for the fishes, and found on the aforesaid 
stone seven, according to the number of the brothers, and also 
an eighth, of larger size than the seven, all of which he brought 
home. And the brothers were thereat amazed, as it is said, 
'The Lord is wonderful among His saints,' because they well 
knew that on account of their patron and master, S. Teilo, 
becoming their guest, the Creator of all things had increased the 
number of the fishes. 

" And after they had resided there a long time, living reli- 
giously, and passed much of their time in the society of S. 
Dubricius, he sent them to another place of his in Pebidiog 
(now the rural deanery in which is the city of S. David's), called 
Mathru, and there they were named ' The Seven Saints of 
Mathru.' And after they remained there for another space of 
time, they came to Cenarth Mawr, where they continued until 
the end of their lives." 

The story is introduced into the Book of Llandaff to account 
for the see of S. Teilo possessing lands in Pembrokeshire and 
Carmarthenshire and in the diocese of S. David's. 

The memory of these seven brethren is attached to three 
churches — those of Llanddowror and Cenarth, in Carmarthen- 
shire, and Mathru, in Pembrokeshire. These are now said to 
be dedicated to S. Teilo, S. Llawdog, and the Holy Martyrs 
respectively. It is not difficult to perceive that in the legend is 
an element of truth. That the seven brethren were born at a 
birth is, of course, a mythical embellishment, taken from a tale 
very common in Celtic lands. 

Cynddilig, the son of Nwython or Noethan, of the family 
of Caw, lord of Cwm Cawlwyd, in the north. 

Dona, son of Selyf ab Cynan Garwyn, founded a church in 
Anglesey. 

GwRYD is said to have been a friar, but nothing is known of 
him or his date. 

2 Erc, B. Slane, Ireland, a.d. 513 (L.). 

3 Cristiolus, C. Wales, 'jth cent. 

Clydog or Clether, K.M. Connvall and Hereford- 
shire, 6th cent, (see August i 9), 

GwENAEL, Ab. Landevenec, Brittany, a.u. 570 (L.). 

Translation of S. Winifred, V.M. Flintshire, ith 
cent. (L.). 



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294 Lives of the Saints. [November 4-5. 

RUMWALD, C. Brockley, circa a.d. 650 {see August 28). 
Englat, H. Tarves, in Scotland, loth cent. (L.). 
Malachy, Abp. Armagh, a.d. 1148 (L.). 

Clydog is given on this day in the Calendar, '• lolo MSS.," 

p. 152. 

Cristiolus, brother of S. Sulien (September i) and cousin 
of S. Cadfan, was founder of churches in Pembrokeshire and 
Anglesey. He belongs to the seventh century. 

4 Dyfrig or DuBRicius, his death (see May 29). 
BiRSTAN or Bristan, B. Winchester, a.d. 934. 

BiRSTAN, or Bristan, or Brinstan, was consecrated by S. 
Frithestan in 932 to succeed him as Bishop of Winchester. It 
was his daily custom to celebrate a mass for the souls of the 
dead, and at night to visit the cemeteries, and there recite 
psalms on their behalf. On one occasion, so says the tale, the 
dead responded Amen from their graves. He also daily fed a 
number of poor persons, whom he himself served at table. One 
day as he did not appear, his door was opened by his attendant, 
and he was found dead on his floor. No one seems to have at 
the time entertained the smallest notion that he was a saint, and 
it was not till Ethelwold, fifty years after, dreamed that he saw 
him in radiance, and that Birstan complained that his sanctity 
had been ignored, that his body was translated, and doubtless 
the details of his virtues excogitated to explain why he was to 
be esteemed a saint. He died about 934. 

5 Kea, B.C. Cornwall and Brittany, early 6th cent. 
GwENFAEN, V. Anglesey, early 6th cent. 

Cybi, B. Anglesey and Cornwall, 6th cent, {see Novem- 
ber 8). 
Kenan, B. Wales, Brittany, Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 

Kea, Kay, or Kenan, was born of noble parents. The 
Breton legend calls them Ludum and Tagu, and says they 
lived in Britain, and he became a monk in Wales. One night 
in dream he heard a voice bid him take a bell and go with it till 
he reached a place named Rosynys, where it would sound of 



•in 



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November 5.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



295 



itself, and there he was to settle. He accordingly procured a 
bell — it is said from Gildas — and he started on his travels. 

There is a church and parish in Devon now called Landkey, 
but which must have been Llankea. Probably he rested for a 
while there, but it was not to be his continuous abode. When a 
passion set in for effacing by all means the memory of the Celtic 
saints and reducing all dedications to the dead uniformity of the 
Roman Kalendar, Landkey was re-dedicated to S. Paul. Kea 
went on his way and crossed the Tamar. At last he was so 
fatigued that he cast himself on the grass, unable to proceed 
farther, near a beautiful creek, that was called Hirdraeth or the 
Long Estuary. He had, in fact, reached the mouth of the Fal, 
in Cornwall. As he lay in the grass, he heard a man standing by 
the water's edge calling to a fellow on the opposite bank, to know 
if he had seen his cows which had strayed. " Yes," shouted the 
other, " I saw them yesterday at Rosynys (now Roseland)." 
When Kea heard this, his weariness left him, and he went to the 
water's edge, which in Welsh, says the Life, is called Krestenn- 
Kea, or the Shore of S. Kea. The writer probably mistook the 
word, which would be Traeth-Kea. There he struck a rock and 
produced a spring. He crossed the estuary and entered the 
wood that grew to the water's edge, and there built an oratory, 
as his bell at once began to tinkle. Near this the tyrant Tewdric, 
known as the slayer of SS. Fingar and Piala, had his lis or court, 
which the biographer calls Gudrun.^ He carried off seven oxen 
and a cow that belonged to S. Kea. Next day seven stags 
presented themselves to the saint, who yoked them and em- 
ployed them to plough his land. On another occasion Tewdric 
struck Kea in the face, and cut his lip and knocked out some 
teeth. The saint without a word went to bathe his wounded 
mouth in a spring hard by, that was afterwards held to be 
efficacious in cases of toothache. At last Tewdric's persecution 
became so intolerable that Kea resolved to leave for Armorica. 
He sought to obtain corn for the journey from a merchant, l)ut 
was refused, unless the monks could carry away with them a 
laden barge at the wharf at Landegu (Landege was the old name 
of S. Kea). Kea and his companions at once threw a rope from 
their boat to the barge and drew it after them down the Fal 
and across the sea to the coast of Brittany. The place where 
Kea had established himself on the Fal was undoubtedly old 
Kea, where the tower of the church and a shaft of a cross 
remain. The new parish church is three miles distant. 



^ It is now called Goodern. 



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296 Lives of the Saints. [November e. 



Kea landed near Cleder, in Leon, and there he erected a 
monastery. He did not, however, remain lliere long, Ijut re- 
turned to Britain, at the time wlien King Arthur was fighting 
the Saxons and his rebellious nephew Mordred. After the death 
of Arthur, Kea visited Gwenwer, and reproached her for her evil 
life, and exhorted her to enter into a monastery, repent, and 
dedicate the rest of her life to God. Then he went back to 
Cleder, in Brittany, to receive the last sigh of a S. Kerian (not 
Kieran of Saigir), who had long been his friend and fellow. 
There also he died and was buried. Several churches in Brittany 
honour him, a S. Quay near Lannion, S. Quay near S. Brieuc, 
but here, under Latin influence, the dedication has been altered 
to S. Caius, pope and martyr.^ At Cleder he is patron with 
S. Peter, who has apparently replaced S. Clether. Here a 
solemn mass is sung in his honour annually on tlie 2nd October. 
There is a Breton ballad narrating the life of the saint ; as well 
as a Latin Life. 

GWENFAEN was the daughter of Pawl Hen, or Paulinus, and 
sister of S. Peulan. Nothing further is known of her. 

6 Melanius, B. Rcnnes, a.d. 530. 

Efflam, C. Brittany, 6th cent. 

Edwen, V. Anglesey, 'jth cent. 

WiNNOC, Ab. Brittany and Flanders, a.d. 717 (L.). 

Leonard of Reresby, C Thryberg, in Yorkshire, i ^th 

cent. (L.). 

Melanius, Bishop of Rennes, was brought up at the court 
of the Breton duke, Hoel L, whose court was at Rennes. He 
persuaded several of the youths who were there with him to 
renounce the world and become monks. One day, so says the 
legend, he encountered a black bull in the forest, which was no 
other than the devil. The bull galloped to the monastery and 
ran at a monk who was drawing water at the well, and would 
have precipitated him down the well, had not Melanius arrived 
in time and beat the bull about the head. On the death of S. 
Amandus, in 51 1, Melanius was elected to succeed him in the 
see of Rennes, and he was present the same year at a council 
at Orleans. Rennes was a see distinct from those which were of 
British origin, and belonged to the Franco-Gallic Church. 

1 Uniler the title of Quemau, he may also be the patron of a chapel at Tredrez, in 
S. Brieuc. Man is moch, " my," a term of endearment. 



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November 6.] Celtlc iind EugHsh Kaleiidar. 297 

He was counsellor to Clovis, and was an active man in his 
diocese in bringing the people to nominal conformity to Chris- 
tianity, for he found them to be real pagans. He did something 
among the Veneti to advance the Gospel, for they also were 
pagans. He died in 530. The churches of Mullion and S. 
Mellion, in Cornwall, are not dedicated to him. The Celtic 
Church was out of sympathy with Melanius, who was hand in 
glove with the Franks. They are actually foundations of S. 
Melyan, prince of Cornwall, the father of S. Melor ; both were 
put to death by Rivold about A.D. 524. 

Edwen was, it is asserted, a female saint of Saxon descent, 
said to have been a daughter or niece of Edwin, King of 
Northumbria. In Myvr. Arch., p. 424, we read of Edwin that 
he " was brought up in the court of Cadfan in Caersegaint," i.e. 
Segontium (Carnarvon). This will account for his sending a 
niece to a religious house in Wales. She is said to have founded 
Llanedwen, in Anglesey. 

WiNNOC. There were several of this name. Gwynnog, son 
of Gildas, is the Winnow of Cornwall. 

Efflam. The legend of this saint is corrupt. Efilam is from 
the Welsh efflmi, splendid, bright. The name in Irish is Felim. 

The legend bears on its face the character of its composition. 
Owing to the depredations of the Normans, the coast was de- 
serted, and not only was the cell of the saint ruinous, but, as the 
writer of the legend admits, his memory was almost lost. The 
words are significant : " Hie longo tempore pretiosum corpus 
requievit absconditum in corpore terrae ; cursu tempore labente, 
pene memoria ejus de terris ablata est." At the close of the 
tenth century a solitary occupied the ruined habitation, and was 
led to suppose that some saint lay under the soil. He com- 
municated with the Bishop ofTreguier, and in 994 the body was 
sought for and found, and translated to the church of Llanefflam 
from the original cell, which was at Donguel or Dungweli, the 
position of which is not now known. The legend of the saint 
was then pieced together out of vague traditions ; but it has come 
to us in a very late form, composed in the twelfth century. The 
Benedictine, Dom Denys Brent, one of Loliineau's assistants, 
judiciously said of it, " This extravagant legend . . . is a monu- 
ment of the spirit of fable which reigned in the fourteenth 
century." He considers it later than do we, "when the romances 
of King Arthur and others of the same kind were the fashion." 

Nevertheless there is certainly a substructure of truth in the 
tale. We will give the legend first, and then endeavour to 
extricate from it the core of fact. 



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^ tii, 

298 Lives of the Saints. [Novembers 



There was once upon a time a King of Ireland who had a son 
named Efflam. According to a Breton ballad, by the way, the 
king was of Demetia, or South Wales. He was engaged in 
continuous warfare with another king — the legend says another 
Irish king, but that employed by Albert Legrand, from the 
Breviary of Plestin, says that he was a kinglet of Great Britain. 
At last it was settled to patch up the discord by marrying Efflam, 
the son of one, to Enora or Honoria, the daughter of the other. 
Exactly the same incident was introduced into the latest form 
of the legend of S. Maudez. The marriage took place, much 
to Efflam's disgust, who had made up his mind to be a monk. 
On retiring for the night the young couple maintained an 
animated argument on the topic of celibacy, which the com- 
poser of the legend gives with great fulness. At last Honoria, 
beaten in argument, but unconvinced, went to sleep. Where- 
upon Efflam slipped on his clothes and stole away to the shore, 
where a body of like-minded men were awaiting him with a 
ship. They entered the vessel and sailed away, and landed in 
the estuary of the little stream that forms the boundary between 
the departments of C6tes-du-Nord and Finistere. There he 
discovered an empty house, and he settled in it and consti- 
tuted a monastery. The companions he had brought with him 
erected separate cells, and he and they laboured to construct a 
church. 

In the meantime, Enora found herself deserted. She did not 
relish her situation, and she went to the sea-side, found a man 
living there in the little port, and persuaded him to sew her up 
in a cow-hide and throw her into the sea. 

Winds and waves swept her away, and the tide eventually 
threw her up over the salmon weir of the stream near Tlou- 
jestin or Plestin, and with the retreat of the tide there she 
remained. The keeper of the weir, going in the morning to see 
what was his catch, found a great leathern object, which he 
thought at first was a sea-monster; but recovering from his 
alarm, he perceived it was a bag, and he hoped it might con- 
tain a treasure. So he conveyed it home to his cabin, where it 
burst, and out came the lovely Enora— " salniocinans," says the 
legend writer. Now the tiern or chief of the land, to whom the 
weir belonged, also desired to know what was the catch, and 
what were his prospects for dinner that day. He sent for the 
keeper, whose equivocation and embarrassment made him sus- 
pect something, and when he threatened the man, he confessed 
all. The chief at once mounted his horse and galloped to the 
cottage, very curious to see the lovely woman who had come into 



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November 6.] Celtu aud EugHsJi KaUfidar. 299 



his weir sewed up in a cow-hide, and as desirous of securing 
her for himself. She, however, perceiving him coming, ran 
with all her might, and he spurred his horse in pursuit. She 
reached the cell of Efflam just in time, and the chief, putting 
out his hand to the doorpost, had it paralysed, and it adhered 
to the post ; nor was he able to disengage himself till released 
by Efflam. 

Here we may pause to remark that the story of the girl 
in a cow-hide drifting at sea is like that of the fair Azenor, 
mother of S. Budoc, who was committed to the waves in a 
barrel. But it is an importation from the legend of Ceridwen 
and Taliesin. Ceridwen, we learn, "wrapped Taliesin in a 
leathern bag, and cast him into the sea to the mercy of God." 
In the story of Taliesin, the bag was carried to the salmon 
weir of Elfin and left there, and Elfin opened the bag and 
found Taliesin. 

The arrival of his wife did not particularly please Efflam, and 
in no way induced him to alter his resolution. He made for 
Enora a separate cell, and he instructed her in the way of life 
through the wall, but never allowed her to see his face, and, 
whether she liked it or no, she was constrained to maintain a 
cenobitical life. 

Now it must be told that Arthur was king in those days, 
and that a terrible dragon infested the land. The dragon was 
peculiarly crafty, and always walked backward when going to 
his cave, so as to delude visitors into thinking he was abroad. 
King Arthur fought with the dragon, but unsuccessfully. Then 
Efflam, at his request, caused a fountain to break out of the 
rock, at which he might quench his thirst. The fountain is still 
shown. When Arthur had failed abjectly, then Efflam tried 
what he could do, and with the sign of the cross completely 
routed the monster, who fell over a cliff, which he stained with 
his blood, and which is called the Red Rock to this day. 

All this is an episode. 

Now, it will be recalled that Efflam had taken possession of 
an old cabin. One day the original builder and possessor of 
this cabin appeared. His name was Jestyn, and a scene of 
mutual compliments ensued, in which each desired the other to 
have the cell. At last it was agreed that Efflam should keep 
the hut, but that the spot should bear the name of Jestyn, and 
it was called Plou-Jestyn or Plestin thenceforth, and will be to 
the end of time. 

After some days the craving came on Efflam to go elsewhere. 
Accordingly he departed for Cornouailles, where he made settle- 



■^ 



«T. 



* __ ^ 

500 Lives of the Saints. [November e. 

ments, and left such a memory of his holiness that he was there 
ever after honoured. 

I give the passage, because it is important : " Post multum 
vero temporis, recedens inde ad Cornubiam, volens ibi nianere, 
famulasDeo acquisivit, cum quibus basilicam constituit etstadio 
hujus vitse ibi decurso, biavio perenni meruit donari. Ibi 
memoria ejus quolidie agitur, et solemni letitia festum ejus 
celebratur." 

Such is the legend composed out of dim traditions, and em- 
broidered ad libitum by the author. 

Now let us see what is the substratum of fact ; at all events, 
what we may allow that he did gather from tradition. 

JifHam was the son of a princeling, not in Brittany, but some- 
where else. That he should have come as a coloniser from 
Ireland is improbable. He came, as one of the many settlers 
did in the sixth century, from Britain, and probably from either 
Cornwall or South Wales. But there had preceded him another 
colonist, Jestyn, whom we can identify as the son of Geraint, 
brother of S. Solomon and of Cador, Duke of Cornwall. Jestyn 
had taken possession of the land, and had constituted a ploii, or 
clan. He gave up a site to Eflilam for his lan^i. Efflam had 
not taken his wife with him, but she arrived soon after in a 
coracle. The legend writer could not make heads or tails out of 
the story of the skin boat in which she voyaged, and so made 
her to be sewn up in a cow-hide. Finding no record of any 
children born to Efflam, he concluded that both lived a life of 
continence. Moreover, it scandalised the writer of the thirteenth 
century that an abbot should have his wife with him, and he 
accordingly explained the awkward fact as best he could. But 
it is precisely this fact of the saintly abbot having his wife with 
him that makes us recognise substantial truth in the tradition. 
Both this and the separate cells in which the monks lived are 
characteristic features of the period. It is true enough that some 
of the abbots kept women rigorously at a distance, but the 
evidence that Efflam was an abliot is not convincing. A colonist 
he was, and a founder of ecclesiastical colonies, of more than one 
lann, and not of a plou ; but it by no means followed that as 
such he kept apart from his wife. At Plestin, where his statue 
is placed near the high altar, he is represented in royal garb, 
crowned, and trampling on the dragon ; whereas S. Jestyn, on 
the other hand, is figured in sacerdotal garb. Efflam is not only 
patron of Plestin, but also of the hospital at Morlaix, and of a 
chapel at Toul-Efflam, or the Hole of Efflam, near Lieu-de- 
Greve, where he routed the dragon. The day on which he is 



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November;.] Celtic aiicl EngllsJi KaUjida^: 301 



commemorated at Plestin is 6th November. We do not know 
whether this be the day of translation of his rehcs or of his 
death. 

It is perhaps needless to say that no trace of Efflam can be 
found in Irish or Welsh kalendars. He was also without cult in 
Lower Brittany. 

In 1819 the cure of Plestin, when a mission was held there, 
hoped to stimulate the enthusiasm of his parishioners by an 
" elevation " of the relics of S. Etflam. He therefore opened 
the tomb, to which the remains had been translated in 994, but 
found underneath it only a slab of granite, with an axe cut on it, 
and saw particles of bone, mixed with earth and seaweed, and 
a little copper cross, much corroded. Apparently in 994 the 
Bishop of Treguier had opened a tumulus, in which was a kist- 
vaen, and had come on a prehistoric interment liy incineration. 
He had carried away the fragments of half-burnt bone, and tlie 
top slab of the monument, marked with a celt, and buried all in 
the church at Plestin, and put with them a little cross. 

M. A. de la Borderie has puljjished the legend of S. Efflam 
(Rennes, 1892), with critical remarks. A Breton ballad relative 
to him is given by De la Villemarque, in his Bars Breiz, but 
all his productions have to be received with reserve, as he mani- 
pulated his texts very much as did some of the editors of Scottish 
ballads treat what they obtained orally. There is, however, a 
portion of a Breton ballad in a more trustworthy work, M. de 
Kerdanet's edition of Albert Le Grand's Vies des Saints (Brest, 
1837). 

Cyngar or CuNGAR, Ah. Somersetshire, Glamorgan- 
shire, and Anglesey, 6th cent. 
Illtyd, Ab. Llantwit, 6th cent, (see July 7). 

Cyngar or Cungar was a son of Geraint, Prince of Devon, 
lie was at first in Somersetshire, where he founded churches at 
Badgworth and Congresbury. After that .Somerset was over- 
run by the West Saxons, he retreated into Wales and founded 
the monastery of Llangenys, in the diocese of Llandaff. His 
date is about 540. 

In Cornwall a chapel and holy well in the parish of Lanlivet 
bear his name. Not only so, but his name has gone through 
curious transformation. He is also called Docwin, and as such 
appears as founder of S. Kew, which in Bishop .Stafford's and 
other registers appears as the church of S. Doguinus. The 



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302 Lives of the Saints. [November 8-9 

church was originally called Landoc, This was softened to 
Landoue, then the Lan was cut oflf with the d, and it became 
S. Oue, for euphony S. Kewe. 

There was another S. Cyngar ab Arlhog ab Ceredig, and 
another Docwinus is given by Capgrave. 

8 Cybi or CuBY, B. Anglesey and Cornwall (L.); aho 
May 6. 

TvssiLio, Ab. Wales, middle of ith cent. (L.). 
Cynfarwy, C. Anglesey., ph cent. 

Cynfarwy was the son of Awy ab Lleenawg, Prince of 
Cornwall. He founded a church in Anglesey. 

9 Paeo Post Prydatn, C. Anglesey, circa a.d. 510. 

Pabo Post Prydain — that is to say, the Prop or Pillar of 
North Britain — descended from Coel Godebog or "the Incon- 
tinent," was a brave soldier. In the Welsh accounts Coel is 
termed Earl of Gloucester ; he is also said to have been a king 
in North Britain. We know that there were contests with 
Saxon or Angle invaders in the valley of the Tweed, before Ida, 
" the Flame Bearer," founded the kingdom of Bernicia ; but we 
may suspect that Coel and Pabo fought rather against the Picts, 
and that first Coel abandoned the struggle, and then his son. 

Pabo, losing heart, despairing of holding his own, retreated 
to Wales, where he was hospitably received by Cyngen, Prince 
of Powys, who, in conjunction with his son Brocwel Ysgythrog, 
gave him a piece of land in Anglesey where he might settle as a 
saint. He married S. Gwenaseth, daughter of Rhufon Rhufoniog. 

The church of Llanbabo, if not that erected by him, has 
been reconstructed out of material used by him for his original 
church. His inscribed stone was dug up in the reign of Charles 
II. ; Init it was not original, it was carved in the reign of 
Edward HI. It is visible in the church. His son Dunawd 
is also numbered among the saints. There was a tradition in 
Llanbabo that Pabo with his son and daughter were buried in the 
churchyard opposite certain faces carved on the wall. These 
faces are still to be seen immediately above the door, but the exact 
position of the grave cannot be determined. The date of Pabo's 
death is perhaps 510. Professor Rhys, in his "Arthurian 
Legend," is inclined to identify him with the Palamydes of 
Sir Thomas Malory. 

* ^ — ^^ * 




TOMB OF S. PABO AT LLANBABO. 
Appendix Vol., p. 302.] 



[Nov. 9. 



* 



November io-ii.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar 



303 



10 EiAETH Frenhin or The King, C Anglesey, 6th cent. 
Justus, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 627. 

Elaeth the King was son of Meurig, of the tribe of Coal 
Godebog, to which Pabo and Danawd belonged. He was a 
chief in the North, but was driven South by the Picts, and spent 
his declining years in the monastery of S. Seiriol at Penmon, in 
Anglesey. He was a bard, and two religious poems by him 
are contained in the Black Book of Carmarthen. He belonged 
to the middle of the sixth century. 

Justus was one of those sent by Gregory the Great at the 
request of S. Augustine to assist him in his labours among the 
English. He had been a monk of S. Andrew's on the Coelian 
Hill. After Justus had been three years in Kent, Augustine 
consecrated him to be first Bishop of Rochester, a see that King 
Ethelbert had endowed, and the church was dedicated to S. 
Andrew, in memory of that place in Rome whence the English 
mission had started. When Augustine and Ethelbert were dead, 
there ensued a great pagan reaction, and both Justus and 
Mellitus, Bisliop of London, fled to the Continent. Before long, 
however, the conversion of King Eadbald made way for their 
return, and Justus resumed the government of his church, which 
he retained till the death of Mellitus, when he was chosen 
archbishop. He had the happiness to be alile to send S. 
Paulinus in company with Queen Ethelburga into Northumbria, 
and so prepare the way for its conversion. He died in 627. 

1 1 Cynfran, C. Carnarvonshire, ^th cent. 
Edeyrn, C. Anglesey, 6th cent, [see January 6). 
Rhediw, C. Carnarvonshire, date unknoivn. 
RiCTRYTH, IV. Abss. Northumbria, a.d. 786. 

Cynfran was one of the sons of Brychan, and the founder of 
the church of Llysfaen, in Carnarvonshire, where it was usual 
to invoke "the grace of God and the blessed Cynfran on the 
cattle," when offerings were made at S. Cynfran's Well. His 
brother Cynbryd is patron of the adjoining parish, Llanddulas. 

Rhkdiw was a saint whose date is unknown. He was buried 
at I^lanllyfni, in Carnarvonshire, the church of which is dedi- 
cated to him. Formerly there were shown there his well, his 
seat, the print of his horse's hoof, and the mark of his thumb on 
a stone. 



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^_ ^ 

304 Lives of iJlC Saints. [November 12-15, 

12 CuMMiAN Fada, Ab. KHcomin, Ireland, 6th cent. (L.). 
Cadwaladr, K.C. Wales, a.d. 664 (see October 8). 

13 CoLUMBA, V.M. Cormvall, date imknoivn (L.). 
MocHAR or MocHUMNA, B. Scotland, end of 6th cent. 

(L.). 
Devinic or Dewednac, B. Scotland, end of 6th cent. 

(L.). 
Gredifael, C. Anglesey, 6th cent. 

Gredifael was the son of Ithel Hael, a prince of Armorica, 
whose family came over to Wales in the great migration under 
S. Cadfan and S. Padarn, in four companies, whereof one only, 
that of S. Padarn, numbered 847 monks — if we may trust his 
biographer. He and his brother Fflewyn were appointed to 
preside over the monastery of Pawl Hen at Tygwyn ar Daf, 
or Whitland, in Carmarthenshire. 

14 DuBRicius or Dyfrig, B. Caerleon, Monmouthshire, 
circa a.d. 524 (L.). 

Modan, B. Scotland, date not known. 
Translation of S. Ei^konwald, B. (see April 30). 
Laurence O'Toolr, Abp. Dublin, a.d. 1180 (L.). 

DUBRICIUS is given on this day in a twelflh-century calendar 
of Welsh saints in the British Museum, and by Father Staunton 
in his "Menology of England," 1887. 

15 Malo or Maclovius, B. Wales and Brittany, a.d. 
627 (L.). 

Mechell or Machudd, C. Anglesey, Tth cent. 
Cynp'ab, C. Carmarthenshire, ^th cent. 

Malo. A summaiy of the Life by Bili is given by Leland, 
Collect, ii. 430. The Life has been published in the Bulletin 
of the Societe Archreologique d'llle-et-Vilaine, xvi. So also 
the Vita II'*. At Godmanchester, in Huntingdonshire, it was 



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November 16-18.] CcUic and EiwUsJi Kale7idar. 

<3 



305 



I 



claimed that S. Malo had been l)ishop there, and son of the 
local Count." — Leland, Collect, iv. 14. 

Mechell or Machudd was the son of Echwydd, and the 
founder of the church of Llanfechell, in Anglesey, where there 
was at one time a college of a hundred saints. 

Cynfab founded Capel Cynfab, a chapel once existing in the 
parish of Llanfairarybryn, in Carmarthenshire. 

16 Afan, C. Brecknockshire and Cardiganshire, early 6th 

cent. 
Alfric, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1006. 
Margaret, Q.W. Scotland, a.d. 1093; see June 10 

(L.). 
Edmund Rich, Abp. Canterbury, a.d. 1242 (L.), 

Afan, commonly called Afan Buallt (of Builth), was of the 
family of Cunedda. He was buried at Llanafan, in Brecknock- 
shire, where his tomb still remains with an inscription. He is 
thought to have been third bishop of Llanbadarn, a diocese 
afterwards absorbed into that of S. David's. His name is in- 
serted on this day in the " Greal " and the "Cambrian Register 
Kalendars," and by Rees. But the kalendar in the " lolo 
MSS." gives November 17. His inscribed tombstone entitles 
him bishop, but it is of late date. 

Alfric, Abbot of Abingdon, was created Bishop of Wilton, 
and on the death of Sithric he became Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. He died in 1006. 

17 Hilda, V. Abss. Whitby, a.d. 679 (L.). 

Fergus, B. Glamis, Scotland, 8th cent.; also on Novem- 
ber 18. 
Hugh, B. Lincoln, a.d. 1200 (L.). 

18 Wynnen, B. Scotland, a.d. 579, same as S. Finian of 

Moville, September 10. 
Kevrrn, C. Cornwall, 6th cent. 
Mawes or Maudez, Ab. Cormvall and Brittany, 6th cent. 

Kevern is said to have been a saint in Cornwall of the same 
date as S. Piran or Kieran, and to have been his friend. As a 
VOL. XVI. U 



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^ — »5l 

306' Lives of the Saints. [Novembrrib. 

matter of fact, Kevern is Kieran himself. Of this there can be 
no doubt, for in the Registers of Bishop Stafford the dedication 
to Kieran is given for this parish. 

A local tradition is perhaps worth telling. S. Just, a saintly 
friend, went to visit S. Kevern, when he fell to coveting a 
piece of plate, perhaps a chalice, belonging to his host. Just 
considered how he might secure it. Bidding Kevern go fetch 
him water from his well, he took advantage of his absence to 
make off with the article in question. But S. Kevern, on finding, 
when he returned with the water, that his friend had decamped, 
suspected mischief, and soon saw that Just was the thief. He 
pursued him, and picking up, as he went, three stones of a 
peculiar sort found on Coruza Downs, he overtook him at a 
spot where Germo Lane joins the Helston Road. There he set 
to work to pelt him with the stones, and so forced him to 
abandon his ill-gotten goods. The place was ever after called 
Tre-men-Keverne, the Three Stones of Kevern. Of late years 
these stones have been broken up to mend the roads with them. 
Kevern belongs to the sixth century. 

Mawes or Maudez. The two Lives of this saint, as well as 
the hymns for his festival, and the lessons from the several 
breviaries, have been printed and subjected to criticism by M. de 
la Borderie(" Saint Maudez," Rennes, 1891). The first Life was 
written towards the end of the eleventh century. The second 
Life is a very unsatisfactory production ; it is hardly earlier than 
the thirteenth century. The first was employed in its composi- 
tion, and the gaps left by the writer of the first were filled in 
with fanciful tales by the composer of the second. 

S. Maudez was the son of a kinglet in Ireland called Ercleus, 
and his mother's name was Oentusa. As the tenth son of the 
royal couple he was dedicated to God. After his education was 
completed he left Ireland. This is all that the author of the 
first Life knew. The composer of tlie second was not satisfied, 
so he added this : A pestilence raged in Ireland and swept off 
King Ercleus and his nine children. Then a pretender laid his 
hand on the crown. The nobles thereupon sought out Maudez, 
who was abbot of his monastery, and insisted not only on his 
assuming the kingly dignity, but also on his marrying the 
daughter of the pretender. Maudez asked for a night and day 
to consider the proposal, and he prayed to God to deliver him, 
whereupon he became covered with the most disgusting sores — 
at sight of which the nobles declined to favour his elevation, and 
the damsel absolutely refused to receive him as a husband. 

The author of the first Life clearly knew no more of the early 

1^ * 



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November i8 ] Celttc and EyigUsk Kalenda^". 307 



life of Maudez than what he related — in a word, knew little 
more of him than his actions when in Brittany. There he 
arrived with two disciples, Tudy and Bodmael, and he settled 
in an islet of the Brehat archipelago, on the north coast of 
Domnonia, and there he died after having founded a monastery. 

But that he took Cornwall on the way is rendered almost 
certain by the fact that both he and Tudy have left their names 
there as founders. And this Cornish visit was apparently pre- 
ceded by one to Wales, for Tudy is known there as Tegwyn {see 
September 14), the son of Ithel Ilael. In Cornwall, Maudez is 
supposed to have come from Wales, and to have been driven 
thence by the Saxons, and to have established himself on a rock 
in Roseland by the mouth of the Fal, where he miraculously 
produced a fountain, and where he also carved for himself a 
chair in stone. The district, one of rhos or moor, was treeless, 
and thence the name given to Roseland or Llanau Rhos, the 
Churches of the Heath, the region comprising four parishes. 
The ancient chapel of S. Mawes was existing till 1812, when it 
was pulled down and a new church erected on its site. The well 
of S. Mawes is still in use ; and incorporated with some stonework 
at the foot of a house hard by, is one side of his reputed chair. 

From this chair, according to the Life, Mawes instructed his 
disciples Tudy and Bodmael, and others who are not named. 
When they were not listening to his teaching or praying, they 
were wont to assemble by the chair near the water, and go over 
the instruction they had received, so as to engrave it deep on 
their memories. They were, however, much disturbed by a 
great seal that came up and stared at them, gamboled, and 
made noises. And this came to the ears of Mawes. 

One day he was on his way to the chair, from his cell, when 
he saw the seal, and immediately rushed at it, armed with a 
stone. The brute took to the water at once, but when it rose, 
Mawes hurled at it the stone, struck it, and it sank. The spot 
where it rose was on a rock that stood up out of the water, now 
called Blackrocks, and the stone he threw remained lodged on 
the top. It was a notable cast, for the spot is nearer Pendennis 
Point than S. Mawes' cell. This poor seal the saint was con- 
vinced was an evil spirit — "a Tuthe," as the author of the Life 
says the Britons called it. In Breton this would be Tuz, and 
we may find in the word the "Deuce," so commonly used in the 
West of England as expressing a spirit of mischief and con- 
trariety. In fact, one of those genii of whom S. Augustine says, 
" Dreinones quos Dusios Calli nuncupant." 

According to Cornish tradition, after a while Mawes left 



^ 



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3o8 



Lives of the Saints. [Novbmberiq. 



-^ 



Cornwall and crossed over to Brittany, and we learn from liis 
biographer that he arrived in the island that has since borne his 
name in the Br^hat archipelago. Here he founded a monastery. 
One day the fire had gone out, and Mawes sent his disciple 
Bodmael across the mainland when the tide was low to fetch 
him some. Bodmael entered a cottage, when a woman con- 
sented to give him red-hot coals if he would carry them in his 
lap. To this he consented ; but as he was returning with the 
fire the tide rose, and Mawes, to his dismay, saw that his pupil 
would be engulfed. However, he prayed, and a rock rose 
under the disciple, and as the tide lifted so did the rock, and 
when the tide had ebbed, Bodmael came to the island uninjured, 
and the fire unextinguished. If there be any basis of truth in 
the story, then it may belong to the period in Cornwall, just 
as well as to that in Brittany. I am not sure that it would be 
possible for a man to cross to Lanmodey on the coast, and back, 
except in a boat ; but it would be quite possible to send any one 
across the creek of Porthcuel River to S. Anthony in Roseland. 
The name of Maudez or Mawes is by no means unknown in 
Ireland. He is there called Moditeus ; but neither Ussher nor 
Lanigan were acquainted with the acts of S. Maudez, in the Life, 
Maudetus, and so were unable to identify him. Unhappily, we 
have no Irish account which can enable us to ascertain from 
what family he issued. The Life was probably composed by a 
monk of I'Ue Modez, and he has transferred to it the incidents 
of the quest of fire and the seal. There is an old thorn-tree on 
the island which goes by the name of the Chaire de S. Modez. 

19 Llwydian, C. Anglesey, end of ph cent. 

BuDOC, B. Dol, end of 6th century ; see December 

9 (L-)- 
Medana, V. IVestmeath and Scotland. 

Ermenburga or Domneva, Abss. Thanet, circa 690. 

Egbert, Ahp. York, a.d. 766. 

Medana, according to the lesson in the Aberdeen Breviary, 
was an Irish virgin who, fleeing from tlie advances of a soldier, 
came on a vessel, with two handmaids, to Scotland. Being still 
pursued, she got on a stone, with her maids, and floated thirty 
miles to a place called Fames. The soldier still pursuing her, she 
climbed up a tree and pulled out her eyes. After that her attrac- 
tions failed to excite the soldier, and he let her descend the tree 



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November 19.] 



Celtic and English Kalendar. 



309 



unmolested. She died on the 31st October, but her festival was 
observed on 19th November. She seems to be the same as S. 
Midhnat, virgin, of Killucan, in Westmeath, commemorated in 
Irish kalendars on i8th November. Her chapel is a natural cave, 
to which masonry has been added. 

Ermenburga or Domneva, daughter of Ermenred, King of 
Kent, was given in marriage to Merewald, son of Penda. She 
and her pious husband devoted themselves to the spread of 
religion in Mercia. They were the parents of S. Milburga, S. 
Mildred, and S. Mildgytha, and their son Merefin was "led 
away to heaven in his youth." Ermenburga was called into 
Kent to settle the "blood-geld," or fine to be paid for the 
murder of her brothers Ethelred and Ethelbert, who were killed 
by Egbert, King of Kent, at the instigation of his chief eorlder- 
man, Thanor. The murder was committed at Eastry. The 
facts becoming known, he was called upon to pay the blood-fine 
to the nearest of kin, and Ermenburga accordingly went to Kent 
to demand it. She claimed as much land as her tame deer 
could run round in a single course. The hind enclosed an area 
of ten thousand acres. Within this the monastery of Minster- 
in-Thanet was erected, and there Ermenburga assumed the 
name of Domneva or Domina Ebba, and became first abbess 
She died about 690. 

Egbert was the son of Eata, and was raised to be Bishop of 
York during the reign of Ceolwulf, King of Northumbria. The 
princes of the northern kingdom were very desirous of dis- 
engaging the see of York from the control of Canterbury, in 
the southern kingdom. Bede himself saw the advantage of this, 
and drew up a scheme of religious reformation, one of the prin- 
cipal features of which was the revival of the archbishopric 
which Pope Gregory had originally designed to set up in the 
north ; and this suggestion was soon realised, for Egbert pro- 
cured from Rome his recognition as archbishop in 735. Egbert 
had founded in his cathedral city the celebrated school, of which 
Alcuin was the most distint^uished pupil. Bede was his intimate 
friend, and to him he wrote his last letter on ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline. In his Metrical History of the Bishops of York, Alcuin 
speaks in high terms of the holy life and zeal for God's service 
that were manifest in Egbert. In 738 Edbert, brother of Egbert, 
became King of Northumbria, and king and prelate worked 
most harmoniously together. 

The whole of the northern quarter and much of the eastern 
quarter of the city of York had been given up to the Church by 
Edwin, and in the midst of this the king had reared a little 



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-►i< 



* 

3IO Lives of the Saints. [November 2o-2t. 

wooden chapel for Paulinus, and had begun a larger church in 
stone. But his fall stopped the progress of this building, and 
Wilfrid in 670 found the church almost in ruins, the windows 
covered with mere trellis-work, and the roof rotted with the 
rain. Wilfrid energetically undertook to rear a cathedral that 
should rival the buildings of Hexham and Ripon, and its en- 
largement and decoration were actively carried on by Egbert. 

The king, Edbert, resigned the crown in 75S, in discourage- 
ment at a crushing disaster he had encountered at the hands of 
the Britons of Strathclyde two years before. He retired into a 
monastery, and the archbishop joined him. Egbert died in 766, 
and was laid beside his brother in York Minster. 

20 EvAL, B.C. Cormvall, 6th cent. 
Celynin, C. Carnarvon and Merioneth, ']th cent. 
Edmund, K.M. Hoxne, Suffolk, a.d. 870 (L.). 

EvAi., or EvALL, or Uvellus, is probably Ufelwyn, son of 
Cennydd, and grandson of Gildas ; he was brother of S. Filius 
of Phileigh. He is believed to have been one of the British 
bishops who met Augustine in the celebrated conference relative 
to the mission to the Saxons. He is known in Brittany as Uvol 
or Urfol. His feast day at S. Eval is on November 20, at 
Wythiel, also dedicated to him on November 23. 

Celynin was one of the sons of Helig, whose territory was 
inundated, and whose sons became members of the colleges of 
Bangor in Arfon, and Anglesey. He is not to be confounded 
with a namesake, one of the sons of Cynyr Farfdrwch, who lived 
a century earlier. 

Edmund. According to the local legend the king had con- 
cealed himself under a bridge, and was discovered by the 
reflection of his golden spurs in the water. The bridge is to 
this day called Gilt-spur Bridge. 

The tree against which S. Edmund stood when shot at was a 
mighty old oak, indicated by tradition. A few years ago the 
tree was blown down. On its being cut up it was found to 
contain a number of arrow-heads embedded in the wood. At 
Brome Hall, near the site, a block of the oak is preserved, with 
the arrow-heads still in it. 

21 DiGAiN, C. Denbighshire, ^th cent. 
COLUMBANUS, Ab. Bobbio, A.D. 615 (L.). 

DiGAiN was brother of Erbin and son of Constantine, King 



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November 22 



-23.1 Celtic and Enolisk Kalendar. 3 1 1 



22 



of Cornwall. He founded a church in Denbighshire, Llan- 
gernyw, or the "Church of the Cornishman." Erbin is S. 
Ervan in Cornwall, but Digain has left no trace of himself in 
Cornwall. 



23 Paulinus or Pawl Hen, Ab. B. Carmarthenshire, late 
e^th cent. 
Deiniol the Younger or Deiniolen, Ab. Bangor, 
Carnarvonshire, circa a.d. 620. 

Paulinus or Peulin ; in Welsh, Pawl H^n, or the Aged. 
In the Cambrian Register he is entered as I'olin, bishop. The 
epithet of "O Fanaw" applied to him would indicate that he 
was a native of the Isle of Man. He came to Caerworgon, 
where he became a disciple of S. lUtyd, and then moved 
south, and founded a monastery in 480 at Tygwyn at Daf, 
or the White Habitation on the Teify. It became known 
after the Norman Conquest as Whitland, in Carmarthen, and 
is now represented by a few crumbling walls in the midst 
of a district devoted to tinplating, and bristling with chimneys. 
He was first abbot of his monastery and in episcopal orders. 
From his fame as a teacher, many saints came to study under 
him ; and he had the moulding of both S. David and S. 
Teilo. In the Life of S. David it is said that Paulinus had 
lost his eyesight through inflammation setting in. Then he 
said to David, " Look into my eyes, for they pain me." " Lord 
Master," answered he, "do not order me to look at thy eyes; 
for the ten years since I came to thee to be instructed, I have 
not looked into thy face." This is supposed to have been an 
eminent token of humility on the part of David. However, 
the disciple ventured to put his hands on the eyes of the old 
abbot, and from that moment the inflammation abated, and in a 
few days Paulinus was able to see again, and attributed his 
recovery to the merits of David — or the biographers supposed 
that he did. 

If there be any foundation at all for the story, it is this, that 
Paulinus had sore eyes through something getting into them, 
which David was able to remove. 

Then an angel bade Paulinus send away David to finish his 
education at Glastonbury, and this he did. 



>±l- 



-y* 



312 Lives of the Saints. [November 23. 

Paulinus attended the council of Llanddewi Brefi, which took 
place before 569, say Haddan and Stubbs ; the date usually given 
it is 519. There were present a hundred and eighteen bishojjs, 
if we may trust the second Life of S. David, besides numerous 
chiefs and priests, laymen and women. Why Llanddewi Brefi 
was chosen is not clear. There was a large swamp occupying 
the junction of the Afon and Teify. Probably the place — where 
stood the ancient Loventium, a Roman city — was not wholly 
desolate, and there may have been a church there, afterwards 
removed to Llanddewi. Moreover, Loventium was on the great 
paved way Sam Helen. But the place— so runs the tale- 
was not found suitable ; the bishops made a great heap of gar- 
ments, and the speakers who addressed the assembly stood on 
top of this ; but the expedient was unsatisfactory. "They en- 
deavoured to preach from the top of this raised heap of clothes, 
but, as if from an obstructed throat, the discourse scarcely reached 
those nearest." Then Paulinus remarked to his fellows that he 
did not see his old pupil, David, who ou^ht to be there, and, at 
his advice, Deiniol and Dyfrig or Dubricius went to Menevia to 
fetch him. 

No sooner had David arrived, than with clear common-sense 
he saw that the assembly was gathered in an unsuitable spot, 
and at his advice it moved away from the ruined city of Loven- 
tium, to where was an old tump, a mound formerly fortified, 
such as are common throughout South Wales, from the top of 
which it was easy to address a great crowd. This is the probable 
explanation of the fable told in his Life, that a mound rose up 
under the feet of David, and dispensed with the need for the 
heap of old clothes. Moreover, if this explanation be right, 
we see that the synod was appointed to meet at Loventium, but 
that for the sake of the moated tump, was shifted a little way 
off to where now stands Llanddewi Brefi, that has given its 
name to the synod. 

We hear no more of S. Paulinus. He lived to a great age, and 
retired from his monastery to Caio — perhaps he retired there 
immediately after the council, along Sarn Helen — and there he 
died. His inscribed stone was found at Pant-y-Polion, that is, 
the Dip in the Land of Paulinus, and it bears the following 
inscription : — 

Servatur fidaei 

Patrieq : semper 

Amator hie Paulin 

us jacit cultor pienti 

simus sequi. 

* * 



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November 23] Celtic UJid EngUsk Kulendiir. 3 1 3 



A guardian of the faith, a true lover of his country, and holy 
minister of God's word to the people— that is what I'aulinus was, 
on the testimony of this stone. The monument is preserved 
in Dolaucothi House. He was the father of SS. Peulan, 
Gwyngeneu, and Gwenfaen. 

Deiniolen, Deiniolfab, or Deiniol the Younger, was 
son of S. Deiniol, Abbot and Bishop of Bangor, in Carnarvon- 
shire. He was educated at Bangor- Iscoed, in Flintshire, under 
his grandfather Dunawd. After the destruction of the abbey in 
613, he retired into his father's monastery, and succeeded to the 
abbacy. The account of the disaster which caused him to fly is 
told by Bede. Ethelfred fought the Britons, and made a great 
slaughter at Chester. " Being about to give battle, he observed 
their priests, who were come together to offer up their prayers 
to God for the soldiers, standing apart in a place of more safety. 
He inquired who they were, and why they had gathered there. 
Most of them were from the monastery of Bangor, in which, it 
is reported, there was so great a number of monks, that the 
monastery was divided into seven parts with a ruler over each, 
none of those parts containing less than three hundred men, who 
all lived by the labour of their hands. Many of these, after a 
fast of three days, placed themselves under the protection of one 
Brocmael, who undertook to defend them against the swords of 
the barbarians whilst they were engaged in prayer for his success. 
King Ethelfred (of Northumbria), on hearing why they had come, 
said, ' If they cry to their God against us, although not bearing 
arms, they are in truth our adversaries, fighting against us by their 
prayers.' He therefore commanded them to be attacked first, 
and then destroyed the rest of the impious army. About twelve 
hundred of those that came to pray are said to have been killed, and 
only fifty to have escaped by flight. Brocmael, instead of defend- 
ing them, as he ought, at the first approach of the enemy, turned 
and fled, and left them exposed to the swords of their enemies." 

The Anglo-Saxon chronicle makes the number slain to have 
been two hundred. Perhaps Bede inadvertently reckoned the 
entire loss of the British in that battle as one of monks who 
were massacred. The destruction of the monastery of Bangor- 
Iscoed followed immediately. 

It is characteristic of theologic rancour that even the gentle 
Bede exults over this horrible butchery as a judgment on the 
British Church for not accepting the self-assertive supremacy of 
Augustine. Deiniolen must have been either left behind in 
Bangor before the battle, or have been one of those who were 
so happy as to escape from it. He died about 621. 



*- 



314 Lives of the Saints. [November 24-25. 

24 MiNVER or Menefreda, V. Cornwall, 6th cent. ; also 
July 13. 

MiNVER or Menefreda is a reputed daughter (actually 
granddaughter) of Brychan of Brecknock ; in Domesday the 
parish of Minver, in Cornwall, is called Rosminvet. The Latin 
form of the name is Menefreda. This is a singular compound. 
The original saint was Mwynen, granddaughter of Brychan, and 
was perhaps known in Cornwall as Mwynfriw. Gwenfrewi 
became the Winefreda of the monastic scribes, and Mwynfriw 
would naturally be rendered in Latin, Menefrida. 

Mwyn signifies mild, gentle, and courteous. Minver is 
probably a corruption of Mwyn-vawr, the Great Mwynen, in 
contradistinction to a chapel in the same parish which was 
Mwyn-vach, but which has disappeared. 

Mwynen was the daughter of Brynach, the Irishman, who 
founded a church in North Devon, on his return to Wales 
from Brittany. Her brother Gerwyn or Berwyn founded a 
church in Cornwall, and this is probably the Merryn of North 
Cornwall, and Berwyn of an old Cornish calendar, quoted by 
William of Worcester. It is noticeable that the church of S. 
Minver is near that of S. Enoder, which is, in fact, a chapelry in 
the parish ; and Enoder is Cynydr, whose mother was a daughter 
of Brychan, consequently Enoder and Minver were cousins. 
There was quite a colony of relatives in the neighbourhood. 
Beside her uncle Merryn, there were S. Teath, S. Mabyn, and, 
at Tintagel, S. Materiana. 

25 Catherine Audley, R. Ledbury, circa a.d. 1400. 

Catherine Audley. According to the legend, there lived 
at Ledbury, at the close of the fourteenth century, a holy woman, 
whose name was Katharine Audley, and she was called S. 
Katharine. She came there with her maid Mabel, and she 
stayed there because it had been revealed to her that she was 
to dwell where she heard the bells ring of themselves, and she 
lived upon milk and herbs. Now she had a mare, and it came to 
pass that this mare with her colt was stolen, and the saint prayed 
that the thief might be found by the tracks of the mare's feet. 
But the thief, fearing the prayers of the saint, had led the mare 
along the course of the brook ; yet it was so, that on the stones 
of the brook all the way were found the marks of the mare's 
feet and of the colt's, and also of the pattens of the maid who 



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NOVEMHER 25 ] 



Celtic and Bngiish Kalendar. 



15 



stole them ; and so this wicked deed was made known, and the 
saint recovered that which she had lost. The most distinctly 
marked of the stones used formerly to be collected as charms or 
safeguards against robbery ; but less clear impressions are fre- 
quent in the main and smaller water-courses. On a fragment 
lately secured, however, the " colt's foot " is deeply and exactly 
defined, while near it as distinct a circular groove marks the 
"maid's patten," the nature and colouring of the stone showing 
plainly how the harder portions had resisted the action of the 
water. The story of S. Katharine's mare and colt was firmly 
believed in the district early in the present century ; and local 
antiquaries, in papers read before their societies forty or fifty 
years ago, while rejecting the element of miracle, yet referred 
the footprints to ' ' antediluvian " animals, including, apparently, 
even the " patten "-wearing " maid," who, there is reason to fear, 
must have been the faithless domestic of the saint herself. 

There would be nothing in this myth distinguishing it from 
any ordinary popular legend, but for the curiously precise his- 
torical element which appears to be mixed up with the mediaeval 
miracle. The phenomenon of the seeming hoof-marks would 
inevitably have involved some story to account for them ; and S. 
Katharine was not only a saint generally held in honour in 
England, but also of special regard at Ledbury, where a chapel 
of S. Katharine still remains in the parish church, and where a 
S. Katharine's Hospital was founded in 1232 by Hugh Ffolliott, 
Bishop of Hereford ; this survives under the government of 
the church of Hereford, and has never been perverted into a 
sinecure or an abuse. It would thus have been very natural 
that the miracle of the Sapey and other brooks should have 
been ascribed to S. Katharine V.M. ; but the place of this 
well-known saint has been strangely usurped in the existing 
form of the legend by an indigenous Katharine with the non- 
ecclesiastical surname of Audley, to whom, according to the 
local guide-book, "the king, in consideration of her birth, or 
piety, or both, granted an annuity of ^30." At the Dissolution 
the revenues of the Hospital of S. Katharine of Ledbury were 
returned at ^^32, 7s. lid. annually; and an "annuity of ^^30" 
in the reign of Edward H. would have provided a "religious 
woman and her maid," we may be sure, with much better fare 
than "herbs and milk." From this odd detail in the story the 
clue to the perplexity is obtained. The Close Rolls of 16, 17, 
and 18 Edward H. in the Public Record Office exhibit the 
grant of this large annuity to " Katharine de Audele," expressly 
described as " Recluse of Ledebury," and designated in both 



I 



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-^ 



* 

3 1 6 Lives of the Saints. [November 26-28. 

. documents as " dilecta nobis in Christo." The Sheriff of Here- 

ford is ordered to take into the king's hands certain specified 
lands in the county, and out of the revenues to pay the annuity, 
with arrears of j^22, to the said Katharine, the remainder of the 
issues to be paid into the king's chamber. Subsequent orders to 
the same effect are addressed to John Wroth, Keeper of the 
Manors aforenamed. For what reason so munificent a grant 
was made by the king for the support of the " recluse" is not 
evident ; but the lady had not always found her vocation in a 
religious life, and if the bells ever rang at Ledbury in her be- 
half, the occasion was anything but supernatural. The Close 
Roll of 7 Edward II. has a record setting forth how " Katharine 
de Audeleie granted to James de Ferrers and Ela his wife, her 
daughter, the castle and town of Thlanandeuery," &c., the grant 
being "dated at Ledbury." The lady, after having seen her 
daughter well settled, in every sense of the word, upon a Welsh 
estate, would seem to have adopted the profession of a " recluse " 
upon a very comfortable provision for her old age, and to have 
had little need to trouble herself about a casually missing cart- 
horse — unless, indeed, under this legend, too, may lie hidden 
some memory of armed marauders ; for Ledbury, like Much 
Cowarne, lies on an obvious line of inroad from the Welsh 
border. 



26 



27 Gallgo or Gallgof, C. Wales, 6th cent. 
ViRGiLius, B. Salzburg, a.d. 780 (L.). 

Gallgo was a son of Caw, and he founded the church of 
Llanallgo, in Anglesey. 

28 Patrician, B. Sutherlandshirc, ^Ik cent. 
Secundinus, B. Dunshaughlin, Meath, a.d. 458 (L.). 

Patrician is said to have fled before the Saxons, being a 
bishop of the Romano-Britons, probably in Strathclyde, and 
taken refuge in Sodor or the Isle of Man, where he was given 
lands by King Congal. In Dempster's " Scottish Menology " he 
is given on the loth October. 

Secundinus, Auxilius, and Isserninus were bishops who 
came to assist S. Patrick in his labours in Ireland about 439. 



^- 



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November 29.] Celtic and EngUsJi Kalendiiv. 317 



Secundinus and Auxilius were his nephews, sons of his sister 
Darerca, according to a late account. It is also very doubtful 
that they were bishops when they arrived in Ireland, unless they 
came from some Celtic monastery, where bishops were numerous. 
Moreover, according to other accounts they were consecrated by 
S. Patrick himself. About 443 S. Patrick left Secundinus in 
Meath, to build up his converts in the faith, whilst the apostle 
himself went on into Leinster and Munster. The suffraganship 
of Secundinus lasted about six years, and he died in 448. His 
usual place of residence was Dunshaughlin, but his was a roving 
commission, and there were then no territorial sees. 

29 Barrwg, H.C. Barry Isle, Glamorganshire, e,th cent. 
Sadwrn, H.C. Anglesey and Carmarthenshire, early 

6th cent. 
Egelwin, C. Athelney, Somersetshire, ph cent. 

Barrwg or Barruc was a disciple of S. Cadoc. The 
abbot sailed with him one day to the island off the coast of 
Glamorganshire, that has since borne the name of Barry. Along 
with Barrwg was another, Gwalches. When Cadoc had landed 
he asked for his little prayer-book. The disciples confessed 
that they had forgotten it. In a fury he ordered them to re- 
embark and recover it, and then, his anger getting the better of 
him, he cursed them that they might never return. They went 
to where the book had been left, and brought it to the boat, and 
stepped in again, but on tlieir way to the island were swamped 
and drowned, Cadoc looking on the while. The body of Barrwg 
was carried to the shore and was buried, but that of Gwalches 
was swept by the current to another islet. For what particular 
reason Barrwg was esteemed a saint does not transpire. 

Sadwrn Farchog or " the Knight." was a brother of S. 
Illtyd, and a disciple of S. Cadfan, whom he accompanied to 
Wales. He founded churches in Anglesey and Carmarthenshire. 
There is another Sadwrn mentioned in the second legend of S. 
Winefred, which is a very untrustworthy document, even more 
so than the first. But there is no allusion to him in either the 
first legend or in tlie Life of S. Beuno, and this other Sadwrn is 
therefore proliably mythical. 

It is a mistake to identify Sadwrn with Saturninus in the 
Roman Martyrology, as is commonly done. Sadwrn is the 
Welsh form of Saturnus, and Saturninus would in Welsh be 



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3 1 8 Lives of the Samts. [XchmbL^° " 



o 



Sadyrnyn, which actually occurs as the name of a sixth-century 
saint, the son of Sadwrn Hen, son of Cynyr of Caer Gawch and 
brother of S. Non. To this saint the church of Llansadwrnen, 
in Carmarthenshire, is dedicated. The festival of the latter is 
not given in any of the Welsh kalendars ; but Rees, through 
confusing the two saints, gives it under this day. 

Sadyrnyn was also the name of a bishop of S. David's, who 
died about 831. 

Egelvvin was brother of Kenwalch, King of the West .Saxons. 
He was a man of infirm health, but of great piety, and resigna- 
tion to the will of God. He was venerated at Athelney, where, 
however, the abbey had not at that time been founded. He 
lived in the seventh century. 

30 TUGDUAL, B. Ab. Brittany, 6th cent. (L.). 

TUGDUAL. See " Les Trois vies anciennes de S. Tudwal," by 
A. de la Borderie, Paris, Champion, 1S77. 



DECEMBER 

Grwst, C. Denbighshire, early 'jth cent. 
Deiniol Wyn, or the Blessed, B. Bangor, 6th cent.; 
also September 11, December 10 (L.). 

Grwst or Gorwst was of the family of Urien Rheged, and 
founded the church of Llanrwst, Denbighshire. He lived early 
in the seventh century. ^ 

IssERNiNUS, B. Ireland, a.d. 469. 

Llechid, v. Carnarvonshire, 6th cent. 

Trumwin, B. Picts, A.D. 686 (L.) ; also February 10. 

IsSERNiNUS, a Briton by l)irth, was summoned by S. Patrick 
to assist him in his work in Ireland. Isserninus had as his 
associate Auxilius ; and for an account of their journey see the 
note on the latter (^September 16). He is said to have received 
clerical orders the same day that Patrick was consecrated bishop. 
He was appointed to be bishop at Kilcullen, and attended the 
synod at Armagh in 456. He died in 469. The Church in 



^- 



1^ — 

decembf-r 3-5] Celtic afid E7tglish Kaleiidar. 319 

Ireland certainly owes to Isserninus a great debt of gratitude as 
one of her founders. 

Llechid was a daughter of Ithel Hael, and sister of several 
saints. 

3 Lleurwg or Lucius, K.C. Wales and Coire (L.). 
BiRiNUS, B. Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, a.d. 654 (L.). 

4 Osmund, B. Sah'sbury, a.d. 1099 (L.). 

5 Cawrdaf, K. Brecknockshire, circa a.d. 560. 
Justinian, H.M. Ramsey, off Pembrokeshire, circa A.D. 

540. 

Cawrdaf was the son of Caradog Freichfras, or Strong i' the 
Arm. Caradog was grandson of Brychan and Earl of Gloucester, 
a contemporary of King Arthur, and, in the legendary story, one 
of the Knights of the Round Table, and Keeper of the Castle 
Dolorous. The wife of Caradog and mother of Cawrdaf was 
Tegau Eurfron, or Of the Golden Breast, celebrated by the 
bards as one of the three chaste women of Britain, who possessed 
three valuable ornaments, a knife, a golden cup, and a mantle, 
the latter of which is the subject of a famous ballad given 
by Percy in his " Reliques." It was one that could only he 
worn by a really chaste woman. It could be contained between 
two nut-shells, and had the property — 

" Itt shall never become that wiffe 
That hath once done amisse." 

When Guenever tried it on — 

" Shee stoode as shee had been madd. 
It was from the top to the toe 
As sheeres had it shread. 
One while it was gule (red) ; 
Another while was itt greene ; 
Another while it was wadded (woaded — blue), 
111 itt did her beseeme. 
Another while it was blacke 
And bore the worst hue : 
By my troth, quoth King Arthur, 
I thinke thou be not true." 



■^ 



320 Lives of the Saints. [Decembers. 



But when the wife of Caradog Freichfras put on the mantle — 

" Upp at her great toe 

It l)egan to crinkle and crowt ; 

She said, Bowe downe, mantle, 

And shame me not for nought. 

Once I did amisse, 

I tell you, certainlye, 

When I kist Craddocke's (Caradog's) mouth 

Under a green tree ; 

When I kist Craddocke's mouth 

Before he married mee. 

When she had her shreeven 

And her sines had tolde, 

The mantle stood about her 

Right as she wold, 

Seemelye of color, 

Glittering like gold. 

Then every knight in Arthur's court 

Did her behold.^" 

So was the knife a token of fidelity, and that Craddocke won. 

Caradog had by this good wife six sons, of whom Cawrdaf 
was the eldest. On the death of Caradog he succeeded his 
father in the rule over Brecknock and Fferegs, which comprised 
a part of Herefordshire. In the triads he is spoken of as one of 
the three prime ministers of Britain, also as one of the seven 
blessed first cousins of Britain. He was married and left issue, 
Cadell, Cathen, Iddawg, and Medrod. Later in life he became 
a member of the college of S. Illtyd, and died about 560. A 
saying attributed to him is, " The promoter of work is the 
cautious hand." 

Justinian or Stinan was a native of Brittany, who came to 
Wales, and settled in the island of Ramsey, off Pembrokeshire, 
where he lived an eremitical life, and enjoyed the confidence of 
S. David. He was murdered, it is said, because he had reproved 
the vices of some of the Welsh, who took offence at his plain 
speaking. According to the legend, they cut off his head, 
whereupon a spring welled up on the spot. Then his body got 
up, and taking the head between the hands, walked down to the 
shore, passed over on the water to the mainland, and then fell. 
Thereupon S. David buried head and body with great solemnity. 
This is merely a fanciful way of saying that after the murder, S. 
David transported the dead man to the mainland, and saw to 
its interment. The date is about 540. 



*- 



^- 



->^ 



December 6-12] Celtlc and EngHsJi KaleJiciav. 321 



7 BuiTH or BoETHius, C. Scotland, a.d. 521. 

BuiTH or BoETHius was a Scot, who rambled about the 
Continent for some thirty years, and made the acquaintance in 
Germany of S. Codrus, with whom he returned to North Britain, 
where he restored to life the daughter of the King of the Picts. 
He received a grant of lands at Carbuddo, near Dunnichen, and 
died the same day on which S. Columba was born, 521. 



8 



9 BuDOC, Ab. B. Dol, 6th cent. 

Ethelgiva, F. Abss. Shaftesbury, a.d. 896. 

BuDOC. There were three of this name : (i) an abbot in the 
isle of Brehat, about 470, who educated S. Winwaloe ; (2) a 
bishop of Dol, who succeeded S. Samson in 585 ; (3) a bishop of 
Vannes, about 600. 

Ethelgiva, daughter of King Alfred the Great and Ethel- 
witha. Her father built and endowed the monastery of Shaftes- 
bury, and appointed her abbess. After a life of great sanctity 
she died in 896. 

10 Deiniol or Daniel, B. Bangor, 6th cent. (L.). 

1 1 Beris or Berrys, C. Denbighshire, of unknown date. 
CiAN, C. Carnarvonshire, 6th cent. 

CiAN, a warrior, who is mentioned by Aneurin in the 

" Gododin," and is supposed to have retired to Wales, where 

he devoted his life to religion. He is spoken of as " servant of 
S. Peris" (July 26). 



12 Finnan, B. Clonard, a.d. 552 (L.). 
Fflewyn, C. Anglesey, 6th cent. 

Fflewvn was the son of Ithel Hael, and with his brother 
Gredifael was appointed by Pawl Plen to preside over the 
monastery of Ty Gwyn, on the Taf, when he was old and failing. 
VOL. XVI. X 



-* 



-* 



32 2 Lives of tJie Saints. [December 13-17. 



13 GwYNAN and Gwynws, CC. IVaks, ^th cent. 
JUDOC, P.C. Ponthieu, ']th cent.; see January 8 and 

July 25 (L.). 
Ffinan, B. Anglesey, 6th cent. 

GwYNAN and GwYNWS were descendants of Brychan. Llan- 
wnws, in Cardigan, is dedicated to the latter. 

Ffinan, a saint, bishop, and philosopher, who was descended 
from a noble family in Ireland, and resided with S. David at 
Menevia about 530. According to Irish accounts, a king in 
Wales was so great an admirer of his virtue, that he granted 
him lands, and even a town there, and he erected three churches 
and spent twenty years there. The Welsh records do not 
confirm any of these statements. Ffinan is no other than the 
illustrious Finnian of Clonard, commemorated on February 23 
and on December 12, on which day his life is given in the text. 

14 FiNGAR, M., and Piala, V.M. Hayle, Cornwall, t^th 

cent.; see March 23 (L.). 

15 Drostan, B. Scotland, circa a.d. 600. 

Drostan was a companion of S. Columba on the occasion of 
the visit of the great Irish saint to Bede, the Pictish prince, at 
Aberdour, in Buchan. The site of the Abbey of Deer was 
given to them, and S. Columba left Drostan there as first 
abbot. Drostan was of the royal stock of the Scots. His 
date is about 600. 

16 Bean, B. Mortlach, Scotland, a.d. 1012 (L.). 

17 Tydecho, C. Merioneth and Montgomery, middle of 

6th cent. 

Tydecho, son of Amwn Ddu, or the Black, was cousin of 
S. Cadfan. He left Armorica along with his sister Tegfedd, 
and settled in the district of Mawddwy, in Merionethshire. 
There he was much troubled by Maelgwn Gwynedd, prince of 
North Wales, upon whom he retaliated by performing a host 
of miracles, and forced the tyrant to make amends. Then his 



^' ^ 



*- 



-* 



December iS-24.] 



Celtic and English Kalendcw, 



323 



sister Tegfedd was abducted by another chief, Cynon, who, 
however, was in like manner compelled to restore her unhurt. 
Tydecho is named in the Life of S. Padarn. He belongs to 
the middle of the sixth century. His legend was put into verse 
by a bard of the fifteenth century ("Cambrian Register," ii. 

375-385 ; "i- 540). 

18 Flannan, B. Killaloe, ']th cent. (L.). 

19 Samthana, Abss. Clonebrone, Ireland, 8ih cent. 



20 



21 



22 Ernan, Mk. C. Dnimhome, in Donegal, a.d. 640 (L.); 

also January i. 

23 Mazota, V. Abernethy, 'jth cent. (L.). 
Frithebert, B. Hexham, a.d. 766. 

Frithebert succeeded Acca as Bishop of Hexham. He 
ruled as well the diocese of Lindisfarne during the imprison- 
ment of Cynewalch, the bishop. " The time was one of anarchy 
after the death of Edbert. Men of unknown lineage disputed 
the throne with the kings of royal stock ; revolts of the nobles 
added to the general disorder ; and the fierce blood-shedding 
which characterised the successive strifes for the crown showed 
the moral deterioration of the country. Isolated as Northumbria 
had become, its isolation became even more pronounced in these 
fifty years of anarchy ; for even the intermarriages of its kings 
with the other kingly houses all but ceased, and the northern 
realm hardly seemed to form part of the English people. 

" In spite, however, of this anarchy, Northumbria remained to 
the last the chief seat of English religion and English learning. 
In the midst of its political disorder, learning and the love of 
books still flourished at Jarrow and York." ^ 

24 Levan, B. Treguier, Brittany, and Cornwall (L.). 

1 Green, " The Making of England," ed. 1897, vol. ii. p. 186. 



^- 



324 Lives of the Samts. [December 25-26. 

25 Bathan, B. Shetland, a.d. 639. 

Alburga, W. Wilton, circa 800. 

Alburga was sister or half-sister on her mother's side to 
Egbert, King of Wessex, and had to husband Wolstan, Earl of 
Wiltshire. He repaired the church of Wilton, and on his death 
his widow retired into a convent which she established in con- 
nection with the church at W^ilton. She died in 800 or there- 
abouts. It is to be regretted that a church so full of rich 
English memories should have been reconstructed in a flashy 
Italian style, entirely at variance with English traditions. 

2 6 Tathan or Tath^us, Ab. Caerwent, and in Glamorgan, 
early 6th cent. 
Maethlu or Amaethlu, C. Anglesey, 6th ce.nt. 
Jarlath, B. Tiiam, circa a.d. 560 (L.). 

Tathan or TatH/*:us was a son of Amwn the Black, brother 
of Samson of Dol, and was a member of the college of S. IHtyt, 
after which he settled in Glamorganshire, and founded a church. 
A legend of the twelfth century makes him a son of a King of 
Ireland, and this error derogates from the value of the rest of 
the story. Leaving Armorica, he, with seven others, took boat 
and came to Wales, and landed in Gwent, where they fastened 
their boat to an anchor, which they struck into the sand. Some 
mischievous person, when they were at dinner with a landowner 
on shore, loosed the rope ; but a stag hasted from the forest and 
held the rope with his feet. S. Tathan then ordered that the 
stag should be killed and eaten ; his disciples were greatly 
shocked, but the stag lay down and stretched out his neck for 
the knife. 

S. Tathan was granted land at Gwent, and he kept there a 
cow, which supplied him and his disciples with milk. One night 
some men turned forty-seven horses into his field, and they 
spoiled and ate his hay. As a chastisement all the horses were 
struck dead ; but when those who had turned the horses into the 
field came and apologised, Tathan restored them all to life. 

Tathan then went to the banks of the Severn and settled 
there. King Gwynllyw, then in an unconverted condition, one 
day invited the saint to him, and he provided as his seat a 
caldron full of boiling water, over which rushes were strewn. 
He invited the saint to sit down on the rushes, expecting him to 
go into the scalding water, but miraculously the rushes became 



i^- 



-* 



-^ 



December 27-28.] Celttc and EfigUsk Kalcndav. 325 



so stiff as to prove " a heavenly support." The legend of S. 
Tathan is obviously composed out of popular ballads, which the 
monkish scribe has rendered into Latin verses here and there. 

In the Life of S. Cadoc he is mentioned. It was he who 
baptized that saint. The story goes that when the servant of 
Gwynllyw complained at having to fetch water for the rite, and 
said that he was tired, and that it was a long climb up the hill, 
burdened with water, Tathan prayed, and forthwith a fountain 
miraculously sprang forth, at sight of which Cadoc, M'ith three 
jumps from his nurse's arms, plunged into the water. Tathan 
was given Cadoc to educate. After Cadoc had plunged into 
the fountain, it flowed for some time with metheglin ; that is to 
say, in plain English, that King Gwynllyw had a great carouse at 
the christening of his son, and mead flowed freely. 

Cadoc, or, as he was then named, Cathmael, was taught Latin 
and grammar by Tathan. It was whilst with him, and as a boy, 
that one day, when the fire was gone out, his master sent him to 
a husbandman who was drying his oats over a stove or hippocaust, 
to let him have some live coals. The fellow said he might take 
them if he would carry them in the lap of his garment. Cadoc 
took them up, but cursed the boor, on which at once fire 
broke out and consumed him, his threshing-floor, and his agri- 
cultural implements. Cadoc then went on, bearing the red-hot 
charcoal to his master in the fold of his garment. When Tathan 
saw this, he exclaimed, " Most dear disciple, it is not for me to 
teach you any more," and he dismissed him. Tathan is said to 
have dug a hole, and hidden the red-hot sacred coals in it, as a 
precious treasure, and there they remained, visited and won- 
dered over by many men till the latter part of the eleventh 
century, when the place was lost. Probably there was some spot 
where a coal seam had become ignited, and popular romance 
attributed it to S. Cadoc, and the story was told that it was 
fire brought miraculously by him, and put into the rock by S. 
Tathan. A saying attributed to him, after a great loss, is 
"God will not apportion unjustly." 

Maethlu or Amaethi.u was the son of Caradoc Freich- 
fras, by Tegau Eurfron (of the Golden Breast), the Chaste, and 
possessor of the marvellous mantle. He founded Llanfaethlu, 
in Anglesey. 



27 



^- 



-* 



^ — — 

226 Lives of the Saints. [December 29-31. 

29 Thomas a Becket, Abp. M. Canterbury^ a.d. i i 70 (L.). 

Thomas A. Becket. The authorities are in the nine volumes 
of the Historical Society of Great Britain, " Materials for the 
History of Thomas Becket." See also Dom. A. L'Huilliei 
"Saint Thomas de Canterbury," 1891. 

30 Egwin, B. Worcester, a.d. 717; also January 11 (L.). 

31 Maelog, C Wales, 6th cent. 
Pawl Hen, Ab. B. Wales {sec November 22). 

Maelog, son of Caw, was one of the congregation of S. 
Cadoc. It is to be surmised that he was hardly with him in 
Scotland when S. Cadoc dug up his father, restored him to life, 
and converted the resuscitated prince into a delver, as a common 
labourer, or he would surely have raised objections (see CE^VYDD, 
July i). Maelog, and his sister Peithian, and brothers Eigrad, 
Peirio, and Gallgo, settled in Anglesey, in separate hermitages, 
but with their sister in the midst, in the beginning of the sixth 
century. 



*- 



•i<- 



.1^ 



PEDIGREES OF THE BRITISH SAINTS 



The materials available for the pedigrees of the Welsh 
Saints are these : — 

1. Bonedd y Saint^ in " Myvyrian Archaiology " (Denbigh, 

1870), pp. 417-431- 

In this the Saints are arranged alphabetically, and 
was compiled by Lewis Morris in the year 1760, from 
a number of Welsh MSS. containing pedigrees of the 
Saints. 

2. In connection with this, information is obtainable from the 

collections of triads in the same work. 

3. Bonedd Saint Ynys Prydain, in the same collection, pp. 

415-6. This is from a much older MS. than i, as a 
whole. 

None of these are translated. 

4. Achau Saint Ynys Prydain, in the " lolo MSS." (Llandovery, 

1848), text, pp. 100-109 ; English, pp. 495-507. 

5. Tair Gwelygordd Saint Ynys Prydain, ibid. pp. icg-114, 

508-514. 

6. Achau a Gwelygorddau Saint Ynys Prydain, ibid. pp. 1 1 5- 

134, 515-537- 

7. Achau Saint Ynys Prydain (not the same as 4), ibid. pp. 

135-146, 538-551- 

8. Man-gofion am rai o Saint Ynys Prydain, ibid. pp. 147-153, 

552-559- 

9. Achau y Saint (different from 4 and 6), in " Lives of the 

Cambro-British Saints " (Llandovery, 1853), pp. 265-268 ; 
English, 592-597. 

3*7 



•J"- 



328 Lives of the Saints. 

10. Achau Saint Cymreig, ibid. pp. 269-271 ; English, 598-pp. 

601. 

11. De Brachan Brecheiniauc, /(J/c/. pp. 272-275; English, pp. 

602-608. 

12. Cognacio Brychani, from Cotton. Lib. and Harleian MSS., 

printed in Jones's "History of Brecknock" (Brecknock, 
1805), vol. ii. pp. 342, 343- 

13. A Jesus Coll. Cognacio, given by Jones, Appendix V, 

14. Pedigrees from Jesus College MS. 20, printed in " Y Cym- 

mrodor," viii. 83-90 (1887). 

15. Bonedd Saint Kymry in the Mostyn MS. \\\{circ. 1592), 

of which a transcript is printed in the " Report on MSS. 
in the Welsh Language" (Historical MSS. Commission, 
i. 54-55, 1898). 

16. "Bonedd y Saint" in "Y Cymmrodor," vii. 133-4 (1884), 

from a thirteenth or early fourteenth fragment among 
the Hengwrt MSS. 



*- 



-* 



INDICES 



*- 



-^ 



>b- 



-^ 



INDEX TO SAINTS WHOSE LIVES 
ARE GIVEN 



[ 7Vie follou'iug contractions are used to indicate the months :—Jan. 
{January), F. {February), Mch. {March), Ap. {April), My. {May), 
Ju. {June),Jly. {July), An. {August), S. {Septeinher), O. {October), 
N. {Novetnber), D. {December), Appdx. { Vol. xvi-W 



S. 

ss. 
s. 



ss. 



I) 

ss. 



s. 
ss, 



ss. 

s. 

ss. 

s. 



ss. 



Aaron, Appdx. 245 
Aaron and Julius, Jly. I 
Abban of Kilabban, O. 652 
Abban of Magharnoidhe, O. 

653 
Abdon and Sennen, Jly. 677 
Abibus and comp., N. 334 
Abra, D. 170 
Abraham, F. 298 
Abraham and Mary, Mch. 275 
Abrosimus and comp., N. 230 
Abundius, Ap. 24 
Abundius, Abundantius, and 

comp., S. 261 
Abundius and Irenasus, Au. 

314 
Acca, Au. 80 

Acca, B. of Hexham, O. 501 
Acepsimas and comp., Ap. 298 
Achillas, N. 168 
Achilles and comp., Ap. 300, 

and My. 158 
Adalbald, F. 41 
Adalbert, Ap. 311, Ju. 361 
Adalhardt, Jan. 34 
Adalsendis, D. 280 
Adamnan, S. 358 
Adauctus and Callisthene, 

0.64 
Adauctus and Felix, Au. 383 
Adela and Irmina, D. 274 
Adelelm, Jan. 465 
Adelhaid, Empress, D. 161 
Adelheid, F. 140 
Adeloga, F. 42 
Adeodatus, Jly. 357 



S. Ado, B. of Vienna, D. 

199 
„ Adrian, Jan. 128 
„ Adrian, B. of S. Andrews, 

Mch. 59 
„ Adrian, M. at Wintershoven, 
Mch. 333 
.SS. Adrian, Natalia, and comp., 
S. 113 
S. Aelhaiarn, Appdx. 288 
„ Aelred, Jan. 176 
„ /Emilian, F. 212, Ju. 360. 

N. 292 
„ Afan, Appdx. 305 
„ Afra, Au. 59 

African Martyrs, Ap. 73 
Agape and comp., Ap. 34 
Agapetus, Au. 162 
Agapetus I., Pope, S. 321 
Agapius, N. 458 
Agapius and comp., Au. 179 
Agatha, F. 136 
Agatho, Jan. 137 
Agathoclia, S. 272 
Agathopus and Thcodulus, 
Ap. 61 
S. Agilulf, Jly. 211 
„ Agleus, O. 357 
„ Agnes, Jan. 317 
„ Agricola, Mch. 2cS5 
SS. Agricola and Vitalis, N. 
S. Agrippina, Ju. 308 
,, Aibert, Ap. 1 14 
„ Aichard, S. 249 
,, Aidan, Jan. 471^ Au. 
Appdx. 177 



SS, 

s. 



II 

ss, 
s. 



ss. 



107 



391. 



333 



*- 



-^ 



134 



Index to Saints. 



S. Aignan, B. of Orleans, N. 
.378 
SS. Aigulf and comp., S. 41 
S. Ailbe, S. 180 
„ Alban, M., at Mainz, Ju. 2S8 
„ Alban, M., at Verulam, Ju. 

294 
„ Alberta, Mch. 212 
„ Albinus, Mch. 16 
„ Alburga, Appdx. 324 
B. Alcuin, My. 263 
S. Aldate, Appdx. 179 
„ Aldate of Gloucester, Ju. 203 
„ Aldegund, Jan. 464 
„ Aldetrudis, F. 413 
„ Aldhelm, My. 346 
„ Aldric, Jan. 96 
„ Alena, Ju. 246 
„ Alexander, F. 443, Au. 315, 

S.325 
„ Alexander I., Pope, My. 54 
„ Alexander of Apamea, Mch. 

203 
„ Alexander of Jerusalem, Mch. 

312 
„ Alexander Accemetus, Jan. 228 
„ Alexander Nevski, N. 511 
SS. Alexander and comp., My. 

418, Jly. 207, O. 564 
,, Alexander and Epimachius, 

D. 156 
S. Alexis, Jly. 413 
B. Aleydis of Scharembeke, Ju. 

147 

S. Alfred the Great, Appdx. 285 

„ Alfric, Appdx. 305 

„ Alfwold, Mch. 460 

„ Algeric, B. of Verdun, D. 2 

,, Alkmund, Mch. 334 
SS. Alkmund and Gilbert, S. 109 
All Saints, N. i 
All Souls, N. 42 

S. Almedha, Au. 6, Appdx. 258 

,, Alnoth, F. 448 
SS. Alodia and Nunilo, O. 575 

S. Aloysius Gonzaga, Ju. 291 
SS. Alphaeus and Zacchaeus, N. 
378 

S. Alphege, Ap. 229 

„ Alphonso Liguori, Au. 21 



SS 

s. 

SS. 

s, 

SS 

s. 

SS, 



SS. 



SS, 



s. 

SS. 
B. 



Almann of Passan, Au. 102 
Alypius of Tagaste, Au. 144 
Amaethlu, Appdx. 325 
Amalberga, Jly. 262 
Amandus, F. 1S2 
Amantius, Mch. 333 
Amator, My. 11 
Amatus of Lorraine, S. 192 
Amatus, B. of Sens, S. 194 
Ambrose, D. 74 
Ambrose, B. of Cahors, O. 

433 
Ambrose of Sienna, Mch. 369 
Ammon, O. 64 
Ammon, Zeno, and others, D. 

224 
Ammonarium and others, D. 

156 
Amphilochius, N. 509 
Amplias and comp., O. 724 
Ananias and comp., F. 412 
Anastasia, D. 27S 
Anastasia the Elder, and 

Cyril, O. 697 
Anastasius, Ap. 353, S. 100 
Anastasius II., Patriarch of 

Antioch, D. 234 
Anastasius and comp., Jan. 

334 
Anatholia and Audax, Jly. 203 
Anatolius, B. of Constanti- 
nople, Jly. 95 
Anatolius, B. of Laodicea, 

Jly. 92 
Andochius, Thyrsus, and Felix, 

S. 361 
Andrew, Apost. M., N. 593 
Andrew of Crete, Jly. 106, O. 

451 
Andrew of Rinn, Jly. 302 
Andrew the Tribune, Au. 177 
Andrew Avellino, N. 233 
Andrew Corsini, F. 105 
Andrew and comp., My. 205 
Andronicus and Athanasia, O. 

198 
Andronicus and comp., O. 260 
Anectus, Ju. 3S7 
Aneurin and Gwynoc, O. 646 
Angela of Foligni, Jan. 63 



-* 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



'> 1 r 



S. Angela of Merici, My. 430 


S. ApoUonius, Mch. 156, Jly. 


„ Angilbert, F. 337 


165, Ap. 224 


„ Angus of Keld, Mcli. 217 


SS. Apostles, The Separation of 


,, Anicetus, Ap. 219 


the, Jly. 347 


SS. Anicetus and Photius, Au. 1 15 


Apparition of the Cross, The, Au. 


S. Aninas, Mch. 274 


180 


„ Anne, Jly. 564 


Apparition of S. Michael, My. 


„ Anno, Abp. of Cologne, D. 


"5 


29 


S. Apphian, Ap. 12 


Annunciation, B. V. Mary, Mch. 


SS. Appia and Philemon, N. 501 


450 


S. Apronia, Jly. 357 


S. Ansbert, F. 246 


SS. Apuleius and Marcellus, O. 


„ Ansegis, Jly. 492 


154 


,, Anselm, Ap. 261 


„ Aquila and Priscilla, Jly. 182 


„ Ansewin, Mch. 252 


S. Aquilina, Ju. 177 


„ Anskar, F. 56 


SS. Aquilina and Niceta, Jly. 


„ Anteros, Jan. 38 


526 


„ Anthelm of Bellay, Ju. 378 


S. Arbogast, Jly. 501 


,, Anthimius, Ap. 353 


,, Arcadius, Jan. 162 


„ Anthony, Jan. 249 


SS. Archelaa and others, Jan. 278 


SS. Anthusa and Athanasius, Au. 


S. Ardalio, Ap. 189 


232 


SS. Arethas and comp., N. 514 


„ Antia and Eleutherius, Ap. 


„ Ariald and Herlembald, fu. 


223 


389 


S. Antidius, Ju. 352 


S. Arilda, O. 723 


SS. Antiochus and Cyriac, Jly. 


„ Aristarchus, Au. 34 


351 


„ Aristion, F. 366 


S. Antipas, Ap. 136 


„ Aristobalus, Mch. 266 


„ Antonina, Mch. 8 


,, Armel, Appdx., 264 


„ Antoninus, S. 11 


SS. Armogastes and comp., Mch. 


.SS. Antoninus and comp., N. 311 


496 


S. Antony of Padua, Ju. 181 


S. Arnulf, Jly. 435, Appdx. 268 


„ Anysia, D. 406 


„ Arnulf of Villars, Ju. 488 


„ Anysius, B. of Thessalonica, 


„ Arsacius, Au. 150 


D. 406 


„ Arsenius, Jly. 446 


„ Aphraates, Ap. 112 


„ Artemas, Jan. 370 


„ Aphrodisius, Ju. 282 


„ Artemius, O. 496 


,, Aphrodisius of Beziers, Mch. 


„ Asaph, My. 16 


407 _ _ 


S. Asclas, Jan. 346 


,, Aphrodisius of Carthage, Mch. 


SS. Asclepiodotus, Maximus, and 


256 


Theodotus, S. 247 


SS. Aphrodisius and comp., A15. 


S. Asella, D. 68 


358 


„ Aspren, Au. 24 


S. ApoUinaris, Jly. 519 


Assumption of the B. V. M., The, 


„ ApoUinaris Synclet, Jan. 70 


Au. 141 


SS. ApoUinaris and Timothy, Au. 


S. Asterius, Mch. 42, 0. 505 


243 


SS. Asterius and comp., Au. 238 


S. ApoUinarius, O. 118 


„ Asyncritus and comp., A p. 


„ Apollo, Jan. 372 


121 


„ ApoUonia, F. 231 


S. Athanasius, Jan. 38 



*- 



*- 



-* 



zz^ 



Index to Saints. 



S. Athanasius, Deac, Jly. 127 


S. Barachisius, Mch. 491 


„ Athanasius the Great, My. 29 


„ Baradatus, F. 368 


SS. Athanasius and Anthusa, Au. 


,, iJarbara, D. 25 


232 


,, Barbatus, F. 342 


S. Athracta, F. 236 


B. Bardo of Mainz, Ju. 133 


„ Attala, D. 20 


S. Barhadbesciabas, Jly. 500 


„ Atticus, Jan. 100 


,, Barlaam of Antioch, N. 413 


SS. Aucejas and Luceja, Ju. 342 


SS. Barlaam and Josaphat, N. 562 


„ Audax and Anatholia, Jly. 


S. liarnabas, Ju. 139 


203 


,, Barrwg or Barruc, Appdx. 


S. Audifax, Jan. 285 




3x7 


„ Augulus, F. 190 


„ Barsas of Edessa, Jan. 464 


„ Augurius, Jan. 312 


,, Bartholomew, Ap., Au. 253 


„ Augusta, Mch. 483 


,, Bartholomew of Fame, fu. 


„ Augustine, My. 384 




338 


„ Augustine of Hippo, Au. 351 


,, Barypsabas, S. 147 


SS. Augustinus and comp., S. 89 


,, Basil of Amasea, Ap. 350 


S. Aurea, O. 66 


,, Basil of Ancyra, Mch. 407 


SS. Aurelius, Sabagotha, and 


,, Basil the Great, Ju. 192 


comp., Jly. 5S8 


SS. Basilides and comp., Ju. 149 


,, Aureus and Justina, Ju. 221 


j» 


Basiliscus and comp., Mch. 44 


S. Austell, Appdx. 243 


S. Basilissa, S. 35 


„ Austremonius, N. 20 


,, Basilla, My. 306 


„ Austrude, 0. 447 


,, Basinus, Mch. 59 


„ Autbert, B. of Cambrai, D. 


SS. Bassa and sons, Au. 223 


171 


S. Bassian of Lodi, Jan. 286 


„ Autonomus, S. 178 


,, Bathild, Jan. 394 


„ Auxentius, F. 299 


SS. Bathus, Verca, and children, 


„ Auxibius, F. 339 




Mch. 468 


„ Auxilius, Appdx. 275, 316 


S. Bavo, 0. 13 


„ Aventine, Ju. 75 


,, Bean, B. of Mortlach, D. 203 


„ Aventine of Chateaudun, F. 


,, Beata, S. 89 


86 


SS. Beatrix, Simplicius, and 


„ Aventine of Troyes, F. 84 




Faustinus, Jly. 631 


„ Avia, My. 94 


S. Beatus, My. 136 


„ Avitus, F. 138, Ju. 237 




, Bede the Venerable, My. 398 


„ Aya, Ap. 226 




, Bede the Younger, Ap. 132 


SS. Azades and comp., Ap. 298 




, Bega or Bee, S. 92 
, Beggha, D. 207 


S. Babolen, Ju. 373 




, Begha, N. 27 


,, Babylus, Jan. 361 




, Belina, F. 344 


SS. Bacchus and Sergius, O. 155 




, Bellinus, N. 548 


S. Baithen or Baitan, Appdx. 




, Benedict, Mch. 388 


232 




, Benedict II., Pope, My. 108 


,, Balbina, Mch. 513 




, Benedict Biscop, Jan. 167 


,, Balderic, O. 427 




, Benedict of Aniane, F. 284 


,, Baldomer, F. 447 




, Benedict the Bl^ck, Ap. 59 


,, Baldwin, Jan. 112 


» 


, Benet of the Bridge, Ap. 198 


,, Balthazar, Jan. 148 




, Benignus, Abp. of Armagh, 


„ Balther and Bilfred, Mch. 94 




N. 222 



*- 



-* 



>±<- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



337 



S. Benignus of Dijon, N. 12 
,, Benjamin, Mch. 515 
,, Benno of Meissen, Ju. 222 
„ Berach, F. 307 
,, ]5ercharius, O. 431 
SS. Berenice and comp., O. 63 
S. Berlinda, F. 50 
,, Bernard de Alzira and comp,, 

All. 226 
,, liernard of Clairvaux, Au. 196 
,, Bernard of Menthon, Ju. 213 
,, Bernardine, My. 309 
,, Bernward, B. of Hildesheim, 

N. 466 
„ Bertellin, S. 139 
,, Bertha, jly. 107 
,, Berlilia, Jan. 51 
,, Bertilla, N. 156 
,, Berlin, S. 71 
„ Bertoara, D. 161 
,, Bertrand, B. of Comminges, 

0.436 

„ Bertulf, F. 139 

„ Besas, F. 442 

„ Bessarion, Ju. 236 

„ Beuno, Appd.x., 214 

,, Bibiana, D. 10 

„ Bilfrid, Mch. 94 

„ Bilhild, N. 574 

,, Birinus, B. of Dorchester, D. 

„ Birstan, Appdx. 294 

SS. Blaithmac and comp., Jan. 
289 
S. Blaise, F. 47 
,, Blane of Bute, Au. 112 
,, Bodagisl, D. 220 
,, Bod fan, Appdx. 229 
,, Boethius, Appdx. 321 
,, Boisil, Appdx. 174 
,, Bolonia, O. 415 
,, Bonaventura, Jly. 327 
,, Bond, or Baldus, O. 70S 
Boniface, Lausanne, F. 343 
Boniface I., Pope, O. 636 
,, Boniface IV., Pope, My. 345 
,, Boniface of Mainz, Ju. 41 
,, Boniface of Tarsus, My. 191 
,, Boniface Quiritine, Mch. 279 

SS. Boniface and comp., Au. 159 






SS. Boniface and others, O. 62 
,, Bonosus and Maximilian, Au. 

225 
,, Boris and Gleb, S. 75 
S. Bosa, Mch. 175 
,, Botulph, Ju. 247 
,, Botvid, Jly. 609 
,, Bradan, B. of Man, O. 49S 
,, Braulio, Mch. 46S 
SS. Breaca and la., O. 657 
S. Breacha, Ju. 36 
,, Bregwin, Abp. of Canterbury, 

Au. 316 
„ Bregwyn, Appdx. 269 
,, Brendan of Clonfert, My. 217 
,, Brice, B. of Tours, N. 312 
,, Bridget, F. 14 
,, Briget of Sweden, O. 182 
,, Brinstan, Appdx. 294 
,, Brioch, My. 20 
,, Bristan, Appdx. 294 
,, Brithwald, Jan. 131 
,, Britwin of Beverley, My. 213 
,, Brothen, Appdx. 281 
SS. Brothen and Gwendoline, O. 
476 
S. Bruno, F. 304, O. 141 

Brynach Wyddel, Appdx. 209 

Budoc, Appdx. 321 

Budoc, B. of Dol., D. 118 

Buith, Appdx. 321 

Burchard, B. of Wiirzburg, O. 

354 
Burgundofara, or Fara, D. 105 
Buriana, Appdx. 226 

S. Cadfan, Appdx. 288 
Cadfarch, O. 616 
Cadoc, Jan. 363, Appdx. 

174, 325 
Cadwaladr, Appdx. 2S0 
Ca;cilia, N. 502 
Cassarea, My. 21 1 
C?esaria, Jan. 167 
Cajsarius, F. 412 
Coesarius of Aries, Au. 343 
SS. Csesarius and Julian, N. 10 
S. Cagnoald, S. 90 
,, Caian, Appdx. 276 
SS. Caius and Alexander, Mch. 203 



^- 



-* 



•J<- 



33^ 



Index to Saints. 



ss. 



s. 
ss. 

s. 

ss. 



ss. 

s. 

ss. 



ss. 
s. 



ss. 

s. 



ss, 
s, 



Cains and comp., O. 50 
Caius and Crispus, O. 61 
Caius the Palatine and comp., 

Mch. 57 
Cajetan, Au. 87 
Calepodius and comp., My. 1 39 
Calliope, Ju. 77 
Calliopius, Ap. 1 10 
Callisthene and Adauclus, O. 

64 
Callistratus and comp., S. 385 
Callixtus, Pope, O. 347 
Callwen, Appdx. 288 
Camillus of Lellis, Jly. 442 
Camin of Iniskeltra, Mch. 458 
Camerinus and comp., Au. 221 
Canog, Appdx. 279 
Cantius, Cantianus, and Can- 

tianilla, My. 428 
Canute, Jly. 264 
Canute Lavard, Jan. 97 
Caprasius and comp., O. 495 
Caradoc, Ap. 185 
Caranog, or Carantog, Appdx. 

222 
Carantog, My. 215 
Caraunus, My. 408 
Carileff, Jly. 12 
Carnech, My. 214 
Caron, Appdx. 193 
Carpus, O. 319 
Carpus and comp., Ap. 180 
Carthagh of Lismore, My. 196 
Casimir, Prince, Mch. 60 
Cassian, Au. 130 
Castor, F. 289 
Castulus, Mch. 467 
Castus and Secundinus, Jly. 3 
Cathan, Appdx. 222 
Catherine, N. 540 
Catherine of Bologna, Mch. 

182 
Catherine of Genoa, S. 252 
Catherine de Ricci, F. 295 
Catherine of Sienna, Ap. 377 
Catherine Audley, Appdx. 314 
Cawrdaf, Appdx. 319 
Ceadmon, F. 272 
Ceadwalla, Appdx. 213 
Cedd, Jan. 91 



S. Ceitho, Appdx. 287 

,, Celerina, F. 46 
SS. Celerinus and comp., F. 46 

S. Celestine I., Ap. 94 

,, Celsus, Ap. 106 
SS. Celsus and Nazarius, Jly. 593 

S. Celynin, Appdx. 2S7 

,, Celynin, son of Cynyr Farf- 
drwch, Appdx. 310 
SS. Censurinus, Quiriacus, and 
comp., S. 67 

S. Ceolfrid, S. 378 

,, Ceolwulf, Jan. 236 

,, Cerbonius, O. 228 
SS Cerealis and others, Ju. 127 

S. Cewydd, son of Helig, Appdx. 
24s 

,, Cian, Appdx. 321 
Circumcision, The, Jan. I 
SS. Cisellus and comp., Au. 221 

S. Chad, Mch. 23 

,, Chseremon, D. 235 
SS. Charalampius and comp., F. 
248 

S. Charlemagne, Jan. 437 
SS. Charitas and comp., Au. 4 

S. Charitina, O. 117 

B. Charles the Good, Mch. 38 

S. Charles Borromeo, N. 1 1 1 

,, Chelidonius, Mch. 44 
SS. Chionia and comp., Ap. 34 

S. Chlodulf of Metz, Ju. 82 

,, Christiana, Jan. 146, D. 1S9 

,, Christina of Tyre, Jly. 527 

,, Christina the Wonderful, Jly. 

533 
,, Christopher, Jly. 553 

,, Chrodegang, Mch. 96 
SS. Chromatius and Tiburtius, 
Au. 113 

S. Chronion, F. 442 
SS. Chrysanthus and Daria, O. 
620 

S. Chrysogonus, N. 513 

,, Chrysolius, F. 189. 
Circumcision, The, Jan I 
SS. Chrysteta and comp., O. 649 

S. Clair, N. 108 

,, Clara, Au. 120 

„ Clara of Rimini, F. 256 



iif.- 



-* 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



339 



S. Claudia, Au. 82 
SS. Claudiu?, Asterius, andcomp., 

Au. 238 
,, Claudius and comp., F. 329 
,, Claudius and Julia, Jly. 497 
,, Claudius, Nicostratus, and 

others, Jly. 167 
S. Cledog, Au. 181 
,, Cledwyn, Appdx. 287 
,, Clement, N. 506, Appdx. 197 
,, Clement of Alexandria, D. 23 
,, Clement of Ancyra, Jan. 347 
,, Cleonicus, Mch. 44 
,, Cleophas, S. 374 
,, Clether, Appdx. 265 
,, Cletus, Ap. 343 
,, Clodoald, S. 104 
,, Clothilda, Ju. 23 
,, Clotsendis, Ju. 486 
,, Clydai, Appdx. 288 
,, Clydog, Appdx. 294 
,, Clydwyn, Appdx. 287 
SS. Codratus and comp., Mch. 

203 
S. Colette, Mch. 97 
,, Collen, Appdx. 223 
,, Colman, Appdx. 184 
,, Colman, Abtot, O. 669 
,, Colman, B. of Kilruadh, O. 

418 
,, Colman of Austria, O. 326 
,, Colman of Dromore, Ju. 71 
,, Colman MacDuach, O. 709 
,, Columba, Mch. 274, Ju. 90, 

S. 279, N. 314, D. 411 
,, Columbanus, N. 489 
,, Comgall, My. 141 
Commemoration of All Souls, N. 

42 
S. Conan, Appdx. 176 
.SS. Conon and son. My. 417 

S. Concord, Jan. 3 
SS. Concordia and Hippolytus, 

Au. 127 
,, Concord ius, Zeno, and others, 

S. 12 
S. Congan, O. 325 
,, Conlaeth, Ai)pdx. 195 
,, Conrad, B. of Constance, N. 

547 
VOL. XVI. 



SS. Constantia and comp., F. 330 
S. Constantine, Mch.214, Appdx. 

198 
,, Constantine, Emperor, My. 

314 

,, Conval, Appdx. 277 
Conversion of St. Paul, Jan. 370 

S. Convoyon, D. 314 
SS. Copres and comp., Jly. 207 

S. Corbican, Ju. 373 

,, Corbinian, S. 120 

,, Cordula, O. 571 

,, Corentin, B, of Quimper, D. 

157. 

,, Cornelius, Pope, S. 196 

,, Cornelius of Rome, F. 314 

,, Cornelius the Cent., F. 38 

,, Cosmas, O. 354 
SS. Cosmas and Damian, S. 397 

S. Cowair, Appdx. 251 

,, Creirwy, Appdx. 192 

„ Crescens, Ju. 386, D. 323 
SS. Crescentia and others, Ju. 207 

,, Crescentianus and comp., S. 
228 

S. Crescentius, S. 229 

,, Crewenna, Appdx. 179 
SS. Crispin and Crispinian, O. 628 

S. Crispina, D. 50 
SS. Crispus and Caius, O. 61 

S. Cristiolus, Appdx. 294 

,, Cronan, Ap. 361 
Cross, Apparition of the, Au. 180 
Cross, The Exaltation of the, S. 
233 

S. Crucifix at Berytus, N. 223 
Crucifixion, Memorial of, Mch. 

254 
SS. Ctesiphon and comp., My. 204 
S. Cuby, N. 186 
„ Cucuphas, Jly. 559 
,, Cumine, O. 133 
,, Cumine the White, Appdx. 

i86 
,, Cummian Fada, N. 304 
,, Cunera, Ju. 154 
,, Cungar, Appdx. 301 
,, Cunibert, Abp. of Cologne 

N. 306 
,, Cuno, Ju. 6 



^- 



*- 



-* 



340 



Index to Saints. 



S. Curig, Appdx. 236 

„ Cuthbert, Mch. 337, Appdx. 

„ Cuthbert, Translation of, S- 50 

„ Cuthljurga, Au. 400 

,, Cuthman, F. 220 

,, Cwyfan, or Cwyfen, Appdx. 

230 
,, Cwyllog, Appdx. 16S 
,, Cybi, Appdx. 279 
,, Cynbryd, Appdx. 197 
„ Cynddilig, Appdx. 293 
,, Cyndeus, Jly. 277 
,, Cyndeyrn, Appdx. 254 
,, Cynfab, Appdx. 305 
,, Cynfarch, Appdx. 272 
,, Cynfarwy, Appdx. 302 
,, Cynfran, Appdx. 303 
,, Cyngar, Appdx. 301 
,, Cynhafal, Appdx. 279 
,, Cynidr, Appdx. 216 
,, Cynllo, Appdx. 253 
,, Cynog, Appdx. 279 
,, Cynwyl, Appdx. 217 
,, Cyprian, S. 203 

SS. Cyprian and Felix, O. 287 
,, Cyprian and Justina, S. 386 
,, Cyra and Marana, Au. 28 
,, Cyriac and Julitla, Ju. 219 
S. Cyriacus, Jan. 163, Appdx. 236 

SS. Cyriacus, Largus, and Sma- 
ragdus, Au. 98 
S. Cyril, Jly. 205 
,, Cyril, Alexandria, Jan. 418 
,, Cyril of Heliopolis, Mch. 492 
,, Cyril, Patr. of Jerusalem, Mch. 

314 
SS. Cyril and Anastasia, O. 697 
,, Cyril and Methodius, Mch. 

176 
S. CyriUa, O. 685 
,, Cyrinus, Jan. 44 
,, Cyrus of Carthage, Jly. 321 
SS. Cyrus, John, and others, Jan. 
469 
S. Cywaiir, Appdx. 251 
,, Cywyllog, Appdx. 168 

S. Dadas, Ap. 181 
„ Dafrosa, Jan. 57 



.S. Dagasus, Appdx. 265 

,, Dagan, Appdx. 228 

„ Dalniatius, Au. 25 

,, Damasus, Pope, D. 137 

„ Damian, F. 376 

,, Daniel, Mch. 517, Ap. 325 

,, Daniel the Stylite, D. 142 

„ Daria and Chrysanthus, O. 
620 

„ Darlugdach, F. 22 

„ Datius, Jan. 210 

„ Datus, Jly. 90 

„ David, Mch. 10, Ju. 372, 
Appdx. 187 

„ David and Romanus, S. 75 

„ Declan, Jly. 532 

,, Decuman, Au. 345 
Dedication of the Church of our 
Saviour, N. 219 

S. Deghadh, Appdx. 265 

,, Deicolus, Jan. 280 

„ Deifer, Appdx. 193 

,, Deiniol, B. of Bangor, D. 
128 

„ Deiniol the Carpenter, App- 
dx. 273 

„ Deiniol the Younger, Appdx. 

313 

„ Deiniolen, Appdx. 313 

„ Deiniolfab, Appdx. 313 

„ Delphinus, B. of Bordeaux, 

D. 271 
„ Demetrius, O. 165 
„ Dentlin, Jly. 323 
„ Deodatus, Ju. 259 
„ Deogratius, Mch. 41 1 
„ Derfel Gadarn, Appdx. 207 
„ Deruvianus, Appdx. 221 
„ Desiderius of Langres, My. 

334 
„ Desiderius of Vienne, My. 

335 
„ Deusdedit, Abp. of Canter- 
bury, Jly. 357 
„ Deusdedit, Pope, N. 197 
„ Devinic, N. 317 
„ Devota, Jan. 399 
SS. Didymus and Theodora, Ap. 

359 
S. Digain, Appdx. 310 



*- 



-* 



*^- 



* 



Index to Saints. 



341 



SS. Digna and Emerita, S. 328 


S. 


Dorotheus of Tyre, Ju. 40 


S. Dihaer, Appdx. 193 


SS 


Dorotheus and Gorgonius, S. 


,, Diheifyr, Appdx. 193 




131 


,, Dingad, Appdx. 287 


s. 


Dorothy, F. 176 


,, Diomede, Au. 149 


)» 


Dositheus, F. 378 


SS. Dionysia and comp., My. 205 


»5 


Drausinus, Mch. 74 


,, Dionysia, Majoricus, and 


)» 


Droctoveus, 209 


others, D. 69 


M 


Drogo, Ap. 217 


S. Dionysius, Ap. 122 


)> 


Drostan, Jly. 278, Appdx. 322 


,, Dionysius (Augsburg), F. 432 


" 


Dubricius, Appdx. 304, N. 


,, Dionysius, B. of Alexandria, 




327. 


N. 371 


l> 


Dubricius, Translation of, 


,, Dionysius, Pope, D. 299 




Appdx. 228 


,, Dionysius the Areopagite, O. 


>) 


Dubtach, Appdx. 280 


190 


>» 


Dula, Mch. 457 


,, Dionysius of Bulgaria, Ju. 


)) 


Dulas, Ju. 208 


385 


>> 


Dunawd Fawr, Appdx. 272 


,, Dionysius of Caesarea, Mch. 


)) 


Dunchad, Appdx. 201 


444 


>I 


Dunstan, Abp., My. 276 


,, Dionysius of Corinth, Mch. 


J> 


Duthac, Mch. 164 


203 


)) 


Dwynwen, Appdx. 175 


SS. Dionysius and comp., O. 50 


)» 


Dyfan, Appdx. 221 


,, Dionysius, or Denys, and 


) » 


Dyfnan, Appdx. 216 


comp., 0. 195 


)) 


Dyfnog, Appdx. 183 


,, Dionysius and others, F. 212 


)) 


Dyfrig, Translation of, Appdx. 


S. Disibod, Jly. 187 




228 


,, Docmael, Appdx. 234 


SS. 


Dyfrwyr, the, Appdx. 292 


„ Doewan, Appdx. 252 


) J 


Dymphna and Gerebern, My. 


,, Dogfan, Appdx. 252 




207 


,, Dogmael, Appdx. 234 






,, Dogwan, Appdx. 252 


S. 


Eadbert, My. 96 


,, Domangart, Mch. 445 


)} 


Eadburg, Appdx. 235 


,, Dominic, Au. 40 


»» 


Eadfrid, Appdx. 284 


„ Dominica, Jly. 137 


I) 


Eadsin, Appdx. 2S5 


,, Domitian, Jan. 136, My. 108 


>» 


Ealsitha, Appdx. 253 


SS. Domnan and comp., Ap. 220 


1» 


Eanswitha, Au. 389 


S. Domneva, Appdx. 309 


1» 


Earcongotha, F. 3S2 


,, Domnina, Mch. 9, O. 285 


JJ 


Easterwin, Appdx. 193 


SS. Domnina and comp., O. 63 


») 


Eata, 0. 647 


,, Domno and Domnio, 0. 703 


»» 


Ebba, Au. 280 


S. Dona, Appdx. 293 


B 


Eberhardt, Ap. 1 14 


,, Donald, Jly. 358 


s 


Ebrulfus, D. 324 


SS. Donatian and comp., S. 89 


J> 


Edbert, Appdx. 266 


,, Donatilla, Maxima, and Se- 


») 


Edburga, Appdx. 233 


cunda, Jly. 678 


n 


Edeyrn, Appdx. 168 


S. Donatus, Ap. 373, Ju. 484 


» 


Edgar, Jly. 198 


,, Donatus, B. of Fiesoli, 0. 


)j 


Edith of Polesworth, S. 267 


575 


)' 


Edith of Wilton, S. 269 


,, Dorbhene, O. 700 


>i 


Edmund, Abp. of Canterbury, 


,, Dorotheus, Mch. 222 




N. 349 



►i.- 



-* 



*- 



-* 



342 



hidex to Saints. 



S. Edmund, C, Appdx. 27S 


S. 


Emilian, N. 347 


„ Edmund, K., N. 462 


SS. 


Emilias and Jeremias, S. 251 


„ Edmund, K. M., Appdx. 310 


S. 


Emma, Ju. 461 


„ Edward, Mch. 324 


J) 


Emmeram, S. 338 


., Edward the Confessor, 0. 327 


M 


Enda, Mch. 376 


„ Edward, Translation of, ju. 


)1 


Engelbert, Abp. of Cologne, 


281 




N. 179 


„ Edwen, Appdx. 297 


)' 


Engelmund, Ju. 291 


„ Edwin, 0. 292 


1) 


Enghenedl. Appdx. 278 


„ Eelko Liankaman, Mch. 413 


J» 


Englat, N. 85 


„ Efflam, N. 161, Appdx. 297 


)' 


Ennodius, Jly. 420 


„ Egbert, Ap. 327, Appdx. 309 


J! 


Enoder or Cynidr, Appdx. 


„ Egelwin, Appdx. 318 




216 


„ Egwin, Jan. 160 


)) 


Eogain of Ardstraw, All. 251 


„ Eigrad, Appdx. 167 


)1 


Epaphras, Jly. 445 


,, Einion, Appdx. 180 


%^ 


Eparchius, Jly. 21 


,, Elaeth the King, Appdx. 303 


»* 


Ephraem, Syrian, F. 7 


„ Eldad, Appdx. 179 


SS. 


Epimachius and Alexander, 


„ Elesbaan, 0. 659 




D. 156 


„ Eleutherius, F. 350, Au. 34 


M 


Epimachus and Gordian, My. 


SS. Eleutherius and Antia, Ap. 




141 


223 


S. 


Epiphanius, My. 164 


,, Eleutherius, Dionysius, and 


Epiphany, The, Jan. 82 


Rusticus, 0. 195 


SS 


Episteme and Galactio, N, 


„ Eleutherius and comp., O. 14 




149 


S. Elfgyva, My. 254 


s. 


Erasmus, Ju. 20 


„ Elfleda, F. 214 


») 


Erastus, Jly. 570 


„ Elfleda, Abbess of Rumsey, 


'J 


Erbin, Appdx. 170, 228 


0.714 


)> 


Ere, B. of Slane, N. 59 


„ Elfleda of Glastonbury, O. 580 


)J 


Erfyl, Appdx. 248 


,, Elian Geimiad, Appdx. 170 


n 


Erick, My. 256 


SS. Elias and Flavian, Jly. 99 


>» 


Erkonwold, Ap. 375 


„ Elias and others, F. 314 


)> 


Erme, Appdx. 264 


S. Eligius, B. of Noyon, D. 2 


)) 


Ermel, Appdx. 264 


„ Elined, Appdx. 258 


J' 


Ermelind, 0. 707 


„ Elizabeth of Hungary, N. 415 


»» 


Ermenburga, Aijpdx. 309 


B. Elizabeth of Hungary, My. 100 


*) 


Ermengytha. Appdx. 257 


S. Elizabeth of Schonau, Ju. 252 


»( 


Ermenilda, F. 292 


SS. Elizabeth and Zacharias, N. 


J) 


Ermine, Ap. 342 


147 


jj 


Erminold, Jan. 86 


S. EUidius, Appdx. 259 


>» 


Krnan, Appdx. 161, D. 237 


B. Elmo, Ap. 205 


»> 


Eskill, Tu. 171 


SS. Elpidius and comp., N. 344 


»5 


Ethbin," 0. 484 


S. Elstan, Appdx. 208 


»» 


Ethelbert, F. 406, My. 308 


SS. Elvan and Mydwyn, Jan. 5 


») 


Elhelburga, Jly. 169, O. 2S1 


S. Elwyn, 0. 658 


') 


Etheldreda, 0. 440 


„ Elzear, S. 402 


?» 


Etheldritha, Au. 19 


SS. Emerita and Digna, S. 328 


1» 


Etheldwitha, Appdx. 253 


„ Emetherius and Chelidonius, 


11 


Ethelgiva, Appdx. 321 


Mch. 44 


t» 


Ethelhard, Appdx. 221 



*- 



-* 



*- 



-^ 



Index to Saints. 



343 



S. Ethelnoth, Appdx. 286 
SS. Ethelred and lithelbert, O. 

438 
S. Ethelwin, Appdx. 219 
„ Ethelwokl, F. 283, Mch. 441 
,, Ethehvold, B. of Winchester, 

Au. 8 
„ Etto, Jly. 261 
„ Eubulus, F. 449, Mch. 114 
„ Eucher, F. 355 
„ Eucherius, B. of Lyons, N. 

, 345. 
,, Eudocia, Mch. 2 
SS. Eudoxius, Zeno, and com p., 
S. 68 
S. Eugenius of Carthage, Jly. 
310 
SS. Eugraphius and comp., D. 

125 
S. Eulalia, F. 276 
SS. Eulalia and Julia, D. 124 
,, Eulampius and Eulampia, O. 

225 
S. Eulogius, Jan. 312, Mch. 21S, 

Jly. 90, S. 189 
„ Euphemia, S. 257 
„ Euphrasia, Mch. 24I 
„ Euphrosyne, F. 264 
„ Euplius, Au. 116 
„ Eupsychius, Ap. 130, S. 96 
„ Eurfyl, Appdx. 248 
„ Eurgain, Appdx. 244 
SS. Eusanius and comp., 206 
S. Eusebia, Mch. 279, O. 703 
„ Eusebius, F. 306 
„ Eusebius, B. of Vercelli, D. 

191 
„ Eusebius of Csesarea, Ju. 2S2 
„ Eusebius of Samo.sata, Ju. 285 
SS. Eusebius, Nestabo, and comp., 
S. 118 
S. Eustace, Mch. 498 
,, Eustathius, Jly. 399 
SS. Eustathius and comp., S. 319 
S. Eustochium, S. 411 
„ Eustorgius, S. 292 
„ Euthymius, Jan. 305, Mch. 

216 
„ Eutropius, Jan. 163, Mch. 44, 
Ap. 370 



S. Eutyches, Au. 261 
SS. Eutyches and comp., Ap. 199 

S. Eutychianus, Pope, D. no 
S.S. Eutychius and comp., O. 120 
S. Eval, or Evall, Appd.x. 310 
Evaristus, Pope, O. 643 
Everilda, Jly. 2IO 
Evermar, My. 24 
Evermund, Ju. 132 
,, Evodius, My. 93 
SS. Ewalds, The two, O. 55 
Exaltation of the Cross, I'he, S. 

233 

Expectation of the Confinement 
of our Lady, D. 218 
S. Exuperius, S. 410 

S. Fabian, Jan. 299 
,, Fachnan, Au. 140 
SS. Facundus and Primitivus, N. 
562 
„ Failbhe, O. 134 
„ P'ailbhc, L, Appdx. 197 
„ Failbhe the Little, Appdx. 

194 
„ Faith, O. 132 
„ Fara, D. 105 
„ Faro, B. of Meaux, O. 698 
SS. Faustinus, Beatrix, and Sim- 
plicius, Jly. 631 
„ Faustinus and Jovita, Y. 305 
S. Fauslus, N. 412 
„ Faustus, B. of Riez, S. 413 
SS. Faustus and others of Alex- 
andria, O. 50 
„ Faustus and others of Cordova, 

0.321 
S. Febronia, Ju. 343 
„ Fechin, Jan. 310 
,, Fedlimid, Au. 106 
SS. Felician and Primus, Ju. 87 
„ Felicissimus and Rogatianus, 

O. 644 
S. Felicitas, Mch. 102 
SS. Felicitas and her sons, Jly. 

251 

.S. Felicula, Ju. 176 
SS. Felinus and Gratiaii, Ju. i 
S. P'elix, Jan. 199, Mch. 163, 
Au. 5, N. 159 



-fb 



*- 



-^ 



344 



Index to Saints. 



S. Felix II., Pope, Jly. 631 
„ Felix of Cantalice, My. 258 
„ Felix of Spalato, My. 253 
„ Felix of Sutri, Ju. 307 
„ Felix of Tubzacene, O. 601 
„ Felix of Valois, N. 485 
SS. Felix and Adauctus, An. 383 
„ Felix, Andochius, and Thyr- 
sus, S. 361 
„ Felix and comp., Ap. 300, 

Jly. 256 
,, Felix and Cyprian, O. 287 
„ Felix and Fortunatus, Ju. 143 
„ Felix and Maurus, Ju. 221 
„ Felix, Nemesianus, and comp., 

S. 144 
„ Felix and Regula, S. 169 
S. Ferdinand III., K., My. 421 
„ Fergna the White, Appdx. 

188 
„ Fergus, N. 395 
„ Ferreolus, S. 289 
,, Ffagan, Appdx. 259 
„ Ffinan, Appdx. 322 
„ Fflewyn, Appdx. 321 
„ Fiacre, Au. 384 
SS. Fides, Spes, Charitas, and 
Sapientia, Au, 4 
S. Fidelis, O. 696 
„ Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Apr. 

332 
„ Fidolus, My. 216 
,, Fiech, O. 290 
,, Fillan, Jan. 127 
„ Fina, Mch. 239 
„ Finan, F. 325 
„ Finan, or Finian, the Leper, 

Appdx. 196 
„ Finbar, S. 377 
SS. Fingar and Piala, Mch. 437, 

Appdx. 198 
S. Finian, Appdx. 272 
„ Finnian, Mch. 321 
„ Finnian, B. of Clonard, D. 

159 
„ Fintan, F. 324 
„ Fintan Munnu, O. 556 
„ Firmilian, B. of Caesarea, O. 

686 
„ Firminus, S. 4 



S. Firminus, Martyr, S. 375 

„ Flannan, B. of Killaloe, D. 
221 

„ Flavia Domitilla, My. 106 
SS. Flavia Domitilla and comp.. 
My. 158 

S. Flavian, F. 331, D. 236 
SS. Flavian and Elias, Jly. 99 

,, Flora, and Mary, N. 525 

S. Floregius, Jly. 8 

„ Florentia, Ju. 279, D. i 

„ Florentius, O. 322 

„ Florus, B. of Lodeve, N. 65 

,, Foillan, O. 721 

„ Forannan, Ap. 376 

„ Fortchern, F. 321 

„ Fortunatus, F. 47, O. 353 
SS. Fortunatus and comp., Ap. 
300 

,, Fortunatus and Felix, Ju. 143 

„ Forty-five Martyrs of Nico- 
polis, Jly. 257 

„ Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, 
Mch. 204 

S. Fothadh II., Appdx. 179 
SS. Four Martyrs of Gerona, Ju. 

78 
S. Frances of Rome, Mch. 185 
„ Francis of Assisi, O. 68 
„ Francis of Girolamo, My. 156 
,, Francis of Paula, Ap. 25 
„ Francis of Sales, Jan. 443 
„ Francis Borgia, O. 249 
„ Francis Caracciolo, Ju. 37 
„ Francis Solano, Jly. 541 
„ Francis Xavier, N. 602 
„ Frederick, Jly. 437 
„ Frederick of Liege, My. 405 
., Fremund, My. 154 
„ Frideswide, O. 484 
„ Fridolin, Mch. 91 
„ Frigidian, Mch. 321 
,, Frithebert, Appdx. 323 
„ Frithestan, Appdx. 273 
„ Frodobert, Jan. 112 
„ Fronto, Ap. 187 
,, P'ronto, B. of Perigneux, O. 

631 
„ Fructuosus, Jan. 312, Ap. 211 

„ Frumentius, O. 650 



*- 



-* 



S. Fulcran, F. 294 

„ Fulgentius, Jan. 10 

„ Fulk, B. of Toulouse, D. 291 

„ Fulquinus, B. of Therouanne, 
D. 187 

,, Fursey, Jan. 243 
SS. Fusca and Maura, F. 286 

„ Fuscianus and comp., D. 136 
SS. Fyneana and Findocha, O. 
324 

S. Gabinius, F. 340 
„ Gabriel, Archangel, Mch. 312 
SS. Gaiane, Rhipsime, and others, 

S.437 
,, Galactic and Episteme, N. 

149 
S. Gall, Jly. 17, O. 419 
„ Galla, O. 125 
„ Gallgo, Appd.x. 316 
„ Gatian, B. of Tours, D. 219 
„ Gaudentius, Jan. 334 
„ Gaudentius, B. of Brescia, O. 

63s 
„ Gelasius, Actor at Heliopolis, 

F. 443 
,, Gelasius, Boy, F. 83 
„ Gelasius, Pope, N. 487 
SS. Geminianus and Lucia, S. 

259 
S. Gemma, Ju. 270 
„ Genebald of Laon, S. 70 
„ Genes, M. at Aries, Au. 270 
„ Genes, M. at Rome, Au. 267 
„ Gengulf, My. 151 
„ Genoveva, Jan. 46 
SS. Gcntianus and comp., D. 136 
S. Genulph, Jan. 247 
„ George, Ap. 301 
„ George of Amastris, F. 363 
„ Georgia, F. 306 
„ Geraint of Gerontius, Appdx. 

260 
„ Gerald, Ap. 74 
„ Gerald, B. of Beziers, N. 157 
B. Gerard, Ju. 179, My. 187 
S. Gerard, O. 57 
„ Gerasimus, Mch. 63 
SS. Gerebern and Dymphna, My. 

207 



S. Geremar, S. 362 
SS. Gereon and comp., O. 224 
S. GerLich, Jan. 81 
„ Germaine Cousin, Ju. 216 
„ Germain of Man, J ly. 97 
,, Germain of Paris, My. 412 
SS. German and Randoald, F. 

361 
S. Germanicus, Jan. 284 
„ Germanusof Auxerre, Jly. 681 
,, Germanus of Constantinople, 

My. 174 
„ Germoc or Germoe, Appdx. 

240 
„ Germock, O. 658 
„ Gernad, N. 201 
„ Ceroid, A p. 228 
„ Gertrude, Mch. 306 
„ Gertrude, N. 342 
„ Gertrude of Plamage, D. 70 
„ Gerulf, S. 326 
SS. Gervasius and Protasius, Ju. 

256 
„ Getulius, Cerealis, and others, 

Ju. 127 
S. Gliislain, O. 211 
„ Gibrian, My. 1 14 
„ Gilbert, F. 99 
,, Gilbert of Auvergne, Ju. 67 
„ Gilbert of Caithness, Ap. 10 
SS. Gilbert and Alkmund, S. 109 
S. Gildas, Jan. 440 
„ Giles, S. 8 
,, Gistlian, Appdx. 191 
B. Gizar of Skalholt, My. 413 
S. Glodesind, Jly. 562 
„ Gluvias or Glywys, Appdx. 

219 
,, Glyceria, My. iSi 
„ Goar, Jly. 154 
,, Goban, Ju. 280 
,, Gobrian, N. 346 
,, Godebertha, Ap. 163 
„ Godelieva, Jly. 160 
,, Godfrid, B. of Amiens, N. 

203 
„ Godrick, My. 322 
„ Goeznou, O. 639 
„ Gofor, Appdx. 220 
„ Golinduc, Jly. 316 



*- 



-* 



►;i- 



346 



Index to Saints. 



s. 


Golvven, Jly. 26 


S. Gunifortis, Au. 235 


>» 


Gonsalvo, Jan. 142 


SS. Gurias and comp., N. 334 


ss. 


Gordian and Epimachus, My. 


S. Guron, or Goroai, Appdx. 210 




141 


,, Gurwal, Appdx. 230 


?» 


Gordian, Macrobius, and 


„ Gurwall, Ju. 56 




comp., S. 1 85 


„ Guthagon, Jly. 97 


s. 


Gordius, Jan. 42 


„ Guthlac, Ap. 163 


n 


Gorgo, Mch. 212 


„ Gwensl, N. 67 


') 


Gorgonia, D. 117 


„ Gwen of Cornwall, Appdx. 


»i 


Gorgonius, Mch. 222 


282 


ss. 


Gorgonius and Dorotheus, S. 


„ Gwen of Wales, Appdx. 282 




131 


SS. Gwendoline and Brothen, O. 


B. 


Gotfried, Jan. 194 


476 


S. 


Gothard of Hildesheim, My. 


S. Gwenfaen, Appdx. 296 




73 


„ Gwenfyl, Appdx. 288 


)) 


Gotteschalk, Ju. 73 


„ Gwenog, Appdx. 165 


»» 


Gorwst, Appdx. 318 


„ Gwerir, Ap. 71 


SS. 


Grace and Probus, Appdx. 208 


„ Gwerir, or Guier, Appdx. 207 


s. 


Grata, S. 48 


„ Gwethenoc, Appdx. 192 


ss. 


Gratia and comp., Au. 226 


„ Gwodioew, Appdx. 211 


)> 


Gratian and Felinus, Ju. I 


„ Gwrnerth, Appdx. 2iO 


s. 


Gredifael, Appdx. 304 


„ Gwryd, Appdx. 293 


J) 


Gregory, Ab. of Einsiedeln, 


„ Gwymer, or Wymer, O. 659 




N. 202 


„ Gwynan, Appdx. 322 


)) 


Gregory, B. of Tours, N. 381 


.SS. Gwyn and comp., 287 


»t 


Gregory II., Pope, F. 293 


S. Gwynhoedl, or Gwynodl, 


') 


Gregory III., Pope, N. 579 


Appdx. 159 


)) 


Gregory VII., Pope, My. 350 


„ Gwynlleu, Appdx. 28S 


»1 


Gregory of Langres, Jan. 58 


„ Gwynno, Appdx. 287 


1» 


Gregory of Nyssa, ]\Ich. 172 


„ Gwynnog, Appdx. 284 


)1 


Gregory of Spoleto, D. 270 


,, Gwynnoro, Appdx. 2S7 


n 


Gregory the Great, Mch. 226 


SS. Gwynoc and Aneurin, 0. 646 


j; 


Gregory the Illuminator, S. 


S. Gwynws, Appdx. 322 




442 


„ Gwythian, 0. 659 


)» 


Gregory the Wonder-Worker, 






N. 375 


S. Habakkuk, Jan. 2S5 


)) 


Gregory Nazianzen, My. 125 


„ Hadelin, F. 49 


SS 


Gregory, Julian, Mary, and 


„ Hallvard, My. 202 




comp., Au. 107 


„ Harold Bluetooth, N. 28 


s 


Grimbald, Jly. 197 


„ Hedda, Jly. 169 


M 


Grwst, Appdx. 318 


„ Hedwig, 0. 456 


ss 


Guardian Angels, O. 14 


,, Hegesippus, Ap. iio 


s. 


Gudula, Jan. 115 


„ Heimerad, Ju. 417 


n 


Gudwall, Ju. 57 


„ Helena, Jly. 698 


)» 


Guido, S. iSi 


„ Helena, Empress, Au. 164 


i) 


Guinock, Appdx. 211 


„ Heliconis, My. 407 


1} 


Gummar, O. 284 


„ Helier, Jly. 403 


»» 


Gundebert, Ap. 364 


„ Heliodorus, Jly. 94 


»l 


Gundleus, or Gwynllyw Filwr, 


„ Henrj', Jan. 245 




Appdx. 202 


„ Henry, Emp., Jly. 370 



*- 



-* 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



347 



s. 


Herculanus, N. 169 


S. 


Humbert, Mch. 458 


)» 


Heribert, Mch. 281 


11 


Hyacinth, Au. 151 


ss. 


Herlembald and Ariald, Ju. 


)) 


Hyacinth of Amastris, Jly. 412 




389 


n 


Hyacinth of Caesarea, Jly. 89 


s. 


Hermagoras, Jly. 283 


SS. 


Hyacinth and Protus, S. 166 


B. 


Herman Joseph, Ap. 116 


s. 


Hyacintha, Jan. 466 


s. 


Hennas, My. 124 


»» 


Hychan, Appdx. 259 


ss. 


Hermas and comp., Ap. 121 


»J 


Hydroc, Appdx. 220 


s. 


Hermenigild, Ap. 183 


11 


Hyginus, Jan. 149 


JJ 


Hermias, My. 428 


11 


Hymelin, Mch. 210 


)1 


Hermione, S. 43 


,, 


Hypatius, N. 326 


ss. 


Hermogenes and comp., D. 


ss. 


Ilypatius and comp., Ju. 250 




125 


s. 


Hywyn, Appdx. 167 


»» 


Hermylus and Stratonicus, 








Jan. 179 


ss. 


Ia and Breaca, 0. 657 


s. 


Hero, 0. 437 


1» 


la and others, Au. 36 


ss. 


Herodian and comp., K\i. 121 


s. 


Ibar, Ap. 310 


s. 


Herve, Ju. 239 




Ida, S. 50 


ss. 


Hesperius and Zoe, My. 28 




Idda of Toggenburg, N. 96 


s. 


Hesychius, Mch. 1, O. 51 




Idloes, Appdx. 271 


n 


Hilarion, O. 506 




Iduberga, My. 116 


»t 


Hilarus, Pope, S. 1 57 




Ignatius, Africa, F. 46 


n 


Hilary, Jan. 182 




Ignatius, Antioch, F. I 


)» 


Hilary of Aries, My. 75 




Ignatius Azevedo, Jly. 379 


ss. 


Hilary and comp., Mch. 271 




Ignatius Loyola, Jly. 708 


s. 


Hilda, N. 390 




lidefonsus, B. of Toledo, D. 


I» 


Hildegard, Ap. 375, S. 279 




306 


)} 


Hildegund, Ap. 254 




Illog, Appdx. 259 


J) 


Hildelitha, Mch. 446 




Iltut or Illtyd, Appdx. 249 


>) 


Hildulf, Jly. 278 


Im 


maculate Conception of B. V. 


1» 


Hippolytus, B. of Porto, Au. 




Mary, D. 108 




233 


S. 


Ina, F. 1 86 


ss. 


Hippolytus and Concordia, 


SS 


Indract and comp., F. 140 




Au. 127 


11 


Indract and company, Appdx. 


Holy House of Loreto, D. 129 




220 


S. 


Honestus, F. 313 


11 


Injuriosus and Scholaslica, 


)» 


Honoratus, Jan. 240 




My. 344 


)) 


Honorina, F. 444 


s. 


Innocent I., Pope, Jly. 598 




Honorius, Abp. of Canterbury. 


11 


Innocent of Le Mans, Ju. 258 




S. 464 


Ho 


ly Innocents, D. 311 


A 


Hormisdas, M., Au. 99 


Invention of the Cross, My. 56 


)) 


Hormisdas, Pope, Au. 78 


S. 


Irenseus, Mch. 457 


,, 


lirabanus, Maurus, F. 91 


,, 


Irenseus of Lyons, Ju. 407 


1* 


Hrosnata, Jly. 325 


SS 


Irenseus and Abundius, Au. 


't 


Hubert, B. of Liege, N. 72 




314 


n 


Hugh of Cluny, Ap. 365 


•i'i 


Irenaeus and Mustiola, Jly. 


)) 


Hugh of Grenoble, Ap. 7 




91 


n 


Hugh of Lincoln, Jly. 592, 


s 


Irene, O. 499 




N. 395 


11 


Irene, Enii)ress, Au. 134 


B 


Hugo, Mch. 502 


s.s. 


Irene and comp., Ap. 34 



*- 



*- 



348 



Index to Saints. 



B. Irmgard, S. 51 
SS. Irmina and Adela, D. 274 

S. Isaias, F. 314 

„ Isberga, My. 320 

„ Ischyrion, D. 235 

„ Isidora, My. 10 

„ Isidore, Jan. 228, F. 84, My. 
146 

„ Isidore of Seville, Ap. 64 

„ Ismael, Appdx. 235 
SS. Ismael and others, Ju. 234 

S. Isserninus, Appdx. 316, 31S 

,, Ita or Ytha, Appdx. 171 

„ Ithaniar of Rochester, Ju. 133 

„ Itta, My. 116 

„ Ivan, Ju. 337 

„ Ivo, B. of Chartres, D. 241 

S. Jacob of Toul, Ju. 309 

SS. Jacut, Gwenthenoc, and 
Creirwy, Appdx. 192 
S. Jambert, Appdx. 263 
„ James, Deacon, Au. 160, O. 

476 
B. James de la Marca, N. 5S6 
S. James of Nisibis, Jly. 351 
„ James (Tarantaise), Jan. 242 
„ James the Great, Jly. 546 
„ James the Less, My. 5 
„ James the Penitent, Jan. 433 
„ James Intercisus, N. 566 

SS. James and comp., Ap. 371 
„ Januarius and comp., Jly. 256, 

S. 301, O. 321 
S. Jarlath, B. of Tuam, D. 305 
„ Jason, Ju. 341 
„ Jeanne Francoise de Chantal, 

D. 176 
,, Jeremias, F. 314 

SS. Jeremias and Emilias, S. 251 
S. Jerome, S. 450 
„ Jerome Emiliani, Jly. 493 

Jesuit Martyrs in Canada, The, 

Jly- 733 
S. Joachim, Mch. 336 
„ Joan of Valois, F. 109 
„ Joannicus, N. 109 
„ Joavan, Mch. 22, Appdx. 1S8 
„ John, B. of Bergamo, O. 705 
„ John I., Pope, My. 395 



S.John de Britto, F. 112 
„ John of Beverley, My. 109 
„ John of Bridlington, O. 248 
„ John of Chinon, Ju. 388 
„ John of Civita-di-Penne, Mch. 

329 
„ John of Egypt, Mch. 484 
„ John of God, Mch. 165 
„ John of Holar, Ap. 313 
„ John of Matha, F. 226 
„ John of Nepomuk, My. 227 
„ John of Nicomedia, S. 97 
„ John of Rome, Ju. 309 
,, John of Sagahun, Ju. 172 
,, John of Therouanne, Jan. 415 
,, John of the Cross, N. 526 
,, John of the Goths, Ju. 374 
„ John of the Grate, F. 26 
,, John the Almsgiver, Jan. 34S 
„ John the Baptist, Nativity of, 

Ju- 323 
„ John the Calybite, Jan. 233 
„ John the Divine, D. 307 „ 
„ John the Dwarf, N. 219 
„ John the Silentiary, My. 1S5 
„ John Cantius, O. 503 
,, John Capistran, O. 582 
„ John Cassian, Jly. 521 
„ John Chrysostom, Jan. 400 
,, John Climacus, Mch. 506 
„ John Columbino, Jly. 700 
„ John Damascene, My. 96 
,, John Francis Regis, Ju. 225 
,, John Gualberto, Jly. 290 
„ John-Joseph, Mch. 87 
„ John Mark, S. 395 
„ John William, F. 255 
SS. John, Abundius, and comp., 
S. 261 
„ John and Paul, Ju. 366 
S. Jonas, Abp. of Novgorod, N. 

158 
„ Jonas the Gardener, F. 263 
SS. Jonas and Barachisius, Mch. 

491 
„ Josaphat and Barlaam, N. 562 
S. Joseph, Count, Jly. 511 
„ Joseph, husband of B.V. Mary, 

Mch. 327 
„ Josephof Arimathea, Mch. 283 



*- 



■^ 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



349 



S. Joseph of Cupertino, S. 292 

„ Joseph of Leonissa, F. 1 1 1 

„ Joseph the Hymnogiapher, 
A p. 48 

„ Joseph Barsabas, Jly. 4S4 

„ Jovita, F. 305 

„ Judas, or Quiriacus, My. 64 

„ Jude, Ap., O. 674 
SS. Judith and Salome, Ju. 455 

S. Judoc, D. 173 

„ Julia, O. 283, My. 332 
SS. Julia and Claudius, Jly. 497 

S. Julia and Eulalia, D. 124 

„ Julian, S. 185 

„ Julian, Alexandria, F. 442 

„ Julian in Africa, F. 395 

„ Julian of Anazarbus, Mch. 

273 
„ Julian of Caesarea, F. 320 
„ Julian of Le Mans, Jan. 398 
,, Julian Sabas, O. 473 

SS. Julian and Csesarius, N. 10 
,, Julian and comp., Au. 107, 

Jan. 121 
S. Juliana, F. 316, Ap. 76 
„ Juliana Falconieri, Ju. 267 
„ Julitta, Jly. 679 

SS. Julitta and Cyriac, Ju. 219 
S.Julius, My. 394, Au. 175 
„ Julius I., Pope, Ap. 176 

SS. Juliu> and Aaron, Appdx. 245, 

Jly- 1 

S. Junian, O. 417 
,, Jurmin, Appdx. 1S6 
,, Just, Appdx. 264 
,, Justin, Apologist, Ap. 177 
„ Justina, O. 152, Jan. 133 
SS. Justina and Aureus, Ju. 221 
„ Justina and Cyprian, S. 386 
S. Justinian, Au. 250, Appdx. 

320 
„ Justus, N. 564, Appdx. 303 
„ Justus, Abp. of Canterbury, 

N. 232 
,, Justus, Boy, O. 471 
„ Jutwara, or Jutwell, Appdx. 

252 
SS. Juventine and Maximus, Jan. 

S Juventius, F. 211 



SS. 

S. 

s. 

SS, 



SS, 

s. 



SS, 



Katherine of Sweden, Mch. 

421 
Katherine Audley, Appdx. 314 
Kay, Appdx. 294 
Kea, Appdx. 294 
Kellach, My. 21 
Kenan, Appdx. 294, N. 153 
Kenelni, Jly. 427 
Keneth, Au. 6 
Kennera, O. 713 
Kennocha, Mch. 255 
Kennotha, or Kevoca, Appdx. 

195 
Kenny, O. 278 
Kenligern, Jan. 1S7 
Kentigierna, Appdx. 169 
Kessog, Mch. 20S 
Kevern, Appdx. 305 
Kevin, Ju. 27 
Keyne, O. 178 
Kiara, O. 429 

Kieran, Appdx. 192, Mch. 66 
Kieranof Clanrnacnois, S. 132 
Kigwoe, or Kywa, Appdx. 180 
Kilian, Jly. 188 
Kunegund, Mcli. 52 
Kyneburga and comp., Mch. 93 
Kyneswitha, Mch. 93 

Lactean, Mch. 331 

Ladislas, Ju. 400 

Lactus, Donatian, and others, 

S. 89 
Lsetus and Vincent, S. 4 
Lambert, S. 274 
Landelin, Ju. 212 
Landoald,"Mch. 333 
I^andrada, Jly. 191 
Largus and comp., Au. 98 
Laserian, Ap. 224 
Launomar, Jan. 287 
Laurence, Au. 109 
Laurence, Cant., F. 39 
Laurence Justiniani, S. 76, 

Jan. 119 
Laurence O'Toole, N. 328 
Laurence, the Illuminator, F. 

49 

Laurence and Peregrinus, Ju. 

22 



*- 



^- 



-* 



350 



Index to Saints. 



s. 


Laurentinus, F. 46 


S. 


Lolan, S. 340 


)f 


Lazarus, D. 204 


SS. 


Loman and Fortchern, F. 321 


I> 


Lazarus, B. of Milan, F. 264 


S. 


Lonf^inus, Mch. 2Jf6 


)J 


Lazarus, Constantinople, F. 


»> 


Louis, Au. 284 




3S6 


J1 


Louis, B. of Toulouse, Au. 


J1 


Leander, F. 445 




185 


)) 


Leliuinus, N. 307 


)) 


Louis Bertrand, O. 213 


)] 


Leo, Archb. of Rouen, Mch. 


»J 


Louthiern, 0. 438 




19 


»> 


Lubin, Mch. 257 


)) 


Leo IL, Pope, Ju. 413 


M 


Lubentius, O. 322 


)) 


Leo IIL, Pope, Ju. 156 


SS. 


Luceja and Aucejas, Ju. 342 


'1 


Leo IV., Pope, Jly. 428 


»1 


Lucia and Geminianus, S. 259 


;i 


Leo IX., Ap. 233 


s. 


Lucian of Antioch, Jan. 88 


)) 


Leo the Great, Ap. 137 


»» 


Lucian of Beauvais, Jan. 99 


M 


Leobard, Jan. 278 


SS. 


Lucian and Marcian, O. 644 


1» 


Leocadia, D. 115 


») 


Lucian and others, Jly. 166 


IJ 


Leodegar, or Leger, O. 19 


n 


Lucilla and Nemesius, O. 725 


I) 


Leonard of Limoges, N. 159 


S. 


Lucina, Ju. 462 


»i 


Leonard of Porto-Maurizio, 


»» 


Lucius, D. 13, F. 395, Mch. 




N.549 




55 


}1 


Leonard of Reresby, N. 166 


SS. 


Lucius and Ptolemsus, 0. 


*j 


Leonore, Appdx. 246, Jly. 23 




478 


SS. 


Leontius and comp., Ju. 250 


S. 


Lucy, D. 168 


s. 


Leopold, N. 340 


)) 


Ludmilla, S. 265 


M 


Leudomer, O. 15 


» 


Ludger, Mch. 469 


M 


Leutfried, Ju. 290 


>I 


Ludwig, Ap. 38 1 


JJ 


Levan, O. 658, D. 273 


IJ 


Luke, Evan, O. 467 


)» 


Levan or Levin, Appdx. 231 


)J 


Lullus, Abp. of Alainz, 0. 


)» 


Lewina, Appdx. 254 




434 


SS 


Liberatus, Boniface, and 


» 


Luperculus, Ju. 410 




comp., Au. 159 


)J 


Lupicinus, Mch. 371 


s. 


Liberius I., B. of Ravenna, 


)) 


Lupus, Jly. 635 




D. 404 


'J 


Lupus, Abp. of Sens, S. 5 


)* 


Liberius, Pope, S. 351 


n 


Lupus of Chalons, Jan. 413 


)» 


Liborius, Jly. 521 


SS 


Luxorius, Cisellus, and Came- 


»1 


Licinius, F. 292 




rinus, Au. 221 


»^ 


Lidwyna, Ap. 189 


s. 


Lydia, Mch. 482, Au. 24 


)1 


Liebert, Jly. 324 






n 


Lietbert of Cambrai, Ju. 310 


s. 


Mabenna, Appdx. 276 


)) 


Limnaeus, F. 367 


)) 


Mabyn, Appdx. 276 


)) 


Linus, Pope, S. 349 


I) 


Macarius, Mch. 208, D. 109, 


» 


Lioba, S. 417 




Ju. 271 


)i 


Livinus, N. 300 


1) 


Macarius of Antioch, Ap. 133 


)i 


Llechid, Appdx. 319 


» 


Macarius, Alexandria, Jan. 28 


n 


Lleuddad, Appdx. 172 


}f 


Macarius, Egypt, Jan. 221 


n 


Llibio, Appdx. 187 


)' 


Maccald, or Maughold, Ap. 


)> 


Lhvchaiarn, Appdx. 169 




338 


SS 


Llywelyn and Gvkrnerth, 


>1 


Maccallin, O. 139 




Appdx. 210 


f» 


Maccarthen, Au. 148 


s 


Lo, S. 337 


II 


Macedonius, Jan. 362 



>-s- 



*- 



Index to Saints. 



351 



ss. 


Macedonius, Theodulus, and 


S. 


Marcellinus of Carthace, Ap. 




Tatian, S. 179 




89 


s. 


Machan, Appdx. 277 


)) 


Marcellinus of Embrun, Ap. 


») 


Machar, N. 315 




251 . 


M 


Machraith, Appdx. 161 


SS 


Marcellinus and Marcus, Ju. 


»» 


Machudd, Appdx. 305 




251 


)) 


Maclovius, or Malo, N. 336 


*» 


Marcellinus and comp., Ju. 19 


)) 


Macniss, S. 36 


S. 


Marcellus, Jan. 238, S. 44, 


J' 


Macra, Jan. 85, Ju. 146 




0.719 


»t 


Macrina, Jan. 202, Jly. 446 


») 


Marcellus, Bp., Au. 137 


ss. 


Macrobius, Gordian, and 


'>^ 


Marcellus, B. of Paris, N. 23 




comp., S. 185 


SS. 


Marcellus and Apuleius, O. 


s. 


Macwoloc, Appdx. 176 




154 


)J 


Madelberta, S. 109 


Jl 


Marcellus, Mammsea, and 


1) 


Madern, My. 239 




comp., Au. 328 


J» 


Mael, or Mahail, Appdx. 221 


s. 


Marchell, Appdx. 271 


ss. 


Mael and others, F. 178 


J» 


Marcian, Jan. 134, N. 54 


s. 


Maelog, Appdx. 326 


11 


Marciana, Jan. 120 


?J 


Maelrubh, Appdx. 215 


ss. 


Marcian, Abundius, and 


)» 


Maelrubha, Au. 346 




comp., S. 261 


»» 


Maelrys, Appdx. 159 


)J 


Marcian and Lucian, 0. 644 


>» 


Maen, or Meven, Ju. 288 


)» 


Marcian and Nicander, Ju. 231 


»» 


Maethlu, Appdx. 325 


»» 


Marcian, Nicander, and comp.. 


)) 


Maglorius, B. of Del, 0. 616 




J"-39 


») 


Magnoald, S. 94 


s. 


Marculf, My. 15 


)» 


Magnobod, B. of Angers, O. 


ss. 


Marcus and Marcellinus, Ju. 




428 




251 


1* 


Magnus, Ap. 211, Au. 176 


s. 


Mares, Jan. 374 


Jl 


Maildulf, or Maidulf, Appdx. 


)) 


Margaret, Jly. 485, Ju. 136, 




213 




0. 642 


*» 


Majolus, My. 154 


B. 


Margaret-Mary Alacoque, O. 


ss. 


Majoricus and others, D. 69 




465 


s. 


Malachy, Abp. of Armagh, 


»» 


Margaret of Colonna, D. 409 




N. 85 


s. 


Margaret of Cortona, F. 371 


)» 


Malchion, O. 695 


B. 


Margaret of Louvain, S. 17 


)» 


Malchus, 0. 530 


ss. 


Marian, James, and comp.. 


n 


Malchus, B. of Lismore, Au. 




Ap. 371 




112 


s. 


Mariamne, F. 318 


»» 


Malo, Appdx. 304 


B. 


Marianna of Jesus, My. 392 


)) 


Mamertius, My. 150 


s. 


Marina, Jly. 424 


*» 


Mammas, Au. 158 


s. 


Marinus, D. 300, Au. loi 


»i 


Manaccus, Appdx. 281 


)' 


Marin us, Deac, S. 46 


*) 


Mansuetus, S. 35, F. 341 


S.S. 


Marinus and Asterius, Mch. 


ss. 


Manuel, Sabiel, and Ismael, 




42 




Ju- 234 


» 


Marinus and comp., Jly. 256 


»* 


Marana and Cyra, Au. 28 


»» 


Maris and others, Jan. 285 


s. 


Marcella, Appdx. 271, Jan. 


S. 


Marius, B. of Avenches, D. 




470 




425 


J) 


Marcellina, Jly. 412 


11 


Mark, B. of Jerusalem, O. 


»' 


Marcellinus, Pope, Ap. 345 




564 



^- 



*- 



-* 



352 



Index to Saints. 



S. Mark, Evang., Ap. 334 

„ Mark of Arethusa, Mch. 492 

,, Mark of Lucera, Ju. 191 

„ Marnan or Marnock, Appdx. 

18S 
,, Marnoc or Marnan, Appdx. 

2S3 
„ Marnock, O. 639 
SS. Maro and comp., Ap. 199 
S. Marrha, Jan. 285, F. 373, Jly. 

611 
„ Martial of Limoges, Ju. 463 
SS. Martialis and comp., O. 321 
S. Martian, F. 289 
„ Martin, B. of Tours, N. 241 
„ Martin, Pope, N. 293 
„ Martin, Ab. of Verton, O. 

618 
SS. Martinian and comp., O. 416 
,, Martyrius and comp., My. 

418 
,, Martyrs at Alexandria, F. 

449 
„ Martyrs at Lichfield, Jan. 28 
„ Martyrs at Nicomedia, D. 277 
„ Martyrs in Arabia, F. 367 
„ Martyrs in Canada, Jly. 733 
„ Martyrs in the Thebaid, Jan. 

65, Jly- 598 

„ Martyrs in the Serapion, Mch. 

284 
„ Martyrs of Africa, Ap. 73 
„ Martyrs of Alexandria, My. 

181 
„ Martyrs of Ebbecksdorf, F. 

45 
„ Martyrs of Gorkum, Jly. 212 
„ Martyrs of Japan, F. 141 
„ Martyrs of Nicopolis. Jly. 257 
,, Martyrs of Nismes, My. 312 
„ Martyrs of Sandomir, Ju. 21 
,, Martyrs of Saragossa, Ap. 

208 
„ Martyrs of Sebaste, Mch. 256 
„ Martyrs under Alexander, 

Mch. 21 
„ Martyrs under Nero, Mch. 

256, Ju. 334 
„ Martyrs under the Lombards, 

Mch. 23 



S. Maruanus, O. 658 

B.V. Mary, Immaculate Con- 
ception of the, D. 108 

B.V. Mary, Presentation of, 
N. 486 

B.V. Mar}', Visitation of the, 

Jly- 32 

S. Mary, B.V., Purification of, 

F. 34 . 
B. Mary d'Oignies, Ju. 319 
S. Mary of Rome, N. 18 
„ Mary of the Snows, Au. 62 
„ Mary, the Mother of Mark, 

Ju- 454 
„ Mary the Sorrowful, Ju. 254 
„ Mary, wife of Cleopas, Ap. 

124 
„ Mary Magdalen, Jly. 503, 611 
„ Mary Magdalen of Pazzi, My. 

3«i 
SS. Mary and Flora, N. 525 
„ Mary and comp., Au. 107 
„ Mary of Egypt and Zosimus, 

Ap. 15 
S. Materiana, Appdx. 210 
„ Maternus, B. of Treves, S. 

230 
„ Mathernus or Madron, Appdx. 

222 
„ Mathilda, Mch. 260 
„ Matrona, Mch. 26S 
„ Matthew, Ap. Evang., S. 323 
„ Matthew of Beauvais, Mch. 

488 
„ Matthias, Ap. F. 393 
,, Maudez, N. 402, Appdx. 306 
,, Maughan, Appdx. 277 
,, Maura, F. 286 
.SS. Maura and Baya, N. 60 
„ Maura and Bridget, Jly. 306 
„ Maurice and comp., F. 358, 

S. 329 
S. Maurilius, S. 186 
,, Maurontius, My. 78 
,, Maurus, Jan. 234 
SS. Maurus and Felix, Ju. 221 
S. Mawes, Appdx. 306 
,, Mawgan or Meugant, Appdx. 

277 
,, Maxellend, N. 318 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



353 



s. 


Maxentia, N. 461 


SS. 


Memorius and comp., S. 103 


)1 


Maxentius, Ju. 371 


>) 


Menas, Hermogenes, and 


) ) 


Maxima of Nicomedia, Mch. 




Eugraphius, D. 125 




222 


S. 


Mengold, F. 220 


) J 


Maxima of Sermium, Mch. 


55 


Menna, O. 52 




467 


J) 


Mennas, N. 239 


ss. 


Maxima, Donatilla, and Se- 


)> 


Mennas, Patr. of Constanti- 




cunda, Jly. 678 




nople, Au. 271 


s. 


Maximian, F. 369, 0. 54 


SS. 


Menodora, Matrodora, Nym- 


) > 


Maximinus, Ab. of Miscy, D. 




phodora, S. 145 




198 


s. 


Mercurius, N. 540 


>» 


Maximus, F. 329, Jan. 371 


)) 


Merewenna, V. Rumsey, 


i J 


Maximus, B. of Mixy, D. 198 




Appdx. 221 


) J 


Maximus, B. of Riez, N. 569 


99 


Merewenna, V. Marham 


>» 


Maximus of Aix, Ju. 77 




Church, Appdx. 263 


)> 


Maximus of Ephesus, Ap. 369 


)) 


Meriadoc, Appdx. 231 


)) 


Maximus of Jerusalem, My. 


)l 


Merin or Meiryn, Appdx. 167 




74 


n 


Methodius, S. 291, Mch. 176 


)) 


Maximus of Rome, N. 412 


» 


Methodius, Patr. of Constanti- 


?5 


Maximus of Turin, Ju. 353 




nople, Ju. 204 


SS. 


Maximus and Olympias, Ap. 


)i 


Metrophanes, Ju. 33 




200 


n 


Meugant, Appdx. 277 


»» 


Maximus and Venerandus, 


)t 


Mevan, Appdx. 238 




My. 343 


SS. 


Michael and All Angels, S. 


»J 


Maximus, Quintilian, and 




428 




comp, Ap. 181 


S. 


Michael, Apparition of, My. 


}} 


Maximus, Theodotus, and 




"5 




Asclepiodotus, S. 247 


M 


Milburgh, F. 382 


s. 


Mazota, D. 240 


M 


Mildgytha, Jan. 273 


5» 


Mechell, Appdx. 305 


»t 


Mildred, F. 354, Jly. 317 


)) 


Medana, Appdx. 308 


SS. 


Milles and comp., N. 230 


)» 


Medard of Noyon, Ju. 79 


s. 


Minver or Menefreda, Appdx. 


ss 


Medran and Odran, Jly. 168 




314 


s. 


Meigan, Appdx. 277 


fl 


Mnason, Jly. 282 


J> 


Meinrad, Jan. 321 


J» 


Mochoemog, Mch. 245 


>J 


Meinulf, O. 127 


J» 


Mochua or Cronan, Jan. 20 


)> 


Meirion, Appdx. 179 


M 


Mochua or Cuan, Jan. 19 


)> 


Melangell or Monacella, 


»» 


Mochteus of Louth, Au. 1S2 




Appdx. 225 


^t 


Mochuda of Lismore, My. 196 


>> 


Melania the Younger, D. 417 


i-i 


Modan, F. 91 


)) 


Melanius, Appdx. 296, Jan. 85 


It 


Moderan, or Moran, O. 573 


») 


Melas, Jan. 239 


M 


Modesta, N. 108 


>> 


Melchiades, Pope, D. 126 


SS. 


Modestus and others, Ju. 207 


1) 


Melchu, F. 178 


s. 


Modoc, S. 108 


>) 


Meldan, F. 193 


»J 


Modomnoc, F. 291 


>» 


Meletius, D. 28, F. 278 


)J 


Modwenna, Jly. 150 


>> 


Mellitus, Ap. 326 


>I 


Moling of Ferns, Ju. 249 


5> 


Melor, Appdx. 162, Jan. 44 


J) 


Moloc, or Mo-luoch, Appdx. 


Memorial of the Crucifixion, Mch. 




240 




454 


J> 


Molua of Clonfert, Au. 37 



^- 



-* 



^- 



-* 



354 



Index to Saints. 



S. Monan, Mch. i8 


SS. 


Nestabo, Eusebius, and comp., 


„ Monan or Moinen, Appdx. 




S. 118 


l88 


s. 


Nestor, F. 430 


„ Monegunda, Jly. 38 


SS. 


Nestor, Eusebius, and comp.. 


,, Monessa, S. 47 




S. 118 


„ Monica, My. 67 


s. 


Nicander, Mch. 267 


SS. Montanus and comp., F. 395 


SS. 


Nicander and Marcian, Ju. 


„ Montanus and Maxima, Mch. 




231 


467 


» 


Nicander, Marcian, and comp. , 


S. Monynna, Jly. 149 




Ju.39 


„ Morwenna, Jly. 146 


s. 


Nicanor, Jan. 133 


„ Mosentius, Jan. 163 


SS. 


Nicasius and comp., 0. 258 


SS. Moses and others, F. 192 


»> 


Nicasius and Eutropia, D. 1S5 


S. Moses of Syria, F. 376 


S. 


Nicephorus, F. 233, Mch. 249 


„ Moyses, D. 219 


S.S. 


Niceta and Aquilina, Jly. 526 


„ Moyses the Ethiopian, Au. 


s. 


Nicetas, Ap. 39, 0. 135 


348 


»> 


Nicetas of Nicomedia, S. 176 


„ Mummolin, O. 430 


>» 


Nicetas the Goth, S. 248 


„ Mun, F. 178 


tj 


Nicetius, B. of Treves, D. 6j 


,, Muran, Mch. 238 


B. 


Nicholas von der Flue, Mch. 


„ Murdach, 0. 130 




421 


., Muredach, Au. 118 


s. 


Nicolas, F. 92 


„ Musa, Ap. 24 


»1 


Nicolas, B. of Myra, D. 64 


SS. Mustiola and Irenseus, Jly. 91 


)i 


Nicolas I., Pope, N. 319 




)f 


Nicolas Tolentini, S. 160 


SS. Nabor and comp. , Jly. 256 


•) 


Nicomede, S. 246 


Name of Jesus, The, Au. 82 


SS. 


Nicrostratus and others, Jly. 


SS. Narses and comp., N. 460 




167 


S. Narcissus, Mch. 313 


s. 


Nidan, Appdx. 278 


„ Narcissus, B. of Jerusalem, 


t) 


Nilus, S. 389, N. 290 


0.701 


J» 


Ninian, S. 262 


SS. Narcissus and comp., 0. 724 


»» 


Nithard, F. 56 


„ Natalia, Adrian, and comp., 


J» 


Nivard, Abp. of Rheims, S. 8 


S. 113 


)> 


Non or Nonnita, Appdx. 189 


„ Natalia or Sabagotha and 


)} 


Nonnosus, S. 13 


comp., Jly. 588 


»> 


Norbert of Magdeburg, Ju. 58 


S. Nathy, Au. 107 


JJ 


Norhburga, S. 240 


Nativity of our Lord, D. 276 


)» 


Nothelm, Appdx. 282 


Nativity of S. John the Baptist, 


»» 


Nothelm, Abp. of Canterbury, 


Ju. 323 




0.449 


Nativity of the B. Virgin, S. no 


B. 


Notker Balbulus, Ap. 95 


SS. Nazarius and Celsus, Jly. 593 


s. 


Novatus, Ju. 269 


S. Nectan, Appdx. 238 


*♦ 


Noyala, Jly. 140 


SS. Nemesianus, Felix and comp.. 


ss. 


Nunilo and Alodia, O. 575 


S. 144 


s. 


Nwython or Noethan, Appdx. 


S. Neniesion, D. 223 




283 


SS. Nemesius and Lucilla, O. 725 


ss. 


Nymphas and Eubulus, F. 


S. Nennocha, Ju. 36 




449 


„ Neot, Jly. 697 


»I 


Nymphodora, Menodora, and 


SS. Nercus and comp.. My. 158 




Metrodora, S. 145 



»- 



-* 



► ^- 



->4 



Index to Sahits, 



355 



S. Oda, O. 578 
Veil. Ode, Ap. 252 

S. Odhran, O. 668 

„ Odilia, D. 174 

„ Odilo, Jan. 20 

„ Odo, N. 404 

„ Odo, Abp. of Canterbury, 
Jly. Ill 

,, Odo of Cambrai, Ju. 260 

„ Odran, F. 341 
SS. Odran and Medran, Jly, 168 

S. Olaf, Jly. 636 

„ Olcan, F. 349 
SS. Olympas and Tertius, N. 225 

S. Olympias, D. 206 
SS. Olympias and Maximus, Ap. 

2CX) 

S. Omer, S. 135 
SS. Onesiphorus and Porphyry, 
S. 87 

S. Onisimus, F. 312 

S. Onuphrius, Ju. 150 

„ Optatus, Ju. 34 

B. Ordorico, Jan. 211 

S. Oriens, My. 14 

„ Oringa, Jan. 146 

,, Osmund, B. of Salisbury, D. 
48 

„ Oswald, King, Au. 63 

„ Oswald, York, F. 455 

„ Oswin, Au. 192 

„ Osyth, O. 161 

„ Otto, B. of Bamberg, Jly. 44 

,, Oudoc, B. of Llandaft, Jly. 39 

„ Ouen, B. of Rouen, Au. 263 
Our Lady of Hal, Jly. 275 
Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Jly. 
407 

„ Owen, Mch. 57 

S. Pabo Post Prydain, Appdx. 

302 
„ Pacian, Mch. 172 
,, Pachomius, My. 192 
„ Padarn, Ap. 200, Appdx. 289 
„ PalKmon, Jan. 149 
„ Palladius, O. 156, Jly. 143, 

Jan. 417 
„ Pambo, Jly. 5 
SS. Pamphilius and others, Ju. 2 

VOL. XVI 



SS, 



SS, 
S. 



SS, 



S, 

SS, 

S, 



SS 



SS. 



Pancharius, Mch. 328 
Pancras, Ap. 33, My. 159 
Pandwyna, Appdx. 268 
Pansemne and Theophanes, 

Ju. 130 
Pantaleon, Jly. 585 
Pantalus, O. 285 
Pantoenns, Jly. 167 
Papas, Mch. 273 
Paphnutius, S. 169 
Paphnutius and comp., S. 362 
Papias, F. 366 
Pappian, Ju. 412 
Papulus, N. 65 
Parthenius, F. 191 
Paschal Bay Ion, My. 242 
Paschal L, Pope, My. 199 
Pasicrates and Valentio, My. 

342 
Pastor, Jly. 571 
Patermuth and comp., Jly. 207 
Patiens, Jan. 100 
Patrician, Appdx. 316 
Patrick, Mch. 285 
Patrobas and Philologus, N. 

106 
Patroclus, Jan. 315 
Paul, Jan. 215 
Paul, Apostle, Ju. 432 
Paul, B. of Leon, Appdx. 195 
Paul, B. of Skalholt, N. 413 
Paul L, Pope, Ju. 416 
Paul of Constantinople, Ju. 

69 
Paul of Cyprus, Mch. 311 
Paul of Leon, Mch. 223 
Paul of Narbonne, Mch. 406 
Paul of Verdun, F. 213 
Paul of the Cross, N. 369 
Paul the New, Jly. 193 
Paul the Simple, Mch. 114 



Jan. 277, 
Valentina, 

384 
Paulinas, Jan. 436, Appdx. 

3" 

Paulinus of Nola, Ju. 304 

Paulinus of York, O. 230 
Z 



Paul and comp., 

My. 205 
Paul, Thea, and 

Jly- 561 

Paula, F. 348, Jan. 



>■*- 



356 



Index to Samts. 



s. 

ss. 
s. 



J' 

ss, 



s. 



Paulinus of Treves, Au. 387 
Paulinus and comp., Jly. 285 
Peblig or Publicius, Appdx. 
248 
„ Pega, Jan. 118 
„ Peithian, Appdx. 176 
„ Pelagia, O. 169, Ju. 89, My. 

66 
„ Pelagius, Ju. 377 
Penitent Thief, The, Mch. 455 
S. Pepin, F. 360 
Perpetua, N. 105 
Perpetua and comp., Mch. 102 
Peregrinus and Laurence, Ju. 

22 
Peregrinus and others, Jly. 166 
Peter, Apostle, Ju. 419 
,, Peter ad Vincula, Au. i 
„ Peter of Alcantara, O. 487 
„ Peter of Alexandria, N. 544 
„ Peter of Aste, Ju. 485 
„ Peter of Canterbury, Jan. 86 
B. Peter of Castlenau, Mch. 74 
„ Peter of KiefF, Au. 264 
Peter of Luxemburg, Jly. 85 
Peter of Sebaste, Jan. 125 
Peter of Tarenteise, My. 117 
Peter the Spaniard, Mch. 221 
Peter the Venerable, D. 280 
Peter Balsam, Jan. 39 
Peter Cambian, F. 45 
Peter Celestine, My. 288 
Peter Chrysologus, D. 11 
Peter Damiani, F. 3S7 
Peter Gonsalez, Ap. 205 
Peter Martyr, Ap. 366 
„ Peter Nolasco, Jan. 474 
„ Peter Paschal, D. 71 
SS. Peter and comp.. My. 205 
„ Peter and comp. of Carthage, 

Mch. 256 
„ Peter and comp. of Nicomedia, 

Mch. 222 
„ Peter, Walabons, and comp., 

Ju. 72 
S. Peter's Chair, Jan. 275 
„ Peter's Chair at Antioch, F. 

365 
„ Petrock, Ju. 35 



B. 

S. 



B. 

S. 



B. 

S. 



S. Petronilla, My. 427 
,, Peulin, Appdx. 31 1 
„ Pharaiklis, Jan. 60 
SS. Phileas and others, F. 80 
„ Philemon and Apollonius, 

Mch. 156 
„ Philemon and Appia, N. 501 
„ Philetus and comp., Mch. 428 
S. Philip, S. 184 
,, Philip, Ap., My. I 
,, Philip of Agyra, My. 161 
,, Philip of Tralles.Ju. 55 
,, Philip Beniti, Au. 252 

Philip Neri, My. 391 

Philip of Heraclea and comp., 

0.565 

Philogonius, B. of Antioch, 
D. 225 

Philologus and Patrobas, N. 
106 

Philomena, Jly. 128, Au. iii 

Philonilla and Zenais, O. 257 

Phlegon and comp., Ap. 121 

Phocas, Mch. 63, Jly. 320 

Phocas the Gardener, S. 327 

Phoebe, S. 34 

Photinus, F. 358 

Photius and Anicetus, Au. 115 

Piala, Mch. 437 

Piatus, O. I 

Pieriu.s, N. 106 

Pinitus, O. 223 

Pionius and comp., F. 5 

Pior, Ju. 235 

Piran or Kieran, Mch. 66 

Pirminus, N. 83 

Pius v.. Pope, My. 80 

Placidus and comp., O. 120 
,, Placidus and Sigisbert, Jly. 

280 
S. Plato, Jly. 510, Ap. 69 
,, Plechelm, Jly. 358 
,, Plegmund, Appdx. 258 
SS. Plutarch, Potamicena, and 
others, Ju. 410 
S. Poemen, Au. 330 
,, Polycarp, Jan. 378 
,, Polychronius, B. M., F. 319 
,, Polychronius, H., F. 376 
,, Polyeuctus, F. 287 



SS. 



SS. 

S. 
SS. 

s. 



SS. 
S. 



SS. 

s. 



ss. 



->4 



Index to Saints. 



357 



S. Pontianus, Pope, N. 411 
,, Pontius, My. 18S 
„ Poppo, Jan. 375 
SS. Porcarius and comp., Au. 
119 
S. Porphyrins, F. 434 
SS. Porphyry and Onesiphorus, 

S. 87 
,, Potamisena and others, Ju. 410 
S. Potamisena the Younger, J 11. 
68 
SS. Pothinus and others, Ju. 7 
S. Praejectus, J.nn. 375 
,, Praetextatus, F. 402 
,, Praxedix, Jly. 496 
Presentation of the B. V. Mary, 
N. 486 
S. Priamianus, F. 376 
SS. Primilivus and Facundus, N. 

564 
.S. Primus, Jan. 44 
.SS. Primus and Felician, Ju. 87 
S. Principius, P. of .Soissons, S. 

.376 
,, Prisca, Jan. 276 
,, Priscilla, Jan. 238 
,, Priscus, S. I 
SS. Probus and comp., O. 260 
,, Probus and Grace, Appdx. 

208 
,, Processus and Martinian, Jly. 

34 

S. Prochorus, Ap. 130 

,, Proclus, B. of Constantinople, 
O. 605 

,, Procopius of Csesarea, Jly. 184 

,, Procopius of Prague, lly. 123 

,, Proculus, Mch. 435 
SS. Prosdoee and comp., O. 63 

S. Prosdichimus, N. 168 

,, Prosper of Aquitain, Ju. 353 

,, Prosper of Reggio, Ju. 358 

,, Proierius, F. 451 
S.S. Protus and Hyacinth, S. 166 

S. Prudentius, Ap. 362 
SS. Ptolemseusand Lucius, O. 478 
,, Pudens and Pudentiana, My. 
262 

S. Pulcheria, Empss., .S. 148 
Purification of B. V. Mary, F. 34 



S. QUADRATUS, My. 383 

,, Quartus, N. 64 
SS. Quatuor Coronati, N. 185 

S. Quintin, O. 725 

,, Quintin of Tours, O. 66 

,, Quintilian, Ap. 18 1 

,, Quiriacus, My. 64 
SS. Quiriacus, Censurinus, and 
comp., S. 67 

S. Quirinus, Ju. 30 

,, Quirinus of Rome, Mch. 456 

,, Quirinus the Tribune, Mch. 

504 
SS. Quirinus and comp., O. 258 
S. Quiteria, My. 333 
,, Quodvultdeus, O. 645 

S. Radbod, B. of Utrecht, N. 

591 

,, Radegund, Queen, Au. 130 

,, Radegund, V., Au. 136 

,, Ragnbert, Ju. 17S 

,, Ragnulf, jly. 323 

,, Randoald, F. 361 

,, Raymund, Jan. 357 

B. Raymund Lulli, Ju. 489 

S. Raymund Nonnatus, Au. 401 

,, Raymund of Fitero, F. 29 

„ Regina, S. loi, Jly. 31 

,, Reginswinda, Jly. 359 

,, Regula, S. 169 

,, ReguluB, O. 454, Mch. 504 

,, Remade, S. 38 

,, Rembert, F. 98 

,, Remigius, B. of Rheims, O. 2 

,, Renovatus, Mch. 515 

,, Reolus, N. 542 
SS. Respicius and Trypho, N. 277 

S. Restituta, My. 238 

,, ReynildisorRainilda, Jly. 406 

,, Rhais, S. 70 

,, Rhediw, Appdx. 303 

,, Rhian, Appdx. 194 
SS. Rhipsime, Gaiane, and others, 

S.437 
,, Rhuddlad, Appdx. 271 
,, Rhwydrys, Appdx. 2S7 
,, Richard, F. 194 
,, l-iichard of Chichester, Ap 
,, Richard Rolle, Appdx. 277 "' 



* 



*- 



* 



358 



Index to Saints. 



Richarius, Ap. 352 
Rictrudis, My. 170 
Rigobert, Jan. 61 
Rioch, F. 178, Appdx. 1S2 
Roch, Au. 155 
Robert, Ju. 76, Appdx. 202 
Robert of Arbrissel, F. 426 
Robert of Molesme, Ap. 366 
Robert Knaresborough, S. 364 
SS. Rogatianus and Felicissimus, 
O. 644 
S. Rolenda, My. 187 
,, Romana, O. 51 
,, Ronianus, Au. 106, N. 401, 

F. 452 
,, Romanus, B. of Rouen, O. 577 
SS. Romanus and David, S. 75 
S. Romaric, D. no 
,, Romuald, F. 194 
,, Romula, Jly. 524 
,, Romulus, S. 67, N. 152 
SS. Romulus and comp. , Jly. 1 31 
S. Ronald, Au. 215 
,, Ronan, Appdx. 180, Ju, 4 
,, Rosa, S. 57 
,, Rosalia, S. 53 
,, Rose of Lima, Au. 316 
,, Ruadan, Ap. 202 
SS. Ruderick and Salomon, Mch. 

254 
S. Rudesind, Mch. 19 
,, Rudolf, Ap. 221 
SS. Ruffinus and Valerius, Ju. 190 
,, Rufin and Wulfhad, Jly. 531 
,, Rufina and Secunda, Jly. 254 
,, Rufus and Zosimus, D. 219 
S. Rumbold, Jly. 27 
,, Rumon, Jan. 57 
,, Rumon, Roman, or Ruan, 

Appdx. 165 
,, Rumwold, Appdx. 209 
,, Rusticus, B. of Narbonne, O. 
645 
SS. Rusticus and comp., O. 195 
S. Rutilius, Au. 18 
,, Rychwyn, Appdx. 233 

SS. Sabagotha, Aurelius, and 
comp., Jly. 588 
S. Sabas, D. 53 



S. Sabas the Goth, Ap. 176 
SS. Sabiel and others, Ju. 234 

,, Sabina and comp., O. 649 

S. Sabine, F. 241, Jan. 273 
SS. Sabinian and Sabina, Jan. 439 

,, Sabinus and others, D. 405 

S. Sadwrn Farchog, Appdx. 317 

,, Salaberga, S. 339 

,, Salome, O. 562 
S.S. Salome and Judith, Ju. 455 

S. Salomon, Mch. 254 

,, Salaun, N. 40 

,, Salvius, Ju. 375, S. 158, Jan. 
160 
SS. Samonas and comp., N. 334 

S. Samson, Appdx. 254 

,, Samson, K. of Dol, Jly. 602 

,, Sampson Xenodochus, Ju. 387 
SS. Sanctianus, Augustinus, and 
Beata, S. 89 

,, Sapientia and comp., Au. 4 

S. Sara, Jly. 305 
SS. Saturian and comp., O. 416 

S. Saturninus, F. 259, N. 5S9 

,, Satyrius, S. 273 
SS. Satyrus and others, Jan. 163 

S. Savin, O. 203 

,, Sawyl Benuchel, Appdx. 172 

,, Schetzelo, Au. 81 

,, .Scholastica, F. 250 
SS. Scholastica and Injuriosus, 
My. 344 

S. Scothin, Appdx. 161 
SS. Scubiculus and comp., O. 258 

S. Sebaldus, Au. 1S3 

,, Sebastian, Jan. 300, F. 212 

,, Sebbi, Au. 380 
SS. Secunda and Rufina, Jly. 254 

,, Secunda or Septima and 
comp., Jly. 678 

S. Secundinus, Appdx. 316 

,, Secundinus, B. in Meath, N. 

. 578. 
SS. Secundinus and Castus, Jly. 3 

S. Secundus, Mch. 503 
SS. Secundus and comp., My. 319 
S. Seiriol, Appdx. 162 
,, Sempert, O. 326 
,, Senan, Ap. 364, O. 658, 
Appdx. 194 



*- 



-* 



Index to Saints. 



359 



S. Senan of Iniscarthy, Mch. 1 59 
,, Sennan or Senanus, Appdx. 

233 

SS. Sennan and Abdon, Jly. 677 
,, Separation of the Apostles, 

Jly- 347 

B. vSeraphina, S. 127 

S. Serapion, B. of Antioch, O. 
717 

,, Serenus, F. 374, O. 16 

,, Serf or Servan, Jly. 9 

,, Sergius, F. 402 

,, Sergius I., Pope, S. 137 

,, Sergius, Ab. , S. 381 
SS. Sergius and Bacchus, O. 155 

S. Servatus of Tongres, My. 183 

,, Serverian, S. 132 

,, Servulus, D. 239 

,, Sethrida, Jan. 138 
Seven Sleepers, The, Jly. 575 

S. Severinus, Jan. loi 

„ Severus, N. 164, Ap. 374 

,, Severus (Avranches), F. 23 

,, Severus (Ravenna), F. 12 

,, Severus (Valeria), F. 306 

,, Sexburga, Jly. 158 

,, Sezin, Mch. 90 

,, Sidonius Apollinaris, Au. 244 

,, Sidronius, Jly. 277 

,, Sidwell or Sativola, Appdx. 
258 

„ Sigebert, O. 712, F. 24 

,, Sigfrid, Appdx. 267 

,, Sigfried, F. 310 
SS. Sigisbert and Placidus, Jly. 
280 

S. Sigismund, My. 17 

,, Silas, Jly. 304 

,, .Silvester, Jan. 36 

,, Simeon, F. 328 

,, Simeon of Ctesiphon, Ap. 
260 

,, Simeon the Old, Jan. 383 

,, .Simeon Metaphrastes, N. 574 

,, Simeon, Prophet, O. 164 

,, Simeon Salus, Jly. 26 

,, Simeon .Stylites, Jan. 72 

,, Simon, Ap., O. 671 

,, .Simon of Trent, Mch. 447 

„ Simon Stock, My. 226 



S. 
SS. 



SS. 



>) 

>> 
>) 

SS. 

s. 



SS. 

S. 

SS. 



Simplicius, Mch. 22 
Simplicius of Autun, Ju. 336 
Simplicius, Bertrix, and Fau- 

shinus, Jly. 631 
Sina and comp., N. 230 
.Sisinnius and comp., My. 41S 
Sisoes, Jly. 140 
Sixtus, Mch. 489 
Sixtus, Pope, Ap. 89 
Sixtus II., Pope, Au. 



75 



Au. 



SS 
S, 



Smaragdus and comp 

98 
.Socrates and Stephen, S. 272 
Solangia, My. 145 
Solina, O. 437 

Solomon or Selyf, Appdx. 421 
Solus, D. 20 
Sophronius, Mch. 215 
Sosipater and Jason, Ju. 341 
Sosthenes, N. 577 
Soteris, F. 248 
Sozon, S. 98 
Sperandea, .S. 174 
.Speratus and comp., Jly. 409 
Spes, Mch. 489 
Spes and comp., Au. 4 
Speusippus and others, Jan. 

246 
Speridion, D. 180 
Stachys, O. 724 
Stanislas Kotska, N. 322 
Stanislaus of Cracow, My 
Stephen, D. 296 
Stephen, K., S. 19 
Stephen I., Pope, Au. 16 
Stephen of Grandmout, 

224 
Stephen of Servia, N. 287 
Stephen the Younger, N. 583 
Stephen Harding, Ap. 220 
.Stephen and comp., Jly. 125 
Stinan, Appdx. 320 
Sturmi, D. 208 
Sulien, N. 195 
Sulien or Sulin, Appdx. 270 
Sulpicius Severus, Jan. 442 
Sunnifa, Jly. 195 
Sura, F. 252 
Susanna, S. 320, F. 246, Jan 

278, Au. 114 



110 



F. 



-+ 



•i* 



360 



Index to Saints. 



S. Swibert the Elder, Mch. 16 
,, Swithun, Jly. 40 
,, Sylvanus of Gaza, My. 66 
,, Sylverius, Pope, Ju. 271 
,, Sylvester, Pope, D. 412 
,, Symeon, Jly. 571 
,, Symmachus, Jly. 448 
,, Symphorian, F. 451, Au. 230 
SS. Symphorosa and her sons, Jly. 

432 , 
S. Syncletica, Jan. 67 
,, .Syntyche, Jly. 510 

S. Tai.arican, O. 721, Appdx. 

286 
,, Tancha, O. 247 
,, Tanco, F. 317 
,, Tanwg, Appdx. 280 
SS. Tarachus and conip., O. 260 
S. Taraghta, F. 236 
,, Tarasius, F. 416 
,, Tarsilla, D. 272 
,, Tathan or Tathseus, Appdx. 

324 
,, Tatian, Mch. 271 
SS. Tatian, Macedonius and Theo- 

dulus, S. 179 
S. Tatwin, Abp. of Canterbury, 

Jly. 680 
,, Tecwyn, or Tegwyn, Appdx. 

274 
,, Tegla, or Theckla, Appdx. 

229 
,, Teilo, Appdx. 181, F. 238 
,, Telemachus, Jan. 7 
,, Telesphorus, Jan. 65 
,, Tenenan, Appdx. 253 
SS. Ten Thousand Martyrs, Ju. 

299 
S. Ternan, or Torannan, Appdx. 

233 
SS. Tertius and Olympus, N. 225 

S. Tetricus, Mch. 322 

,, Teyrnog, or Tyrnog, Appdx. 

207 
,, Thaddaeus, Disc, O. 679 
,, Thais, O. 167 
SS. Thalassius and Limnaeus, F. 

367 
S. Thaleljeus, F. 444 



SS. Thallelaens and comp.. My, 

307 . 
S. Tharsicius, Au. 143 
S.S. Thea, Valentina, and Paul, 

Jly- 561 

S. Thecla, O. 357, Jan. 278, S. 

350 

SS. Thecla and Justina, Jan. 133 
,, Thecla and comp., Au. 179 
S. Thenew, Jly. 433 
,, Theobald, Ju. 486 
,, Theodard, S. 159, My. 25 
,, Iheodehilda, Ju. 413 
,, Theodora, Empress, F. 271, 
,, Theodora of Alexandria, S. 

172 
,, Theodora of Rome, Ap. I 

SS. Theodora and Didymus, Ap. 

359 

S. Theodore, Jly. 98 
,, Theodore, Abp. of Canter- 
bury, S. 303 
,, Theodore of Amasea, N. 216 
,, Theodore of Apamea, F. 358 
,, Theodore of Heraclea, F. 190 
,, Theodore of the Studium, N. 

262 
,, Thedoric, Jly. II, Jan. 414 
,, Theodosia, Ap. 14. My. 420 
,, Theodosius, Jan. 151 
,, Theodota, Au. 18 
,, Theodotus, B. of Laodicea, 
N. 48 
Theodotus and comp., My. 

245 
Theodotus, Maximus, and 

Asclepiodotus, S. 247 
Theodulus the Stylite, My. 409 
Theodulus and Agathopus, 
Ap. 61 

,, Theodulus and comp., Jan. 202 
,, Theodulus and Julian, F. 320 
,, Theodulus, Macedonius, and 

Tatian, S. 179 
,, Theognis and comp., Jan. 44 
S. Theonestus, O. 720 
,, Theophanes, S. 130 
SS. Theophanes and Pansemne, 
Ju. 130 
S. Theophilus, Penitent, F. 88 



SS 



S. 
SS, 



>> 

)» 



Theophilus of Antioch, O. 320 
Theophilus the Younger, Jly. 

517 

Theoritgitha, Jan. 397 

Theotimus, Ap. 251 

Theresa, O. 358 
,, Thomas, Ap., D. 226 
,, Thomas a Becket, Appdx. 326, 

D-325 
B. Thomas of Lancaster, Mch. 

414 
S. Thomas of Villanova, S. 34I 
,, Thomas Aquinas, Mch. 116 
,, Thomas Cantikipe, O. 31 
„ Thorlac, B.of Skalholt, D. 262 
.SS. Three Soldiers, Jly. 38 
,, Thyrsus, Andochius, and Felix, 

S. 361 
,, Thyrsus and comp., Jan. 416 
,, Thyrsus and others, O. 62 
S. Tibba, Mch. 93 
SS. Tiburtius and Chromatins, 
Au. 113 
S. Tighernach, Ap. 62 
SS. Tigris and Eutropius, Jan. 163 
,, Timolaus and comp., Mch. 

444 
S. Timothy, Jan. 359 
SS. Timothy and Apollinaris, Au. 

.243 
,, Timothy and Maura, My. 55 
,, Timothy, Thecla, and Aga- 

pius, Au. 179 
S. Titus, Jan. 53 
,, Torpes, My. 237 
SS. Torquatus and comp., My. 
204 
S. Tranquillinus, Jly. 136 
Transfiguration of our Lord, The, 

Au. 75 
Translation of S. Cuthliert, S. 50 
Translation of S. Edward, Ju. 281 
Translation of the Holy House to 
Loreto, D. 129 
S. Tresan, F. 192 
,, Triduana, O. 180 
,, Trillo, Appdx. 234 
,, Trojanus, N. 598 
,, Trophima, Jly. 129 
,, Trophimus, D. 321 



S. Trudo, N. 511 

,, Trudpert, Ap. 351 

,, Trumwin, B. of the Picts, D. 

12 
SS. Tryphena and Tryphosa, N. 

226 
,, Trypho and Respicius, N. 227 
S. Tryphonia, O. 471 
,, Tuda, Appdx. 183 
,, Tudglyd, Appdx. 228 
,, Tudno, Appdx. 230 
,, Tudur, Appdx. 28 1 
,, Tudy, Appdx. 274 
,, Tugdual, N. 599, Appdx. 318 
,, Turgot, Appdx. 206 
,, Turibius, Ap, 210 
SS. Twelve Brethren, S. 2 
,, Twenty Monks at S. Sabas, 

Mch. 365 
,, Two Ewalds, O. 55 
S. Twrog, Appdx. 243 
,, Tybie, Appdx. 176 
,, Tydecho, Appdx. 322 
,, Tydfyl, Appdx. 268 
,, Tyfaelog, Appdx. 187 
,, Tyfei, Appdx. 202 
,, Ty fry dog, Appdx. 160 
>. Jygris, Ju. 359 
,, I yllo, Jan. 94 
S.S. Tyrannio and comp., P". 346 
S. Tyssul, Appdx. 177 

S. Ubald, My. 223 

,, Ulched, Appdx. 168 

,, Ulphia, Jan. 472 

,, Ulpian, Ap. 38 

,, Ulric, Jly. n6 

,, Uni, 0.658 

,, Urban I., Pope, My. 341 
SS. Urban and comp., O. 724 

S. Urbicius, Ap. 38 

,, Ust, Appdx. 264 
SS. Ursula and Eleven Thousand 
Virgins, O. 535 

,, Ursus and Victor, S. 441 

S. Uvellus, Appdx. 310 

SS. Vai.entina, Thea and Paul, 

Jly- 561 

S. Valentine, F. 296, Jan. 90 



*- 



* 



362 



Index to Saints. 



ss. 


Valeria and Vitalis, Ap. 357 


S. Virgilius, Mch. 72 


s. 


Valerian, D. 197 


,, Virgilius, B. of Salzburg, N. 


)) 


Valerius of Treves, Jan. 439 


570 


1 J 


Valerius (Saragossa), Jan. 417 


SS. Virgins in Africa, D. 199 


bS. 


Valerius and Ruffinus, Ju. 190 


Visitation of the B.V. Mary, Jly. 


,. 


Varus and others, O. 4S0 


32 


s. 


Vasius, Ap. 210 


S. Vitalian, Jly. 404 


)1 


Vedast, F. 179 


„ Vitalina, F. 359 


) J 


Veep, Wymp, or Wennapa, 


,, Vitalis, Jan. 156 




Appdx. 246 


SS. Vitalis and Agricola, N. 107 


}} 


Veho, or Vougo, Appdx. 234 


,, Vitalis and Valeria, Ap. ,57 


)) 


Voloc, or Macwoloc, Appdx. 


,, Vitus, Modestus, and Cres- 




176 


centia, Ju. 207 


•9* 


Venantius, My. 244 


S. Vladimir, Jly. 360 


t ) 


Venantius Fortunatus, D. 186 


„ Vougas, Ju. 211 


ss. 


Venerandus and Maximus, 
My. 343 . 


,, Vulmar, Jly. 489 


s. 


Verca and children, Mch. 468 


S. Walabons, Ju. 72 


) J 


Verdiana, F. 31 


,, Walaric of Leuconay, Ap. 3 


)) 


Verena, S. 2 


,, Walburga, F. 414 


J» 


Veronica, F. 73, Jly. 287 


,, Walfrid, F. 309 


>) 


Veronica of Milan, Jan. 196 


,, Walhere,Ju. 318 


)) 


Victor, F. 410 


,, Walstan, Appdx. 228 


) > 


Victor, Pope, Jly. 595 


,, Walter, A p. 122 


'J 


Victor of Braga, Ap. 175 


B. Walter of Bierbeeke, Jan. 341 


ss. 


Victor and comp., Jly. 498 


S. Waltheof, Au. 29 


) ) 


Victor and Susanna, F. 246 


,, Waltrudis, Ap. 13 1 


5) 


Victor and Ursus, S. 441 


„ Wandregisl, J ly. 515 


) J 


Victor, Zoticus, and comp., 


,, Wenceslas, S. 421 




Ap. 250 


,, Wendelin, 0. 561 


s. 


Victoria, D. 238 


,, Wennapa, Appdx. 246 


) ) 


Victorian, Mch. 439 


,, Werburga, F. 52 


ss. 


Victoricus, Fuscianus, and 


,, Werenfried, Au. 347 




Gentianus, D. 136 


,, \Yerner, Ap. 248 


s. 


Victorinus, S. 66, N. 47 


White Mass, The, .Au. 261 


ss. 


Victorinusand comp., Ap. 199 


S. Wilfreda, S. 140 


J) 


Victorinus and comp. in 


,, Wilfrid II., Appdx. 217 




Egypt, F. 410 


,, Wilfrid, B. of York, O. 292 


s. 


Vigiiius, Ju. 370 


„ Wilgefortis, Jly. 488 




Vigor, N. 25 


,, Wilgis, Appdx. 177 




Vincent, Jan. 331, Mch. 213 


,, WiUebold, N. 61 




Vincent of Calahorra, Ap. 227 


,, WiUehad, N. 197 




Vincent of Lerins, My. 337 


,, William, Appdx. 224 




Vincent of Paul, Jly. 454 


,, William (Bourges), Jan. 139 




Vincent Ferrier, Ap. 87 


,, William, B. of Roskilde, S. 13 




Vincent Magdelgar, Jly. 321 


,, William of Maleval, F. 253 


ss 


Vincent and Laetus, S. 4 


,, William of Monte Virgine, 




Vincent, Sabina, and Chry- 


Ju. 362 




steta, 0. 649 


,, Williamof Norwich, Mch. 461 


s 


Vindician, Mch. 215 


,, WilliamofRochester, My. 336 



->* 



*- 



Index to Saints. 



563 



S. William of York, Ju. 82 


S. 


Zabdas, F. 341 


„ William, Longsword, Uuke, 


1 J 


Zacchseus of Jerusalem, Au. 


D. 212 




237 


„ Willibald, Jly. 170 


SS. 


Zacchseus and Alphreus, N. 


„ Willibrord, N. 170 




378 


,, Winefred, N. 69 


s. 


Zacharias, Mch. 268 


,, Winnoc, N. 164 


»> 


Zacharias (Jerusalem), F. 


,, Winoc or Guinock, Appdx. 




359 


211 


SS. 


Zacharias and Elizabeth, N. 


,, Winwaloe, Appdx. 190, 217, 




147 


Mch. 49 


>> 


Zebinas and comp., N. 311 


,, Wiro, My. 116 


)I 


Zebinus and others, F. 376 


,, Wistan, Ju. 5 


S. 


Zenas, S. 397 


,, Withburga, Appdx. 251, IMch. 


SS. 


Zenais and Philonilla, 0. 


309 




257 


,, Wolfgang, B. of Ratisbon, O. 


s. 


Zeno, F. 249 


728 


)? 


Zeno of Verona, Ap. 175 


SS. Wulfhad and Rufin, Jly. 53 1 


ss. 


Zeno and Zenas, Ju. 308 


S. Wulfhilda, Appdx. 272 


) ) 


Zeno and others, D. 224 


,, Wulfram, Mch. 361 


J> 


Zeno, Eusebius, and comp., 


„ Wulfric, F. 356 




S. 118 


,, Wulgan, N. 59 


)) 


Zeno, Concordius, and others, 


,, Wulphlag, Ju. 71 




S. 12 


,, Wulsin, Jan. 118 


19 


Zeno, Eudoxius, and comp.. 


,, Wulstan, Jan. 290 




S. 68 


,, Wymp, Appdx. 246 


s. 


Zephyrinus, Pope, Au. 311 




)» 


Zita, Ap. 354 


S. Xavier, Francis, N. 602 


1 1 


Zoe, Jly. 127 


SS. Xenophon and Mary, Jan. 389 


ss. 


Zoe and Hesperus, My. 28 


„ XXXVIII. Monks in Ionia, 


>» 


Zoilus and comp., Ju. 387 


Jan. 175 


s. 


Zosimus, Pope, D. 301 


S. Xystus (Sixtus), Ap. 89 


)> 


Zosimus of Syracuse, Mch. 


,, Xystus, Pope, Mch. 489 




508 




ss. 


Zosimus and Athanasius, Jan. 


S. Yarcard, Au. 262 




38 


,, Ytha, Appdx. 171 


)J 


Zosimus and Mary, A p. 15 


,, Yvo, My. 301, Ju. 132 


>1 


Zosimus and Rufus, D. 219 


,, Yvo or Ivo, B. of Chartres, 


s. 


Zoticus, Jly. 501 


D. 241 


ss. 


Zoticus and comp., Ap. 


„ Ywi, 0. 135 




250 



*- 



* 



*- 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



[The following contractions arc used to indicate the months :- -Jan. 
{January), F. {February), Mch. {March), A J {April), My. {May), 
Ju. {Juiie),Jly. {July), Au. {August), S. {September), O. {October), 
N. {November), D. (December), Appdx. {Vol. xvi.)'\. 



Abfat, cruel, Au. 46 : deserts his 
monastery, Jan. 95-6 ; Ap. 123 ; 
Tu. 238 : murdered l)y monks, 
Jan. 87 ; O. 432 : profligate, D. 
200 : youthful, My. 279 
Abbats, two at once, Jan. 12 
Abbess, child, Mch. 279, 307 ; S. 
270 ; N. 466 : murderess made, 

J"- 457 ^ , . 

Abbeys given by kmgs, Ju. 134, 

457 
Abdication of Pope, My. 298, 352 
Abelard, story of, Au. 207-11; 

D. 286-7 
Abgar, letters of, N. 442 ; O. 679- 

681 
Abingdon, monastery rebuilt, Au. 

9-1 1 : pool at, O. 654 
"xAbove," word of comfort, O. 

504 
Abscesses, saint afflicted with, Ap. 

190 
Absence of mind, F. loi ; Mch. 

143, 150; S. 294; N. 165 
Absolution sold, Au. 293 
Abstinence. See Fasting 
Abyssinia, Church of, O. 652, 659- 

668 ; N. 516-25 ; 613-15 : con- 
version of, O. 652, 660-1 
Acacius, schism of, Jlv. 100; Au. 

87-9; N. 487-8 ;b: 151-5 



Accusation against dying saint, F. 

426 : of theft against saint, Jly. 

458 : of unchastity against Pope, 

Jly. 450-1 ; D. 141 : of unchastity 

against saint, F. 42 ; My. 39 ; 

Jly. 476 ; N. 313 
Acepliali, heresy of, Au. 190 
Achilles Tatius, romances of, S. 

168 ; O. 621 ; N. 149 
Acholyth, saint, Au. 143 
Acoemeti, the Order of, Jan. 232-3 

F. 92 
Acrimony, theological, My. 166 

s. 459-62 

Actor saint, F. 443 ; Mch. 156-S 
Ap. 189 ; Au. 267-70 

Actress, lessons to be learned from, 
Jly. 6 : saint, O. 169, 170 

Acts of Pilate, Au. 329 

Acts of saints, fabrication of, Ap. 
217, 325. 345-9; Ju. 78, 295; 
Jly. 277, 285; S. 94; O. 10, 13, 
62. 704, 706: fabulous. Jan. 70-2, 
121-5,238.246-7,276-7,347-8; 
F.47,88-91, 176-7, 190,231,248, 
330; Mch. 2-8, 45-9, 156-9. 
313,482,483,503,504,513-15 ; 
Ap. 1-2, 33, 34-7, 124, 129, 
133-4. 177, 180, 199, 223, 227, 
250, 301-5, 325-6, 345-9, 352, 
358-9. 370-1 ; My. 54, 59, 64-5, 
66, 94-5, 139-40. 141. 158-9. 
160, 181, 204, 207-9, 211-13; 
237, 244, 262, 3c 6, 307, 333, 342, 



364 



►p- 



*- 



^ 



Index of Subjects. 



65 



407, 427, 428-30; Ju. I, 36-7, 
55. 78, 149-50, 154-5. 176-7. 
207-8, 219, 221, 239-45, 246-7, 
251-2; 270-1, 282, 288, 290- 
303, 342, 359-60, 366-70, 377. 

387, 426-30, 463-84 ; Jiy- 3-4, 

8-9, lo-i I, 23-4, 34-7, 38, 125-6, 

127, 131-5, 136, 137-9, 165-6, 

167-8, 185-7, 195-7, 203-4, 206, 

207-10, 251-2, 257, 277, 2S3-5, 

306-9, 320, 432-3. 485-7. 488-9, 

496, 497, 526, 527-30, 553-9. 

575-8, 585-6, 593, 613-29, 635, 

677; Au. 4, 24, 98, 114, 129, 

155, 158, 171-4, 177, 235-6, 

256, 315, 384. 401-4; S. 8, 12, 

46, loi, 103, 131, 166, 169, 

176-7, 180, 184, 246, 257, 259- 

260, 301, 319,328, 350, 385, 386, 

397. 437-40, 442; O. I, 16-19, 

51, 62, 66-S, 120-5, 132-3. 

152-4, 181, 191, 195, 225-7, 

258-9, 285-6, 358-9, 454-5, 

471-3, 495, 505-6, 620-27, 628- 

30,631-4, 649-50, 653-6, 685-6, 

697-8, 704, 706, 720-21, 725-7 ; 

N. lo-ii, 12, 13-17, 65-6, 149- 

152, 300-4, 502-5, 507-8, 513, 

540-2, 562-4, 590-1, 595-7 ; D. I, 

10, 25-8, 64, 67, 125, 136, 156, 

168-70, 228-33, 236, 270, 278-9, 

300-1,405-6,411 : forgeries, Jan. 

121, 276; Y. 88-91, 190; Mch. 

16, 45-9. 267 ;Ap. 33-4,177,223, 

301-4, 345-9, 352; My. 139, 

158, 161, 164, 188, 237, 262, 

407 ; Ju. 269-70, 295-6, 298, 

299. 366-70, 429, 463 ; Jiy- 3. 
I3I-5. 285-7, 304, 320, 485, 

594; S. 94, 186, 325, 442; O. 
62, 120-2, 124, 152-4, 191, 195, 
197, 433. 604, 620, 704; N. 12, 
13, 168, 300-4, 565, 590-1 : 
transfer of, F. 276, 444 ; Mch. 
56, 90 ; Ap. 206, 325, 358-9 ; 
My. 24;; Ju. I, 78, 129; Jly. 
3. 4. 137. 139, 185, 251-2, 257, 

413-19. 432, 485; s. 94; o. 

471, 495, 604-5, 619 
Adoption, symbol of, N. 33 



Adria, O. 515 

Adultery, bishops charged with, 
My. 39; N. 313, 385; D. 242, 
249, 251 : popes charged with, 
yiy. 450 ; D. 141 : saint com- 
mits, Au. 267 

Advancement, prayer for, O. 482 

Advertisement of self by saint, O. 

592 

" Advocate of Christians," title of, 
Ju. 8 

"Advocate of Poor," title of, S. 
406 

Aiifection between masters and 
slaves, My. 332, O. 1 17-18: 
lack of natural, N. 351 : mon- 
astic, Au. 120, 122, 335; N. 
392 {see also Monastic friend- 
ships) : natural, overcome, Jan. 
II, 78, 203; Mch. 425; Ju. 
235, 487; Jly- 605; Au. 25, 
30, 333-4 ; 'S. 79-80, 345 ; O. 
531, 557-8, 699; N. 57-8, 257, 
446, 489-90 ; D. 1 1 2- 1 3 

Afra (S.), Church of, at Augsburg, 
Au. 62 ; O. 326 

Agapa:, Au. 365 

Agaunum, monastery founded, 
"My. 17 

Aghaboe, monastery founded, O. 
279. 

Agnoetse, heresy of, S. 190 

Agrestin, schism of, Mch. 499- 
501 ; D. 106-7, 113 

Ague, Ap. 168, 191 ; O. 71, I35. 
228-9, 394 

Alaric, K. of Visigoths, Jan. 167 ; 
Ju. 372 ; Jly. 599 

Albert of Austria, murder of. My. 

lOI 

Albigenses, heresy of, Jan. 140-1, 

358, 471 ; Mch. 74-87 ; Ap. 

367 ; Au. 41, 44-50; U. 271, 

289, 292 
Alchemy, Ju. 493 
Alcuin, school of, Mch. 473 ; My. 

269 
Aleth, city of, F. 26 ; N. 338 
Alexandria, catechetical school of, 

Jly. 167; N. 168, 371, 544; D- 



*- 



^ 



-> < 



366 



htdex of Subjects. 



24: plague of, Y. 449-50; N. 

374, 376 
Alfred (K.), miraculous cure of, 

A p. 71 
Algerine pirates, Jly. 456 
Algonquin mission, Jly. 737, saj. 
Alive, burial, Mch. 467 ; Ap. 357; 

N. 237.8 
Alleluja, omitted in Lent, A p. 

246 : paschal, Ap. 73 : victory, 

Jly. 684 
Allemanni, incursions of, F. 179; 

Ju. 342 ; Jly. 687 ; O. 6 ; N. 

242-4 
All-fours, saint goes on, F. 256 
All Saints, N. i-io 
All Souls, Jan. 27 ; Ju. 241 ; N. 

42-7 
Almsgiving, methodical, Jan. 348 ; 

Jly. 460 : profuse, Jan. 348-9 ; 

"O. 346, 412 ; D. 421 
Alpenstocks, martyrdom by, My. 

419 
Alphabet inscribed on girdle, Mch. 

257 
Altar, breast used as, Jan. 89: 

brought by doves, Mch. 24: 

brought from heaven, My. 215 : 

deacon's hands used as, Jan. 

375 : linen, consecration of, N. 

207 : linen falls from heaven, 

Jly. 166 : linen not to be touched 

by woman, O. 638 : made by S. 

Bridget, F. 17 : of wood, F. 17; 

S. 178 : portable, N. 179 : saints 

slain at, Jan. 289, 369 ; My. 

112; Jly. 273; S. 178; D. 399: 

swims, O. 619 : vessels .sold for 

the poor, Jan. 23, 407 ; F. 98 ; 

Mch. 315, 412 ; Au. 15 ; D. 78 
Altars, numerous, O. 160 
Alumbrados, heretics, Jly. 720 
Amalarius, story of. My. 269 
Amants, les Deux, My. 344 
Amber, superstitious u (of, D. 7 
Ambition, monastic, Au. 204, 206-7 
Amen, a ghostly, Ju. 317 
America, Irish discovery of. My. 

219 
Amesbury Abbey founded, Jan. 45 



Amoneburg, monastery founded, 

Ju- 44 
Amphitheatres, Jan. 42 : attrac 

tions of, Au. 145-6 
Ampoule, la Sainte, O. 7-10 
Amputation of hands, Feb. 9 
Anachronisms, Mch. 435 ; My. 94, 

139, 158, 159, 343; Ju- 155. 
299. 300, 366, 463 ; |ly. 107, 
150,211,284,578, :;93, 620; Au. 
262; S. 16S, 278; 6. 16, 19, 
53, 153,226,471,621,634,652; 
N. 16, 22, 301, 504, 565, 601-2 

Anchor attached to martyr's neck, 
N. 508 

Anchorites, comfortable life of, 
S. 121 : distinct from Cenobites, 
D. 56 : life of, Jan. 74-7, 95, 
151, 215-16, 251-6, 325-6, 374, 
433-6, 469; F- 32, 85, 249, 
254, 290, 300-2, 356, 369, 427, 
445 ; Mch. 97, 274, 275, 278, 
389-91, 425-8, 485 ; Ap. 17-24, 
79, 115, 166-9, 187, 218, 228, 
351 ; My. 48, 125-7, 136-7,226, 
289-90, 323-4, 410 ; Ju. 57, 75, 
131, 151-4, 194-5, 235, 236, 
238, 248, 254, 290, 337, 339, 
362-3, 45S-9; Jly. 5-8, 14. 38, 
154, 351. 358, 404, 447-8 ; Au. 
81,250,331; S. 3, 9, 55. 120-1, 
130-1, 194, 364-72, 382; O. 
65, 176-7, 200-3, 207, 422-3, 
474. 506-22 ; N. 54-7, loo-i, 
no, 219-22, 245, 348,; D. 54-5, 
'43-55. ^17) ■ walled up, F. 32 ; 
Mch. 97, 275, 485 ; Ap. 79, 218 ; 
Ju. 458 ; Jly. 38 ; Au. 28 ; O. 
176-7, 460-2; N. 346 

Andenne, monastery founded, D. 
207 

Angel acts as guide, Mch. 330, 
332; My. 54; S. 54-5, 165: 
apparition of, F. 8 : attendant, 
Mch. 194, 332; Ap. 148, 322; 
Jly. 444; Au. 323; N. 503: 
brings a crown of virginity, Jan. 
123 ; My. 22 ; Jly. 203 ; N. 503 : 
brings a crown to a martyr, Ju. 
19 ; N. 229, 564 : brings a slate 



*- 



► <- 



-* 



Index of Subjects. 



Z^7 



from heaven, Au. 182: brings 
bread from heaven, Jly. 528 ; N. 
163 : brings chocolate from 
heaven, Au. 323 : brings dinner 
to a saint, O. 710 : carries a 
bell, My. 144 : carries a bishop's 
staff, N. 75 : catches the devil 
by a snap-collar, N. 257 : cha- 
rioteer, Ap. 63 : communicates a 
saint, Ju. 152 : fights in a tour- 
nament, Jan. 342 : guards a 
virgin, Jan. 120, 147, 319; My. 
206 ; N. 503 : guards sheep, 
Au. 402 : indicates site of mon- 
astery, Jan. 19: makes dress- 
trimmings, O. 183 : ploughs, 
My. 148 ; S. 181 : reaps corn, 
O. 281 : robes a virgin, Jan. 
319 : rows a boat, O. 485 : sym- 
bol of, Jan. 321 ; Mch. 202 ; Ju. 
332; Jly. 444; Au. 157; S. 
325 : teaches a virgin to read, 
Jan. 197 : veils a virgin, Jly. 
563 : visits a saint. My. 54 ; 
O. 559 : warns a virgin, O. 707 : 
whips a saint, Ju. 252 
Angelic salutation, Jan. 144 ; Mch. 

450 
Angelo (S.), Castle of, Mch. 230 ; 

My. 379 ; Ju- 66 

Angels bear the body of a saint, 
N. 542, 594 : bear the souls of 
saints, Jan. 56 ; F. 341 ; Ju. 76 : 
comfort martyrs, Jan. 5, 333 ; 
My. 55;Ju. 145, 190; Jly. 52S; 
Au. 243 : deliver martyrs, Jan. 
124, 200 : doubtful appearances 
of, My. 115 ; Ju. 80 : protect a 
child, Jan. 127 : same as monks, 
Ju. 99 : shelter saints from sun 
and rain, F. 50 ; Ap. 355 : sing 
to a child, F. 83 ; N. 315 : sing- 
ing of, heard, Jan. 187, 244 ; 
F.^ 51, 83, 382 ; Mch. 30, 58, 
468 ; O. 229 

Angelus, the, Mch. 452 ; Jly. 

343 
Anger, no escape from, Jan. 308 : 
to be conquered, Jan. 352 ; N. 
220 



Anglesea, Norse attack on, Ap. 

213 
Anglican Calendar, errors in, Jan. 

99 ; Ju. 294 ; S. 203 
Anglo-Saxon poetry, F. 273 ; My. 

348 
Animals, saints and, Jan. 31, 33, 

282, 287,288,384; F. 85, 181 ; 

Mch. 12, 14, 35, 460; My. 15; 

Ju. 125, 337 ; Jly. 22, 262; Au. 

6; S. 9; O. 94-6, 211-13, 229, 

423 ; N. 68, 491 
Anna-Comnena, historian, Au. 

135 

Annunciation, Feast of, Mch. 

450-2 : Order of, F. ill 
Ant-hill, monastery likened to, 

O- 53.3 

Antichrist, N. 251 

Antidoron, N. 473 

Antioch, see of, F. 1-3 : threat- 
ened with chastisement, Jan. 
362, 401 

Antiochian schism, F. 280 ; Jly. 
99-105; D. 57 

Antiphonal singing, F. 2 ; Au. 
362 ; D. 89 

Antipodes, N. 571-2 

Antipopes, Ap. 88; My. 121-2, 
352 ; Ju. 64-7, 382 ; Jly. 375, 
632-4 ; Aug. 202 ; S. 354-6, 
391-2 

Ants, F. 340 

Antwerp Cathedral wrecked, Jly, 
214-18: heathenism at, D. 8 

Aphrodite, symbols transferred to 
saint, Jly. 4S6 

Apiarius, case of, D. 304-5 

Apocryphal Acts of Priscillianists, 
Ap. 147 : Acts of Martyrs [see 
Acts, fabulous) : Books con- 
demned, N. 488 : Letters of 
Constantine, S. 448 

Apollinarian heresy, My. 165 ; S. 
457; O. 613 

Apology of Apollonius, Ap. 224 ; 
of Justin, Ap. 179; of Quad- 
ratus, My. 383 

Apostasy of bishop, F. 6 

Apostles, Church of, at Cologne, 



*- 



-44 



368 



Index of Subjects. 



Mch. 281 : Feasts of, Jan. 370 ; 
F. 393-5 ; My. i-io, 93 ; Ju. 

139-43; 419-54; Jiy- 546-53 ; 

Au. 253-60; S. 323-5; O. 

671-8; N. 593-8; D. 226-34, 

307-10: separation of, Jly. 348 
Apostolic constitutions, N. 507 ; 

D. 266 : title of, S. 24 : volume, 

an, My. 163 
Apparitions, My. 115; O. 215, 

494. 571-2, 573; N. 18 
Appeals to Rome, O. 306 ; N. 207 
Appetite, ravenous, Jly. 11 
Applause in church, My. 133 
Apple from Paradise, F. 177 : 

given to Christ, Ap. 116 
Apples miraculously produced, 

F.308 
Aquileja, battle of, Mch. 486 ; 

D. 101-2 
Arabia, Church in, O. 650-1 ; N. 

515-25 : divisions of, N. 514 
Aran, Isle of, Mch. 378 ; S. 133; 

N. 190-2: visit of Bishop of 

Ardagh to, Mch. 384-7 
Ararat ascended, Jly. 356 
"Archangel of Monks," title of, 

Jan. 24 
Archdeaconery a road to perdition, 

Feb. loi 
Ardennes, Forest of, S. 39 ; N. 

79 

Ardstraw. monastery founded, Au. 
251 

Arenaria, Jan. 285-6 

Arian, explanation of faith refused 
to, N. 291 : heresy, Jan. 12, 16, 
126, 183-6, 267-8, 334, 400, 404, 
423 ; Feb. 93, 278-80, 433-4, 
446-7; Mch. 174, 213, 314-19, 
371, 407-8, 412-13, 492-5; 
Ap. 64, 73, 113, 183-4; My- 
30-53. 74. 129, 132-8, 183,317, 
319-20; Ju. 41, 69-70, 164, 
165, 285-7 ; Jly- 310-16, 354-6, 
399-402, 632 ; Au. 26, 387-9 ; 
.S. 248-9, 292, 351-7; O. 119, 
287-90 ; 496-8, 721 ; N. 48-53, 
58, 164, 245, 498, 510, 547; 
D. 63, 66-7, 69, 74, 78, 81, 



85-91,93. 149. 191-7,225,299: 
saint, S. 248-9; O. 496-8; N. 
48-54 
Arians, persecution by, Jan. 12-18, 
90, 223, 404 ; F. 281, 466-7 
Mch. 174, 213, 371, 407-8 
Ap. 64, 73, 184; My. 319-20 

Ju. 69-70, 286-7; Jly- 310-16 

400-3, 632 ; Au. 389 ; S. 352-6 

O. 287-90, 496, 721 ; N. 51-3 

164, 245 ; D. 69-70, 194-5 

persecution of, Au. 26 ; O. 606 

S. 248-9 ; N. 510 
Arians, Semi-, Feb. 2S0 ; Mch. 

314-18, 492-3; My. 127; Ju. 

69-70 
Ark of Noah discovered, Jly. 357 
Arm of executioner becomes rigid, 

S. 37, 44 : of saint broken, Ju. 

247; Jly. 262: of saint pulled 

off, S. 141 
Armagh founded, Mch. 301 : lay 

usurpation of, Ap. 106 ; N. 87, 

91-2 
Armenia, conversion of, S. 442 
Armorica, ancient extent of, Mch. 

288 
Arrow pierces S. Theresa's bowels, 

0.371 
Arrows, martyrdom by, Jan. 285, 
304 ; Ap. 37, 73 ; Ju. 361 ; Jly. 
530 ; O. 556 ; N. 38-9, 465 : 
marvellous. My. 1 15: symbol 
of, Jan. 305; Jly. 531; S. 10; 

o. 414. 556 

Artifices in war, Ju. 405 

Artistic bishop, N. 469 

Asceticism and sensuality, Aug. 
320, 352 : extraordinary {set 
Austerities) : moderation in, 
Jan. 69 : obedience better than, 
Jan. 69 : should be secret, Jan. 

374 
Ash-tree of S. Kenelm, Jly. 427 
Ass bites a lawyer, S. 128 : deter- 
mines boundaries, N. 160 : dis- 
covers a spring, D. 54 • kills a 
wolf, D. 21-2: restored to life, 
Jly. 690 : restores its shoes, Ap. 
32 : saint rides, O. 583 : symbol 



-> < 



Index of Sitbjects. 



369 



of, Ap. 32 ; My. 261 ; Jly. 690 : 

the body regarded as, O. 508 
Asses obey a saint, O. 513 
Assistant saints in extremis, D. 28 
AssumptionofB. Virgin, All. 141 -3 
Athanasian Creed, My. 340 
Attic honey, D. 28 
Attila, invasion of, Jan. 48, loi ; 

Ap. 158-9; Ju. 23; Jly. 635; 

S. 103, 153 
Augustinian Canons, F. 105 
Austerities, extraordinary, Jan. 12, 

30-1, 72-80, 222, 253 ; F. 32-3, 

225-6, 256, 298, 369, 427, 445, 

453; Mch. 275, 373, 426-7; Ap. 

17-24, 25; My. 323, 392; Ju. 

320-1 ; Au. 318, 320, 327 ; S. 

161, 174, 254; O. 188, 206-8, 

474, 488; N. 351, 527, 534, 

558, 560, 587, 604, 606; Appdx. 

66 
Austrasia, kingdom of, F. 25 
Avalon, Isle of, Jan. 5 
Axe, emblem of, F. 343 ; Ap. 368 : 

martyrdom by, F. 367 ; Ap. 

367, 371; My. 419; Ju. 172, 

376 



B 



Babe boiled in caldron, O. 634 : 
found in eagle's nest, S. 140 : 
required to announce its parent- 
age, N. 313 

Babelmandeb, Straits of, forced, 
N. 523-4 

Babies, miraculous production of, 
N. 601-2 

Bacchantes beat saint to death, Ju. 
257 

Bacchus, hymn to, N. 53 

Badon, Mount, battle of, Jan. 441 

Bagaudae, insurgent, S. 330-1 ; N. 
629 

Baker saint. My. 336 

Balla, monastery founded, Jan. 20 

Ballads incorporated in lives of 
saints, O. 421 : used as texts, 
My. 349 



Bamberg, see founded, Mch. 53 ; 
Jly. 377-8 ; S. 29 

Bamborough, siege of, Au. 398 

Bandage falls from heaven, Jly. 36 

Bangor (Irish) founded, My. 142-3: 
restored, N. 87, 89 

Bangor (Welsh) founded. My. 142: 
destroyed, N. 196: massacre at. 
My. 390 

Banker saint, O. 348 

Banner of S. Wilfred, O. 315 : 
symbol of, Ju. 406 

Baptism administered by Christ. 
Jly. 529: by father. My. 125: 
by immersion, Jly. 63 : death 
after, S. 48 : doubtful, N. 599 : 
enforced, D. 60 : erroneous 
form of, N. 570- 1: in a cloud, 
Mch. 158: in blood, Ap. 175; 
Au. 270; O. 118; D. 100: 
its nature, Jan. 2 : miraculous 
light at, F. 443 ; Au. 269, 279; 
S. 270: of heretics, Au. 16, 75 ; 
S. 220-2; O. 688-92; N. 378, 
370 

Baptismal Creed, My. 140 : cus- 
toms, Au. 361 

"Bara," title of, D, 105 

Barathnun, imprisonment in, Jan. 
124; ,S. 289-91, 445; O. 626; 

N. 15, 335 
Bards, Ju. 1 14, 239; O. 291 ; 

Appdx. 167 
Bark, books made of, Mch. 471 
Barking, monastery founded, Mch. 

446 ; O. 281-2 
Baronius, errors of, Ju. i ; Jly. 

135. 137, 205-6, 321, 356; Au. 

78, 108, 223 ; S. 100, 385 ; O. 

50 ; N. 224, 563 
Barrel, saint born in, D. 120: 

saint lives in, F. 445 
Barrenness cured by abbot, N. 

203 
Basilisk, Ju. 430 
Basin, symbol of, Jly. 497 
Batavia ceases to be an island, O. 

538 
Bath, a cold. My. 323 ; Ju. 35 : 

hot springs at, My. 285 : 



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370 



Index of Subjects. 



marvellous effects of, Jly. Ii : 
miraculous, D. 26 : rarely used, 

0.445 
Baths, martyr condemned to, N. 

504 

Bayac, monastery founded, Jan. 
96 

Beam, martyr crushed under, Jan. 
339 : miraculously lengthened, 
223 ; O. 282 

Bear, Jan. 243, 376 ; F. 85, 181 ; 
Mch. 459; Ju. 75, 362; Jly. 
679 : and saint, Jan. 243 ; F. 85, 
181; Mch. 459; Ju. 75; Jly. 
262; S. 47, 122; O. 211-13, 
229, 423 ; N. 491 ; D. 412 : 
carries loads, Mch. 459; S. 47, 
122-3 : defends virgin, D. 412 : 
discovers a mine, S. 95 : martyr 
exposed to, Au. 330 ; S. 258 ; 
O. 229 ; N. 459 : splinter 
plucked from foot of, F. 85 ; Ju. 

75 . . 
Bear-baiting forbidden to monks, 

My. 271 
Bearded virgin saint, F. 348 ; Jly. 

488 
Beards forbidden, N. 584 
Beasts, exposure to, Jan. 120, 277, 

278, 284 ; F. 4-5, 346-8 ; Mch. 

III-13, 114; My. 237, 244; Ju. 

14, 17.336; Jly. 679; Au. 115, 

162, 179,330; S. 302; 0.276-7; 

N. 459 ; D. 300 
Beatific vision, Mch. 151 
Beating into virtue, N. 490 
Bedcover of fur, O. 36; of mouse- 
skin, Jly. 83 
Bed-curtain given as clothing, O. 

729 
Bed not slept in, O. 214 ; N. 550 : 

of iron, martyrdom on, Jan. 

440; F. 176; My. 418; Jly. 

678; Au. no; S. 179; O. 133 
Beefsteaks, why underdone, O. 71 1 
Beer dedicated to Woden, O. 420; 

N. 497 : foams miraculously, O. 

431-2 : miraculously increased, 

O. 580 
Bees brought to Ireland, F. 291 ; 



Mch. 14, 224 : keeping of, in 
Brittany, Mch. 225 : sign of 
election. My. 79 : swarm on 
saint's mouth, Ap. 65 ; Au. 42 ; 
D. 76 
Beggar saint, Jan. 233 ; F. 220-4 
Begging forbidden, Jly. 462 
Beghards, the, Jly. 339 ; Au. 41 
Beguines, Order of, U. 207 
Belgrade, relief of, O. 599 
Bell, Jan. 19, 366, 468; Mch. 223, 
225, 226,248; My. 144; Ju.92, 
112; Jly. 40; Au. 6, 9, 13; S. 
6; N. 154: arrests a massacre, 
S. 6 : indicates site of monas- 
tery, Jan. 19; N. 154: made 
by a saint, Au. 9, 13 : made of 
butter, Jly. 40 : multiplies itself, 
N. 154: serves as a baby's bottle, 
Au. 6 
Bells ring miraculously, Mch. 21 1 ; 
My. 149; S. 52; O. 67, 576; 
N. 62, 68, 154 
Benedictine Order, attempt to 

suppress. My. 296 
Benefices given to bastards, D. 
162: given to children, Ju. 173; 
Jly. So-7; S. 161 ; N. 113, 116- 
17 ; D, 71 : given to laymen, 
N. 398; D. 162 
Bereavement, comfort in, O. 4S3 
Beresynth, an idol, Ju. 337 ; Au. 

230 
Bergamo, churches built at, S. 49 
Bernicia, kingdom of, O. 230, 

234 

Berytus, legal school at, Jan. 389 ; 
Ap. 12 

Beverley Abbey founded. My. no 

Beziers, siege of, Au. 46 

Bible, use made of, Jan. 88, 
95 ; ^^y- 304: written by Alcuin, 
My. 276. See also Holy Scrip- 
tures 

Bier miraculously shortened, N 

237 
Bigamy allowed by Luther, D„ 

202 
Binding books. My. 268 
Bird, example from, F. 243 : re- 



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» 4- 



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Index of Subjects. 



371 



stored to life, O. 16 : sings to a 
dying saint, N. 456 

Birds and saints, F. 85, 385, 448 ; 
Mch. 345, 502; Ap. 56, 132, 
171 ; My. 145, MS ; Ju. 29, 
238, 372; Jly. 15, 22; Au. 6, 
321 ; O. 6 ; N. 456 

" Bishop of Bishops," title of, Au. 

Bishoprics given by kings, Ju. 49, 
134, 163; Jly. 19, 20, 117,372: 
hereditary claims to, F. 322 ; 
Ap. 106 ; N. 87, 91-2 

Bishops, adulterous, Jly. 156, 401, 
402; O. 159; N. 313, 385; D. 
30, 242, 249, 251 : and women 
to be avoided, Jly. 523: apos- 
tate, F. 6 ; N. 48 : avaricious, 
N. 291 : beat emperors, D. 30: 
beat their clergy, O. 160 ; D. 
34; Celtic, Appdx. 30-1: co- 
adjutor, first instance of, Jly. 
94 : connive at murder, N. 184: 
consecrated by Christ, S. 378 : 
criminal, Mch. 20 ; My. 266 ; 
S. 5, 41 ; N. 52, 313; D. 249: 
cruel, Au. 47 ; D. 45, 292 : 
deceitful, N. 543 : desert their 
sees, F. 40; My. 118, 185 ; Ju. 
57. 259; Jly- 279; -'^- 126,243; 
O- 434,. 573. 709; N. 232, 313, 
338 : displaced by kings, Mch. 
20: dress as laymen, N. 141 : 
drunkards, S. 284 : elected by 
parliament, D. 264 : envious, 
F. 64 ; German, character of, 
Mch. 180-1 ; My. 266-7 ; J"- 
49, 63; S. 30, 282-6; N. 184, 
211 : guilty of murder, Ju. 49: 
incite to murder, D. 1 10: in- 
solence of, Jly. 377 ; S. 283 ; 
U. 30, 40, 42-3, no: jealous 
of their rights, Mch. 180; N. 
207: kick nobles, D. no: 
laymen elected, F. 13 ; My. 
299 ; Ju. 283, 336 ; Jly. 682 ; 
I). 75 : luxurious, S. 30, 126, 
282-4; N. 141 ; D. 32, 35: 
married, Jan. 44, 58, 182 ; F. 
13, 81 ; Mch. 173, 457; Ap. 
VOL. XVI. 



8, 38, 41, 140, 141, 318, 363 ; 
My. 125, 414, 416, 223, 271, 
281, 355, 359-66; Ju. 337, 401, 
420; Au. n, 12, 103-4, 139, 
248 ; S. 70, 376 ; O. 10, 290, 
645, 699 ; N. 206, 346, 414 ; D. 
304 : nepotism of, Ju. 6 ; D. 
36-7 : ordained by force, Jan. 
14; N. 245 : perjured, D. 393-4 : 
pomp of, S. 30, 282-6 : popu- 
lar election of, F. 13, 86; My. 
14 ; N. 246 ; D. 74 : pride 
of, D. 391 : rapacious, Mch. 
180-1 ; Ju. 6 ; Jly. 372, 373, 
374; S. 126, 243 ; O. 142, 145, 
449; N. 116; D. 31-5, 38-41 : 
rebuke kings, My. 335, 413: 
regionary, F. 183; Mch. 208; 
Ap. 342; S. 122; N. 59, 84; 
D. 274 : resign their sees, F. 
24, 49, 186; My. 135; Ju. 56; 
S- 39; O. 617 : sell benefices, 
D. 35-6 : shameful tricks played 
on, Jly. 405 : treacherous, N. 
542-3 : turbulent, Mch. 20 ; Ju. 
47. 360; Jly. 42; S, 126, 312- 
314; O. 159-60; N. 231, 250; 
D. 30, 40, 94, 391 : under can- 
onical age, Jly. 24, 87, 377 ; Au. 
189, 191 ; O. 2, 3; N. n4, 
1 16-17; D. 71, 246: warlike, 
Ju. 49, 360; Jly. 42-3: whip 
old women, S. 126 

Black Forest, Ap. S5I 

"Black Joan," D."76 

Blackberries, Mch. 70 

Blacksmith saint, F. 447 

Blasphemy, temptation to, A p. 8 

Bleeding, N. 410 : relics, S. 164-5 ; 
O. 63, 68, n6; N. 12 

Blessed, the Isles of the, D. 
123 

Blessed Sacrament, delight in re- 
ceiving, S. 403 : devotion to, 
Jan. 142; F. 175, 195; Mch. 
154; Ap. 79, 119-20; My. 68, 
105 ; Ju. 174, 216, 225 : mule 
adores, Ju. 18S ; recourse had 
to, Mch. 142 ; My. 103 : visions 
concerning, Jan. 197 ; Mch. 

2 A 



► <- 



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37^ 



Index of Stibjects. 



238 ; Ap. 78, 80 ; Au. 30 ; O. 

570 ; N. 400 
Blind saint, F. 244, 258 ; Mch. 
489 ; Ju. 241 ; Au. 140 ; S. 

Blindness conducive to medita- 
tion, F. 20 : miraculously 
healed, Mch. 14, 332 ; N. 
455 : inflicted, O. 485 
Blood, Council of, Jly. 221 
Blood, drinking, Jly. 267 : earth 
turned to, S. 52 : effervesces, 
O. 116: exudes on approach of 
a murderer, Mch. 449 : fossil, 
N. 148-9 ; liquefies, Jly. 587 : 
trickles from feet of saint, N. 

136 
Bluebottle, the pet of a saint, O. 

709 
Blue-devils, O. 213 
Blue veils, Jly. 109 
Boar indicates site of monastery, 

Jan. 282 ; Mch. 248 : king 

transformed into, S. 440 : saint 

protects, Jan. 282 : turned to 

stone, N. 315 
Boar-hunt, Jly. 502 
Boasting, saintly, O. 595 
Boat breasts stream, Jan. 86 ; O. 

323 ; N. 258 : follows the ship, 

Ju. 245 : manned by angels, Ju. 

150: saints exposed in, My. 

239 ; O. 721 : symbol of, My. 

238 ; S. 74 
Bobbio founded, N. 500 
Bodkins thrust through ears, Ju. 

177. See Skewers 
Body floats against stream, O. 56 : 

multiplies itself, Jan. 96 ; Mch. 

95 j Jly- 426 ; O. 656 : regarded 

as an ass, O. 508 
Boedeken founded, O. 128-9 
Boiling of body to obtain the 

bones, N. 184, 443 : water, 

martyrdom in, F. 174-5 
Boldness before kings, D. 62, 82, 

97. 

Bolivia, missions to, O. 21S-20 

BoUandists, S. 265, 377 

Bonse Memoriae, on tombs, O. 705 



Bonds, the Cross the strongest of, 

F. 112 
Bonhomme de Fatonville, O. 708 
Bonosus, heresy of, D. 408-9 
Book floats, N. 337 : miraculously 

kept dry, Jan. 24, 467 ; O. 655 ; 

Appdx. 178 : of Life, Jan. 125 : 

tied to a stake, F. 65 
Books borrowed and returned, F. 

250 : brought to England, Jan. 

168, 170: importance of, N. 

552 
" Boots and Belly," F. 370 
Boots, torture of the, O. 155 
Borromeo family, N. 113- 15 
Bosham founded, O. 307 
Boswell, an ecclesiastical. My. 325 
Bough, saint floats on a, Au. 182 
Bow and quiver, symbol of, Mch. 

208 
Bowels unwound, Ju. 20 
Bowl, saint sails in a silver, Ju. 

35 ; Jly- 625 

Boy confessors, F. 83; Ju. 139, 
291-3; Jly- .323; N. 322-5 : 
girl changed into, O. 655 : given 
a benefice, S. 161 (see Bishops 
under age) : killed byjews, Mch. 
447-9 ; 461-6 ; Ap. 221-2, 248- 
249. 250, 381-2; Jly. 592 ; Au. 
279; O. 597; N. 21 ; Appdx. 
202 : martyrs, Jan. 124-5, 246- 
247, 370-1 ; F. 147-8, 150, 156-7, 
164-7, •71-4. 262, 358; Mch. 
447-9, 461-6; Ap. 221-2, 248- 
24'^,373.38i-2;My.i6o-i, 18S- 
191, 244, 428-30; Ju. 5, 17, 207, 
220, 377; Jly. 592; Au. 143, 
158, 162, 223-4; S. 98-100, 103, 
229, 326 ; O. 226-7, 471-3, 597 ; 
N. 21; D. 69; Appdx. 202: 
pope. My. 351 : restored to life, 
S. 261 ; I). 66-7 
Bracelet given by an angel, S. 94 
Bramble conceals tomb, F. 38 
Brazen bull, martyrdom in, S. 

319 
Bread changed into chips, S. 241 ; 
N. 347, 426 : changed into 
pearls, N. 409 : changed into 



->■* 



^4- 



-►4 



Index of Subjects. 



Z12> 



roses, Mch. 121 ; Ju. 217 ; Jly. 
87 ; S. 164, 241 ; N. 425-6 : 
changed into stones, Jan. 61 ; 
S. 139; O. 249: chokes Earl 
Godwin, O. 340 : cures the sick, 
S. 163 : from heaven, Ap. 115 ; 
N. 16 : unleavened, Ap. 246 

Breakwater, miraculous, Ju. 57 

Breasts cut ort", Jan. 85 ; F. 137 ; 
Ap. 208 ; xMy. 95 ; Ju. 77, 146, 
349; S. 321 ; O. 698; D. 27: 
emit light, O. 17S : three 
breasts, Appdx. 193 

Breath, intoxicating, Au. 40 : 
vari-coloured, Ap. 63 

Bremen, diocese united to Ham- 
burg, F. 68, 98 

Brentford, battle of, O. 328 

Brethren of Our Lord, O. 125-8 

Bretwalda, title of, F. 406 ; Au. 
68 ; O. 232, 244 

Breviary, errors in, Ju. 306 : 
Franciscan, Jly. 32 

Brian, title of, D. 221 

Briars, saint rolls in, Mch. 390 

Bribery at Rome, O. 334 ; N. 
207-8, 353, 361, 367 ; D. 248, 
251, 25s, 256 

Bridge-building, Jan. 145 : mir- 
aculous. My. 205 

British refugees, Ap. 169; Appdx. 
24-27, 88-110: saints, Jan. 5-7, 
28,44, 57 ;F. 140, 190,238-41 ; 
Mch. 51, 69, 214-15, 274,437-9; 
Ap. 71, 185-6, 200-2, 260, 364 ; 
My. 16-20, 137, 215-16, 239-42, 
417 ; Ju. 35-7, 57, 155, 190, 

203-4, 294-9; Jly- 1-2, 39-40. 

140, 146-9, 697-8 ; Au. 6-8, 
82-6. 181, 345-6; O. 176-7, 
476, 616, 620, 646-7 ; N. 186- 

197. 318, 599-600; j:). 13-16, 

128, 160, 180; Appdx. I-119, 

159-326. 
Brittany, Celtic Church in, 

Appdx. 51 : migration into, 

Appdx. 24-6, 87-119, 159-326. 
Broken heart, death from, Aj). 

112 ; D. 171 
Brothel, virgin consigned to, Jan. 



319; Ap. 360; O. 626; D. 
II 

Brucheion, O. 514 
Brunanburgh, battle of, Jly. 1 12 
Brunswick, conversion of Duke 

of, S. 298 
Brychan, family of, Ju. 36; Jly. 

146-8 ; Au. 6-7, 181 ; O. 178 
Buddha as a Christian saint, N. 

562 
Buffalo, Jly. 15 
Bull, brazen, martyrdom in, Ap. 

136; My. 66; S. 319: baiting 

forbidden, N. 127 : emblem of, 

N. 591 : fight, excitement of, 

Au. 146 : saint gored by, Jan. 

120; Ju. 17 : saint tied to, N. 

590-1 
Burial alive, martyrdom by, Aji. 

357 ; N. 237-8 : rites, Au. 363: 

to the waist, S. 46 
Burning of heretics, N. 236 
Butler, Alban, distorts facts, O. 

4S9 



Ci^SARiAN process, Ap. 217; Au. 

401 
Calatrava, Order of, F. 30 
Caldron, martyr immersed in, F. 

174, 317 ; Jly. 20 ; O. 265. 

S^e also Oil and Pitch 
Caledonia, extent of, Ju. 108 
Calextin schism, O. 594 
Calf restored to life, O. 653 
Call to preach, My. 157 
Caltraeth, battle of, O. 647 
Calumnies against bishops, N. 52 
Calvinists, conversion of, Jan. 

446-57; Ju. 227, 484: doctrine 

of grace, My. 338 : violence of, 

Jan. 142; My. 243, 312; Jly. 

212-50, 385-98 
Calw, family of, N. 62 
Cambrai, see founded, O. lo 
Camel weeping, S. 400 
Campine, conversion of, S. 276 ; 

N. 79 



*- 



^ 



-44 



374 



Index of Subjects. 



Canada, missions in, Jly. 733-88 

Cancer, saint suffers from, Jan. 
69, 461 ; F. 112; Ap. 193; Ju. 
148; O. 126, Appdx. 172. 

Candle brought from heaven, O. 
655 : held by dying, Mch. 184: 
light, reading by, Au. 14: lights 
miraculously, Jan. 51, 109, 288, 
461 ; Ap. 355 ; Jly. 168; S. 162 ; 
O. 209, 434, 576, 654 : not ex- 
tinguished by wind, Jan. 461 ; 
F. 361 ; Ap. 355: sets fire to a 
pillar, Jly. 125-6: symbol of, 
Jan. 163; F. 49, 214 

Candlemas, F. 35-6 

Candles as symbols of joy, Jan. 
17 : borne in procession, Jan. 
17, 159; O. 177: on festivals, 
Jan. 97 : on altars, Mch. 242; 
Jly. 166 : used as tokens of 
faith, O. 289 

Cane, letter concealed in, Jan. 
429 

Cannibals, mission to, N. 595 

Canon of Scripture, S. 411 

Canonisation l)y imperial orders, 
Mch. 284 : popular, N. 24S, 
414; D. 269 

Canonry given to a child, Jly. 
341 ; S. 161 

Canons excommunicate their 
bishop, N, 124-5 : unruly, My. 
223, 28 r; Au. 11; N. 124 

Canossa, Henry IV. at, My. 374 

Canterbury taken by Northmen, 

Jly- 643 

Cap and bells, symbol of, Au. 270 
Capitulary of S. Aklric, Jan. 97 
Captives, Christian, My. 97 : libe- 
rated, Jan. 50, 414, 471 ; O. 
429 ; N. 254 : ransomed, Jan. 
470-1 ; F. 85, 98,227; O. 432 
Capuchins, devotion of, N. 135 
Caravans plundered, N. 516 
Cardinal, child made, My. 82 
Cardinal's hat, Jly. 344 
Cards blessed, N. 628 : l^urned, 

0.591 

Carinthia attacked by Huns, N. 
572: conversion of, N. 572-3 



Carmelite Order founded, N. 527: 

in England, My. 226 
Carnival forbidden, N. 140 
Carols, O. 108; D. 7 
Carpenter saint, Mch. 484 ; D. 

228, 231 
Carpenter's son saint, S. 132, 134, 

292 
Carthusian Order founded, O. 

142-9: houses in England, N. 

397 
Cashel, archdiocese, Ap. 107 

Caste, F. 115, 118 
Casturis, sack of, Jan. loi 
Catacombs, Jan. 285-6, Feb. 249 ; 

Au. 35, III ; S. 451 
Catalepsy, Jly. 534-41 ; S. 158-9 
Catasta, F. 176 
Catechetical School, Alexandria, 

Jly. 167; N. 168, 371, 544; D. 

24 
Caterpillars, D. 317 
Cathari, heretics, Mch. 75 ; N. 431 
Catholic, title of, D. 93 
Cats, Ju. 249 : symbol of. My. 305 
Catskin, myth of, Jan. 292 ; My. 

207, 211 
Cattle passed through split trees, 

D. 7 

Cave, exploration of, Au. 217 : 

mysterious maid in. My. 211 : 

temple, D. 54 
Celestine Order founded. My. 296 
Celibacy, clerical, F. 344, 427, 

455 ; Ap. 123, 237. 312; My. 

281, 286 ; Ju. 62, 389-99 ; Au. 

II, 103-4; S. 137-8, 170-1 ; O. 

351 ; N. 206, 214, 360 ; D. 263, 

265 
Celle, La, founded, Jan. 114 
Cells, desert of, Jan. 29 
Celtic Church, peculiarities of, 

Appdx. 40-43, 43-6 : reduced 

to Roman obedience, Jan. 94 ; 

F. 217; Mch. 342; Appdx. 

50. 54 
Celtic usages, Jan. 93-4 ; My. 349; 
N. 493-4; Appdx. 31-41, 43- 

47. 54- 
Cenobites and Anchorites, D. 56 



^ 



-* i 



*- 



-> 4 



hidex of Subjects. 



175 



Censer, F. 196 : not to be touched 
by a woman, O. 638 ; self- 
kindled, Jan. 152 

Censius, disturbances caused by, 
^ My. 366 ; N. 475, 479 

Ccntule founded, Ap. 352 

Centurion flies persecution, Jan. 
42 : martyrs, Jan. 42 ; O. 719 : 
saint, F. 38 

Ccrfroid, monastery founded, N. 

485 
Cerinthus, heresy of, D. 310 
Chablais, conversion of, Jan. 446- 

457 

Chain-mail, F. 356 

Chains fall off, Jan. 59 : of S. 
Lawrence, N. 166: of S. Peter, 
Mch. 514; Ap. 2; Ju. 431 ; S. 

153 
Chair kissed, O. 459 : of Bede, 
My. 409 : of Cainech, O. 279 : 
of S. Peter, Jan. 275 ; Ju. 431 : 
torture of red-hot, Jan. 440 ; 

Ju- i.3> 17 

Chalcaion, image of Ciirist in, F. 
95; Ap. 43-4; My. 177-8, 420; 
Au. 107 

Chalice and Host, symbol of, D. 
28 

Chalons, battle of, N. 380 : 
sacked, Jly. 440 

Chancel not for laymen, D. 94 

Chariot-races, Jan. 42 ; Au. 144-6 

Charity above fasling, N. 57 : 
disgusting, O. 484: dishonest, 
F. 32; Ap. 354; S. 163, 240; 
N. 347 : examples of, Jan. 
29. 135-6, 349-56 ; F. 24, 243, 
2S1 ; My. 117, 202, 203,411- 
412; Jly. 5-7, 15, 43, 288, 335, 
336; S. 84, 130, 346-7, 425; 
O. 73, 88, 198, 730; N. 132-4, 
242, 405, 425-7, 450-2, 490 ; I). 
65, 153, 181, 281 : heals, i, 376 : 
lack of, F. 233-6 : Order of, 
Mch. 167 : profuse, Jan. 23 ; 
F. 16; S. 412; N. 292, 329, 
333 : the supreme rule, D. 285 : 
to the dead, Jan. 23 

Charlemagne claims ecclesiastical 



supremacy. My. 270-1 ; Ju. 163: 
coronation of, Ju. 160: extends 
the Creed, Ju. i6'5-9,: reforms 
the Church, My. 266-72 : wives 
of, Ap. 275-6 : Jly. 262-3 
Chartreuse, La Grande, Ju. 378 : 
founded, Ap. 9 ; O. 146-9 ; N. 

396-7 
Chasuble sent from heaven, D. 

116 
Cheerfulness, Jan. 374 
Cheese fancied by monk. My. 

155 : turned to stone, O. 640 
Chertsey, monastery founded, 

Mch. 446 ; O. 281 
Chess-boards burnt, O. 591 
Chest, oak, My. 104 
Chester - le - Street (Concester), 

bishop's see at, S. 51 
Chicken not meat, N. 409 
Chilblains, Jan. 451 : saint suffers 

from, Ju. 458 ; O. 461 
Child Jesus crowns a saint. S 55 : 

held by saint, Mch. 183; Ju. 

188 ; .S. 360 ; N, 323, 325, 349- 

350 
Child, dedication of, Jan. 46-8, 

126, 248, 306 ; Mch. 243, 508 ; 

My. 263 ; Jly. 606, 703 ; N. 

342 ; D. 105, 172, 281, 283, 

420 : eaten by mother, Jan. 210 : 

given benefices, Ju. 173 ; Jly. 

86; S. 161; N. 113, 116-17; 

D. 71 : kiss of, cures blindness, 

Jan. 112: lesson of, Ju. 243: 

proclaims a bishop, D. 75 : set 

in the midst by Christ, Ju. 465 
Child saints, F. 147, 150, 156, 

164-7, 171-4 ; Ap. 24 ; Jly. 

359; Au. 221-3; y. 12, 35, 70. 

See also Boy saints 
Childbirth, angel assists at, D. 

120 : assistance in, Jly. 123 : 

saints assists at, O. 220-1 
Children, loss of, O. 198 : love of, 

Jan. 456 : voices of, Au. 333 
China, missions to, N. 674 
Chocolate brought from heaven, 

Au. 323 
Chorister whipped, N. 24 



► 4- 



*- 



-> 4 



37^ 



Index of Subjects. 



Christ baj>tizes, N. 66 : in per>on 
ministered to, O. 5S9 : letters 
of, O. 679 : portraits of, O. 
681-4: present with sufferer, 
Ju. 147 : relatives of, O. 562-4, 
674-6 : serves at mass, D. 72 
Chronicle of Radbod, N. 592 
Chrysostom, persecution of adher- 
ents of, Jan. 164 
Church, acclamations in, Jan. 
431 ; F. 279 : monolithic, N. 
348 : of stone, Jan. 169 : of 
wood, F. 326 : represented as 
a wife, F. 436-7 ; Ap. 109 ; 
S. 91 : supported by SS. Fran- 
cis and Dominic, O. 79 
Churches destroyed by edict of 

Diocletian, O. 566, 601 
Churching of women, F. 36 
Ciborium, Jan. 26 ; N. 400 
Cicero, study ui, S. 453-4 
Cinderella myth, My. 10 
Circumcelliones, Au. 370 
Circumcision and baptism, Jan. 

1-2 

Circumstantial evidence, Ju. 254 

Citations before God's- throne, 
Mch. 501 

Cities submerged, O. 618 

Clairvaux founded, Au. 198-9 

Clares, Poor, Mch. 182, 184 ; 
Au. 123 

Classic studies, evil of, S. 453 ; 
N. 404 

Claves Confessionis S. Petri, My. 
184-5 ; N. 75- 5S1 

Clean saint, S. 255 

Cleanliness, revelations concern- 
ing, O. 185 

Clementine Recognitions, O. 154; 
N. 507 

Clergy, disorderly, N. 121 : fopp- 
ish, S. 457 ; D. 141 : immoral, 
^"- 333 ; D. 267 : luxurious, N. 
257 

Clerical celibacy, F. 344, 427, 
455 ; Ap. 123, 237, 312; My. 
281, 286, 355, 359-66; Ju. 62, 
389, 399; Au. II, 103-4 ; S. 
137-8, 170-I ; O. 351 ; N. 206, 



214, 360 ; D. 263, 265 : cox- 
comb described, D. 141 : im- 
munities, D. 349-55, 385 : inso- 
lence, Au. 104 : pride, N. 435 

Cloak used as boat, Jan. 358 ; Ap. 
32 : divided with a beggar, N. 
242, 261 : given to a beggar, 
N. 423 ; D. 337 : miraculously 
sent, N. 71 

Clockmaker saint, Ap. 120 

Clonfert founded, Mch. 333 ; My. 
222 ; Au. 38 

Clonmacnois founded, S. 134 

Clothair, descendants of, N. 72 : 
marriages of, Au. 13 1 -2: murders 
his nephews, S. 106 

Cloud miraculously dispersed, O. 
730-1 

Clovis, conversion of, F. 179-81 : 
descendants of, O. 157 

Clown, charity of a, My. 410 

Clown's cap and bells, Au. 270 

Club, brains dashed out with, Jan. 
305 ; My. 9 ; Au. 160, 1*75 ; 
S. 247 ; N. 586 : of Hercules, 
U. 8 : of the Devil, S. 163 

Coachman saint, F. 18 

Coals carried, Appdx. 175 : mira- 
culously kindled, N. 337 : saint 
laid on red-hot, Ju. 146 

Coat, an old, Ap. 113: of arms, 
Jly. 272 ; Au. 326 : of mail 
worn by saint, F. 356-7 ; Ju. 
362 ; N. 349, 587 : one between 
several scholars, Ap. 50 

Cock and hens, Jan. 248 

Cock and mouse wake a saint, O. 
709 

Code of K. Ina, F. 186 ; Jly. 169 

Coffin filled with food, S. 50 : used 
as a bed, N. 527 

Coinage, new, in England, F. 356 

Coincidences, Ap. 71 

Coins, hung round neck, Jan. 47 : 
of S. Eligius, D. 4 : Roman 
silver, Jly. 17 

Cold endured, O. 493 : steel, effect 
of, Au. 163 ; S. 400 

Coldingham, monastery founded, 
Au. 280-1 



«r- 



■** 




Collar of S. Alexander, Mch. 513, 

515 
Collect, F. 260 
Colobium, a linen tunic, Jan. 

340 
Cologne, crucifix at, S. 52-3: riots 
at, D. 43-5 : school at, Mch. 
127, 130: tomb of Albertus 
Magnus at, Mch. 127, 130 
Colonna family. My. 291 
Comb of S. Majolus, My. 156: 

symbol of, S. 3, 4 
Cumbe, a valley, N. 348 
Communion by angels. ^^^ Angels 
Communion, delight in, S. 403 : 
frequent, Jan. 374 ; F. 435 ; Ju. 
216; Jly. 346 ; Au. 87 : given by 
Christ, Jan. 197 ; Au. 403 : 
miraculous, Jan. 197, 348 ; Ju. 
152, 268; Au. 403; N. 323: 
in both kinds, Ju. 147 : of 
children, Au. 279 : of saints, 
doctrine of, N. 2-8: under one 
kind, O. 593 
Como, filling up of Lake, O. 697 
Compasses, Jan. 1 13 
Conception of B. V. M., Jly. 340 
Conclaves, law of, My. 295 
Concord between abbots, Jan. 12 
Concubinage at Goa, N. 615 
Condate founded, F. 452 ; Mch. 

372 
Conferences, religious. My. 391 
Confession, frequent, O. 218: 
general, Jly. 459 : in Celtic 
Church, Appdx. 76 : of women 
not to be heard in a room, Ap- 
10 : seal of, My. 229, 234-5 : 
thrice a day, D. 107 : to a 
layman, Jan. 343 
" Confession," a church, My. 246 
Confessions of S. Augustine, O. 

369 
Confessors, easy-going, Au. :?2 : 

indiscreet love of, O. 364-5, 

368 : sensil)le, Au. 322 
Confirmation administered on the 

road, O. 40 : by priests, N. 617 : 

neglected, S. i88 ; proper age 

for, N. 79 



Conflagration miraculously extin- 
guished. N. 153 

Conge d'elire, N. 397-S ; D. 344 

Consanguinity, bar of, Mch. 16 : 
in Ireland, N. 90 

Consecration by a single bishop, 
Jan. 189 : of bishop in dream, 
Jly. 607 : violent scenes at, Jan. 

Consistory, papal, bribery in, N. 

207 
Constantinople, pope sent to, My. 

396-7; Ju. 273 ; Au. 271: see 

of, claims equality with Rome, 

Ap. 156 ; Jly. 96 
Constitutions of Clarendon, D. 

354 
Constraint, injudicious, Ap. 266 : 

to Christ's service, F. 409 
Consubstantial, Mch. 314, 316, 

492 
Consumption, saint dies of, Jan, 

69, 173 ; Feb. 380 
Contemplation, long, impossible, 

Jan. 30 
Contest for bishopric, O. 21 
Continence, example of, Mch. 

124-5 '• of married bishops, Jan. 

182 
Conventuals and observants, O. 

589 
Conversion, gradual, Au. 349 : 

sudden, Jan. 55, 81 ; F. 106, 

195,371 ; Mch. 377; My. 381 ; 

Ju. 58, 262, 489, 490 ; Jly. 291, 

701 ; Au. 21, 252, 355-9; S. 

139 ; O. 74, 252 
Convicts, work among, Jly. 460 
Cook becomes a bishop, Au. 10 : 

honour paid to a, S. 244 : 

roasted. My. 230 : saint, Ap. 59; 

Au. 10: S. 240-5: tidiness in, 

Au. 10 
Cookery, good, Au. 342 
" Copronymus," nickname, O. 451 
Coracle, My. 219, 222 ; jly. 28, 

434 ; Au. 6 ; N. 162, 192 
Corbie, new, founded, Jan. 35 ; 

F. 60 : old, Jan. 34, 397 
Cords shaken off, O. 624 



-»< 



2>7^ 



Index of Subjects. 



Corea, missions to, N. 675 
Cork, see founded, ,S. 377 
Cornish l)ishopric, Appdx. 49 : 
saints, Jan. 44-6, 57 ; F. 273, 
448; Mch. 69, 214-15, 274, 
437-9; Ap. 71, 364; My. 239- 
42, 417; Ju. 35-7, 57; Jly. 
146-9, 697-8; O. 639, 657-9, 
717 ; N. 186-95, 314 ; D- 273 ; 
Appdx. 149-322. 
Corn-mill, king grinds a, Mch. 

214 
Coronation at Aix, Ju. 163 ; Jly. 
371 : at Rome, Ju. 66, 160; 

Jly- 375 
Coronet laid before crucifix, N. 

418 
Coroticus, letter to, Mch. 285, 301, 

437 
Corporal, miraculous recovery of, 

D. 17 
Corpse, carried by saint, Jly. 54-5 ; 
O. 598 : designates murderer, 
Jan, 417 . . 
Corpus Christi, festival instituted, 

Mch. 145 ; Ap. 78-87 
Council of Agde (506), D. 113 
Aix (782), Jan. 436 : (799), Ju. 

159 : (860), D. 201 
Albi (1 1 76), Mch. 74 
Alexandria (231), O. 687 : (320), 

F. 433 ; My. 30-3 : (362), F. 

280 ; My. 49 
Altino (S02), Jan. 436 
Antioch (252), N. 372 : (264), 

Jly. 93 ; O. 694 ; N. 377 : 

(269), O. 695-6 ; D. 300 : 

(270), N. 377: {331), Jly. 

401-2 : (341), My. 41 ; Jly. 

354-5: (361), F. 279; Ju. 

285: (379), F- 282; Mch. 321 
Aquileja (381), Jan. 273; D. 80 
Ariminium (359), Jan. 184 ; 

Mch. 317-1S; Ap. 48, 183; 

My. 48, 359 ; S. 356 
Aries (314), S. 232; D. 192: 

(451), 0.646; (454), 0.646; 

N. 570: (475). Au. 387; S. 

415-16 
Autun (1077), O. 143 



Council of Basle (1441), Jly. 32; 

0.594 
Bayonne (1300), D. 108 
Beaugency (1104), D. 254 
Berne (577-80, N. 385 
Bourges (11 13), N. 213 
Bourgos (10S9), My. 365 
Caerleon (529), Mch. 12. 
Capua (391), I). 408-9 
Carthage (222), O. 686-7 : (251), 
S. 220: (254), S. 221 : (255), 
Au. 17 ; O. 689-90: (256), 
Au. 17; S. 221, 223; O. 
690-91: (404), Au. 370: 
(410-11), Ap. 89, 90, 138; 
Au. 372 : (416), Ap. 139 : 
(417), D. 302: (418), Ap. 
140 ; D. 303 
Chalcedon (451), F. 300-2, 337, 
368 ; Mch. 232 ; Ap. 102-5, 
152-8 ; Jly. 96, 99, 102-5 ; S. 
156, 258; O. 614; D. 57-S 
Cirta (412), F. 259 
Clermont (1095), Mch. 451 : 

(1130), Ju. 65 
Cloveshoe (742), S. 31 1 
Cologne (346), My. 183, 334 
Constance (1414-18), O. 593 
Constantinople (360), Jan. 185 ; 
Mch. 318: (381), Jan. 126; 
F. 282-3 ; Mch. 174, 321 ; 
O. 510: (389), My. 134: 
(394), Jly- 354; N. 510: 
(448), the Latrocinium, F. 
333-7: (450), Ap. 24: (553), 
O. 613; N. 498: (680- 1), Jan. 
137-8; F. 343; My. 175; 
Ju. 41 M4: (746), F. 94-5: 
(754), F. 419; N. 584: (815), 
Ap. 45 : the dedication (394), 
Jly. 384; N. 510 
Epaone (517), Mch. i6 ; O. 

119 
Ephesus (431), Jan. 307, 425- 
432;F. 335; Au. 27; S. 152 : 
(444^ S. 152, 157: (447), S. 
152: (449), F. 335-7; Ap. 
148; S. 155-7 
Frankfort (794), Jan. 436; F, 
423 ; My. 273 ; Ju. 164 



n- 



Index of Subjects. 



379 



Council of Fritzlar {lll8), Ju- 59 
Friuli (791 or 796), Jan. 436 
Holmpatrick (1148), N. 94 
Iconium (232), S. 220; O. 688 
Jiinque (524), Jan. 18 
Lateran (313), S. 232: (649), 
N. 295: (1076), My. 369-70: 
(1099), Ap. 292-3 : (1 179). 
N. 332: (1116), D. 280: 
(1215), O. 92-3; U. 293 
Leptines (742), O. 354 
Liege {710), N. 79: (726), N. 

79 
Llanddewi Brefi (519-69), Mch. 

11-13; N. 194, 327-S; D. 

128 
London (1076), My. 365 :( 1 137). 

N. 359-60 
Lyons (517), O. 119: {1245), 

O. 32,34: (1275), Mch. 152 ; 

Jly. 345; Au. 124, 252; O. 

35 

Macon (585), F. 405 ; O. 159 ; 
D. 425 : (624), Mch. 500 

Maghlene (630), Ap. 225 

Mainz (1049), Ap. 239-40: 
(1069), F. 391 

Mantua (1053), Ap. 242-3 

Marly (678), O. 28-9 

Metz (863), D. 202 

Milan (355), Jan. 183 ; My. 
45-6 ; Au. 388-9 ; S. 352 : 
(347), My. 43: (451), Ap. 
24: (1565), N. 118: (1569), 
N. 123: (1573), N. 127 

Nicrea (325), Jan. 264, 273 ; F. 
434; Mch. 208; My. 33-6; 
Jly- 354, 399-400; S. 1 70- 1, 
448-9 ; N. 50 ; D. 66-7 : 
(787), F. 420-3; Mch. 216, 
250; Ap. 70; Jly. 186; N. 

223-4 
Northampton (1176), Ap. 11 
Oak, the (403), Jan. 406-7, 421 
Orange (441), N. 345, 570: 

(529), Au. 378; N. 346 
Orleans (511), F. 87: (558), 

Mch. 16: (549), Mch. 259; 

D. 63 
Oxford (1222), D. 108 



Council of Paris (551), Mch. 259 ; 

D. 63 : (577), F. 403-5 ; N. 

384: (824), F. 423: (1072), 

My. 364: (1092), Ap. 123: 

(1 104), D. 255 
Poitiers (iioo), D. 250 
Rheims (625), N. 306 : (630), 

S. 91: (995), Ap. 311: (1049), 
Ap. 239-40: (1094), 1). 245: 
(II 19), Ju. 60: (1148), F. 
27 
Riez (433), N. 570 
Rimini. See Ariminium 
Rockingham (1095), Ap. 282-8 
Rome (341 ), J u. 69; (382), My. 
164; D. 80: (430), A p. 94: 
(503), Palmary, Jly. 451-2: 
(680), F. 242-3: (721), N. 
395 : (732), N. 579-80: (799), 

Jly- 157 

Saragossa (380), Ap. 146; D. 

271 
Sardica (347), Ap. 176; My. 

42-3, 183; S. 172 
Seleucia (359), F. 279 ; Mch. 

317 
Sens (601), N. 493: (1140), 

Au. 208-10: (1247), D. 108 
Seville (590), F. 447: (619), 

Ap. 66 
Sidon (390), D. 58 
Sinuessa (apocryphal), Ap. 345, 

348-9; Ju. 160; Jly. 452; 

D. 416 
Sirmium (351), Mch. 492; S. 

355 
Sutri (1046), M. 352 

Taragona {1235), Jan. 358 

Toledo (589), F. 447 ; Ap. 64 : 

(633),Ap. 66; D. 115: {654), 

D. 218: (656), Mch. 451 
Trent (1545-63), Mch. 148 
Troyes (1104), D. 254 
Trullo, in (680), Mch. 451 ; S. 

137 ; D. 313 
Tyre(335), My. 38-9; S. 171-2: 

(3S8), My. 38-40 
Vaison (444), Jly. 687 
Vcrcelli (1050), Ap. 240-1 
Verulam (430), Jly. 683 



->1 



*- 



->^ 



80 



Index of Subjects. 



Council of Vezelai (1 146), Mch. 
211 

Vienne (1112), N. 212-13 
Whitby (664), Jan. 94 ; Mch. 

24 ; O. 299-300 ; N. 393 
Worms (1076), My. 368-9; Ju. 
224 ; All. 104 

Councils, absurd scene in, My. 
370: violent scenes in, Mch. 
317 ; Ap. 45 

Coverlet given to sick, Jan. 376 

Cow, image of, touched by pil- 
grims, F. 51 : injured, F. 7 : 
martyr gored by, Mch. 112: of 
hermit, Jan. 364 ; N. 191 : re- 
stored to life, Mch. 332, 438 : 
suckles a wolf, Jan. 364 

Cowardice, charge of, N. 244: in 
monk, O. 216 

Cowardly saint, D. 213 

Cowherd saints, Jan. 146 ; F. 273, 
448; N._I7 

Cowl, luminous, S. 107 

Cows stolen, F. 19, 199 

Cracow taken, Ju. 405 

Cradle, betrothed children laid in 
same, N. 416-17 : of S-. Herve, 
Ju. 245 : silver, N. 416 

Crane attacks eyes, N. 203-4. See 
Eyes 

Craving in pregnant women, Mch. 
70 

Creed, Apostles', Ap. 367 ; Jly. 
348-9 : Baptismal, My. 140 

Crib, Christmas, O. 108-9 ! D. 
276 

Crocodile killed by saint, D. 436 

Cross, apparition of, Mch. 314 ; 
My. 316; Au. 180-1 : borne in 
procession, F. 439, 440 : child 
led before, Jly. 171 : emblem 
of, F. 278 : falls from heaven, 
Jly. 119 : hung round neck, Jan. 
47 : invention of. My. 56-63 : 
miraculous impression of, Mch. 
460 : of fire, N. 352 : of S. 
Andrew, N. 598 : same as the 
Little Horse, F. 276, 278 : sign 
of, Jan. 44, 163, 286, 314 ; F. 
278, 368, 431 ; S. 100, 236-9, 



270 ; O. 175 : the true, F. 360, 
436; My. 56, 63-4; Au. 133, 
170; S. 236 

Cross-roads, superstitions about, 
D. 7 

Crowbar, martyrdom by, Ap. 200 

Crowberry wine, N. 415 

Crown, Edgar forbidden to wear, 
My. 2S6 : obtained by prayer, 
Ju. 412 : of gold given to a 
church, Jan. 123 : of thorns pre- 
ferred to gold, Ap. 379: of 
thorns, Au. 403 : symbol of, 
Aug. 327, 404 

Crucifix, bleeds, N. 224 : Host put 
into, S. 52-3 : miraculously re- 
stored, N. 630-1 : moves arm, 
N. 459, 554: moves head, Jly. 
291 : of S. Rosalia, S. 54 : 
olive-leafed, O. 151 : on stag's 
head, S. 319: sends message, 
S. 52 : speaks, S. 52 ; O. 75 : 
the Book of .Saints, Jly. 340 

Crucifixion, martyrdom by, Jan. 
41, 277, 470; F. 147-8, 329, 
394. 432 ; Ap. 112; My. 55, 
332 ; Ju. 3, 409 ; N. 107, 597 : 
supposed day of, Mch. 454 

Cruelty of Spaniards, O. 219 

Crusade against Albigenses, Au. 
48, 52, 186 ; .S. 60-1 1 D. 292-4 : 
against Christians, O. 582, 594 : 
against Moors, My. 422 : of 
Frederick II., N. 435-7 : of 
S. Louis, Au. 291-302, 307-10; 
O. 99 : preached, Aug. 21 1 -12 ; 
N. 352 : second, Au. 21 1 -13 

Crusaders, Au. 213, 219 

Crusading Club, S. 60 

Crushing, martyrdom by, Mch. 
491 ; Ap. 199 ; Ju. 19 

Crypts at Hexham and Ripon, O. 

304 
Culdees, Jan. 191 
Cunedda, family of, Appdx. 23 
Curates wear rectors' cast-off 

clothes, O. 36 
Cures, miraculous, only tempo 

rary, O. 591-2 
Curia, charges of, Au. 89-90 



-* 



p ^- 



Index of Subjects, 



381 



Curse of saint, O. 7U ", xi. 591 ; 

Appdx. 36-7, 173-8 
Cursing well, Appdx. 170 
Custody of the eyes, D. 56-7 



D 

"Dadsisas," a death-wake, F. 

365 
Dagrinnis founded, Jan. 19 
Dcilmatia united to Hungary, Ju. 

404 
Dalmatic assists parturition, O. 83 
Dalmatics allowed to deacons, Au. 

344 : green, N. 83 
Damietta, siege of, O. 99-100 
Dancing forbidden, N. 553-4: reli- 
gious, Au. 7, 260 ; N. 177-8; D. 

312 : saints, S. 297 
Danegeld Tax, O. 342 
Danes die of dysentery, N. 592 : 

ravages of, F. 56-8; Mch. 18, 

59, 94-5 ; Ap. 230 
Darkness, spiritual, N. 532 
" Darling's Mug," S. 420 
David's, St., founded, Mch. 11; 

N. 154 

Deaconesses, S. 34, 114; O. 
173-5 ; N. 226 : saints, S. 34 

Deacons, aged fifteen, D. 262 : 
saints, Jan. 312-15, 331-4; ^^• 
7-12, 46, 305 ; Mch. 515; Ap. 
272; Ju. 361 ; Jly. 127, 286, 
500; Au. 98, 109-10, 160-1 ; 
S. 251-2, 261, 361 ; O. 127-30, 
135, 476-7, 725 ; N. 230-2, 
335, 412 ; D. 296-9, 405 : seven 
to be with a bishop, O. 643 : 
the Seven, Jan. 133, 346; Ap. 

130; Ju- 55; D. 323 
Dead called on to speak, D. iSi : 
mass for, Au. 363 ; D. 100 : 
prayer for, Jan. 79 : restored to 
life, Jan. 109 ; F. 284, 307, 352 ; 
Mch. 71, 398; Ap. 374; My. 
hi; Ju. 5, 475; S. 36, 189, 
260, 261, 264 ; O. 67, 305, 
619; N. 240, 246, 315; D. 67 



Death foretold, N. 94 : in prayer, 
Jan. 57; S. 35, 44, u?. 146, 
185 : preservative against, O. 
711 : wake, F. 365 
Deceased brother's wife, marriage 
with, Jly. 189-90 : wife's sister, 
marriage with, O. 1 19 
Decretals, false, N. 321 
Dedication, Celtic, Appdx. 67 
Deer indicate site of monastery, 
O. 138-9 : trace boundaries of, 

O. 439 
"Defender of Church," title of, 

Jan. 157 
Deformed saints, F. 109 ; Mch. 

369 ; Au. 6 
Deformity in answer to prayer, 

F. 116 
Deira, kingdom of, O. 230, 234 
Delay in answering death-call, F. 

307 
Demon, curious vision of, Ju. 

253 , i 

Dempster, errors of, S. 35 
Denain founded, Jly. 31 
Denmark, conversion of, F. 60- 1, 

70-1 ; N. 28-30, 32, 39 
Denys (St.) built, Jan. 49 
Deo Gratias, My. 259 
Deorham, battle of, Appdx. 20, 

180 
Depression, spiritual, N. 532 
Derceto, symbol of, Jly. 486, 625 ; 

S. 258 
Derry founded, Ju. 92 
Derwentwater, hermit on, Mch. 

356 
Desertion of abbey by abbot, Jan. 

95 ; Ap. 1 23 ; Ju. 238 : of see 

by bishop, F. 40; My. 118, 

185 ; Ju. 57, 259 ; Jly. 279 ; 

S. 126, 243; O. 434, 573, 709; 

N. 232, 313, 338: of wife. My. 

409 ; S. 46 
Deserts of Egypt, Jan. 29 : of 

Gaul, Jly. 14 : monasteries in, 

Jan. 224-5 
Despair, temptation to, Jan. 444 : 

F. 200 : warning against, Jan. 

433 



*- 



382 



Index of Subjects. 



Deulz, monastery founded, Mch. 
281 

Devil, assaults of, Jan. 253-4 ; 
O. 509 ; N. 249-50 : at table. 
My. 144 : beats a saint, S. 
163 : carries a saint, Ju. 352 : 
deuiands adoration, N. 251 : 
invades the bowels, N. 250 : 
invited into a saint, F. 191 : 
sits on a collect, O. 371 

Devils carry off a king, Jly. 206 : 
caught by the nose. My. 288 : 
dispersed jjy holy water, O. 
373 : drown a buy, Ju. 474-5 : 
expelled, O. 425, 515, 707 : 
hideous, Ju. 475, 481 : jerk a 
saint into fire, O. 419 : pull 
chair from under saint, O. 466 : 
red-hot, N 237 : silenced by 
mockery, Jan. 211 

Dexter, forged Chronicle of, F. 
9, 45; Ap. 181, 250, Tpo, 325, 
359; My. 238; Ju. 304, 367, 

464 ; Jly. 183 

Diamonds fall from mouth, My. 

104 
Diana, statue washed. My.- 247 
Dice burnt, O. 591 
Die, S., founded, Ju. 260 
Diet of Worms, D. 38 
Dinner borne by angels, O. 710 
Dionysian mysteries, O. 196 : 

writings, O. 190-4 
Dionysus Zagreus, O. 197 
Dioscorus of Alexandria, Ap. 149 
Diptychs, Jan. 420; N. 4S7 
Dirceto, Jly. 4S6 ; S. 258 
Director in nunnery, Ju. 39 : un- 
suitable, My. 103 
Dirty saints, Ju. 339, 417; Jly. 
590; Au. 190; O. 510, 560; 
N. 584 ; D. 400 
Discalced Carmellites, N. 528-38. 
Disciples of Christ, Ju. 77; Jly. 
282 ; S. 376 ; N. 20, 64, 66, 
226 : of S. Paul, Jan. 53, 359 ; 
F. 449 ; Ap. 121 ; Ju. 386 ; Au. 

Discipline, employed, O. 216 ; N. 
14.4, 558-60 : given to ladies. 



N. 435, 446-7, 454 : relaxed, 

O. 352 : strictness of, O. 216-7 ; 

N. 205, 214 
Discord seen as filth, F. 398 
Discouragement, Au. 341 
Disembowelment, Mch. 495 ; Ju. 

20 
Disentis founded, Jly. 281 
Disfigurement of saint, F. 363 
Disguised female saints, A|). 254 ; 

O. 200 
Disgusting acts of penance, Jly. 

702 ; S. 255 ; O. 459 ; Appdx. 

66 
Dishonesty in saint, F, 12, 16 
Dismemberment, Jan. 162 ; F. 

411; Mch. 504; Jly. 260; S. 

115. 24!^. 339. 439; O. 118 ; 

N. 152 
Dispensations, sale of, Ap. 51 ; 

Jly. 526 ; N. 365 
Distaff, Ju. 218 
Diuma, Bishop, Appdx. 43 
Divorces granted by Pope, F. ill 
Doctor illuminatus, Ju. 500 
Doe, hermit nourished by, Ju. 

337 > S. 9 : measures bounds, 

O. 439 

Au. 



12 



J ) 



Dog, Y. 44, 371 ; Jly. 

42, 157 ; N. 463-4 
Dog-headed saint, Jly. 554 
Dogs, martyr cast to, N. 15 
Dolphin, Jan. 90 ; S. 385 
Domestic life, its sanctity, Jan. 

223 : love, F. 14 
" Domine quo vadis," Jly. 37 
Dominican Order, Mch. 122, 125; 

Au. 46-58 : in Scotland, Appdx. 

'97. 
Domitian, saint related to, My. 106 
Donations, forged, F. 326 ; D. 

414 
Donatists, F. 259 ; Mch. 238 ; 

Ap. 90-4 ; Ju. 34 ; Au. 366 ; .S. 

231-2; O. 54 
Dorchester, see founded, Jly. 169 ; 

D. 19 
Double (second-self), Jan. 342 ; 

Ju. 185; O. 215 : monastery, F. 

18, 272, 338, 382; 415, 428; 



•f<- 



Index of Stibjects. 



3^3 



Mch. 175; Ap. 165 ; My. no; 

Au. 281 ; S. 339; O. 445; N. 

70, 71, 156 ; D. 113; Appdx. 

1078 

Dove decides site of monastery, 

O. 432 : indicates tomb, N. 307: 

oil brought by, O. 9 : rests 

on head, Jan. 299 ; F. 13 ; Mch. 

127, 238 ; My. 76 ; Ju. 90, 604 : 

soul appears as, O. 727 : symbol 

of, O. 414, 537, 556 : vision 

of, Mch. 237; S. 181-2; O. 373, 

569, 58 1 : whispers in the ear, 

F. 13 : wine brought by, O. 633 

Dover, riot at, O. 335 

Dragging to death, N. 568 

Dragon, F. 191 ; Mch. 226 ; Ap. 

373; Ju. 35; Jly-4«7. 624; S. 

95; O. 25, 26, 258, 417, 436, 

516,632,633; N.25, 162,600; 

Appdx. 182 

Dreams, Jan. 166 ; F. 8, 435 ; Ju. 

34, 90; O. 216, 569, 571 
Dress, gay, S. 269; N. 209-10; 

D. 4-5 

Dropsy, My. 425 ; D. 102 

Drowning, half, F. 122; martyr- 
dom by, Jan. 44, 1S2 ; F. 411, 
412 ; Mch. 8, 57, 468; Ap. 14, 
38, 61. 176; My. 247; Jly. 
127, 162, 166, 168; N. 508: 
recovery from, 5, 36 ; N. 165 : 
rescue from, Jan. 235 ; Appdx. 
169, 177 

"Druidical" monuments, Mch. 
224, 298 

Drunkenness in monastery, Jly. 
606 

Dryness, spiritual, F. 204; Mch. 
88 

Dublin, suffragans of, N. 333 : 
under Canterbury, Ap. 107 ; 
Appdx. 61 

Ducks, marvellous, O. 670 

Duel prevented. My. 259; Jly. 

542 
Dull child, F. 99 
Dumb ox, Mch. 128 
Dumbness healed, Ju. 23S, 251 ; 

Jly. 134, 261 ; N. 253 



Dung-heap, saint hung over, Jly. 

137 
Dunwich, Bishopric, Mch. 163 
Duplicity in saint, Jan. 473 
Durrow founded, Ju. 92 
Dysentery, N. 592 



E 



Eagle guides a saint, O. 212: 

indicates site, Jly. 12 : protects 

from sun or rain, F. 139, 242 ; 

My. 184; Ju. 80: symbol, D. 

310 
Eagle's nest, babe in, S. 140 
Ears and nose cut off, O. 321 : of 

wheat, three, F. 415 
Earth dissolves into lilood, S. 52 : 

jerks a boy into heaven, O. 615 : 

opens and swallows persecutor, 

Appdx. 173 : turned into bread, 

S. 181 
Earthen bowl, Jan. 308 
Earthquake, O. 517, 615, 689 
East Saxons, Jan. 91 ; Appdx. 14 
Easter, difference about. See 

Paschal controversy 
Eccelin da Romano, Ju. 185-6 
Echternach, dancing procession 

at, N. 177 
Ecthesis of Heraclius, N. 294-6 
Edict torn down, S. 97 
Edmund the Magnificent, My. 254 
Education of boys, Appdx. 266 
Eggs received as fees, S. 97 
Eichstiidt founded, Jly. 180 
Einsiedeln, pilgrimage to. My, 104 
Eirenarchs, N. 87 
Election contested. My. 120, 291 ; 

Ju. 3S3; Jly. 449; S- 137; O. 

636-8 : ol Bishops, Jan. 299 ; 

F. 12, 363, 370; Ap. 313; 

My. 108, 109; Ju. 156, 311 ; 

Au. 316 ; O. 2, 606 ; N. 24, 76, 

246, 306 
Elephants, O. 666 
Elevation in rajiture, Mch. 142 ; 

S. 297 



-*4 



384 



Index of Siibjects, 



Eleven thousand virgins, Jly. 

i9.v7 
Elfreda, story of, Jly. 200 
Elgiva, story of. My. 283 ; Jly. 

114 
Elias of Cortona, Ju. 187 ; Jly. 

336 

Elmet, kingdom of, Appdx. 22 
Elmo's lights, Jan. 376, 462 ; 

Ap. 207 ; Ju. 21 
Elopement from convent, F. 23, 

43 
Eloquence, F. 11 : useless without 

unction, Ju. 226 
Elves, world of, N. 571 
Ely, chapel of S. Zita at, Ap. 

356 : founded, O. 444 
Ember season, O. 351 
Emperor forbidden admission to 

church, Jan. 361 ; D. 97 
Empress martyr, N. 541 : saint, 

Mch. 52-4 ; Au. 164-74 
Endura, Mch. 80 
Enfants trouves, Jly. 473 
England, conversion of, O. 477 
Envy among hermits, Ju. 338 
Ephesian Church, O. 64 
Epilepsy, saint invoked for, Ju. 

334 
Episcopus Episcoporum, O. 691 
Epistles of S. Paul, Ju. 408 
Equivocation, F. 370 
Ermine mantle, O. 186 
Eruption on face, My. 321 
Etchmiadzin founded, S. 447 
Etna, My. 163 ; Jly. 172 
Eucharist, called Never -failing 

Food, F. 398; carried, Mch. 

6 ; S. 410 ; sent to encourage 

war, N. 522 ; vision of, O. 570 
Eucharistic sacrifice, F. 82 
Eudoxia, Jan. 163, 408 
Eulogise, Jan. 49 ; F. 5 ; Ap. 4 ; 

O. 279 ; N. 473 
Eunuch saint, J. 166 ; Ju. 55 
Eusebians, My. 70 ; Ju. 336 
Eusebius, Feci. Hist, of, N. 488 
Eutychianism, Jan. 154, 309 ; F. 

243, 300-2, 332-7, 451 ; Mch. 

63-4; Ap. 150; Ju. 273; S. 



152, 157, 190, 322; N. 488; 

D. 56-8 
Evangelical demonstration of 

Eusebius, N. 48 
Everlasting gospel, Mch. 138; Jly. 

331. 338 
Evil speaking, Jly. 8 
Excommunication, ceremony of, 

Ju. 245 : of emperor, My. 370, 

377, 380, 406 ; Ju. 264 ; Jly. 

55, 375 ; N. 431,437, 488; D. 

96 : of king, My. 112 : of monk, 

Jan. 155 ; of Pope, N. 488 : pen 

dipped in chalice to write, N. 

293 : saints under, Jly. 48, 49, 

82 : unseemly, O. 43-5 
Exercise, against evil thoughts, 

Au. 349 
Exposition of children, N. 312 
Eye, loss of, F. 16 : plucked out, 

Mch. 50; .S. 170, 392 ; O. 181 
Eyelids pierced, Jan. 416 
Eyes cursed by saint, O. 731 : 

government of, N. 109 ; D. 56 ; 
. healed, N. 236, 2S8 : opened, 

N. 303: sore, N. 109; D. 107 : 

transfixed, O. 181 



Face shines, N. 535 (see Illumi- 
nation) : stained, Jan. 147 
P'acts alleged, S. 278 
Faith, self-devotion for, Jan. 425 
Falcon in hunting, Mch. 502 
False accusations, .S. 167, 194, 
264, 338; N. 313 : decretals, 
N. 321 
Famine, relieved, Jan. 23 ; F. 1 1 ; 

Mch. 40 
Fanaticism and immorality, Ju. 62 
Faremoutier founded, S. 91 
Fame, hermits in, Mch. 344, 354, 

441 ; My. 96, 327; Ju. 339 
Fasting communion, Jan. 407 ; Ap. 
4 : excessive, rebuked, F. 324 ; 
Mch. 373 : extraordinary, F. 
22, 324; Ap. 228, 303, 373, 



* 



Index of Stibjects. 



385 



426; S. 254, 295; N. 123; 
Appdx. 178 : on Sundays in 
Lent, N. 215 : true purpose of, 
Au. 331 

Faust and Marguerite, S. 388 

Fear of death, F. 9 ; S. 102 ; D. 
72 

Feather trimmings, O. 183 

Fees, exaction of, F. 332 

Feet, hung up by, D. 7 : sink into 
stone, F. 354 ; O. 649 : trans- 
fixed, O. 155 ; N. 228 

Felicissimus, case of, S. 205, 214, 
217 

Female society, S. Dominic's lik- 
ing for, Au. 43 

Females disguised as monks, 
Ap. 250 ; O. 200 

Fens of Cambridgeshire, Ap. 166 

Ferry-boat, Jan. 33 

Feudal tenures. My. 119, 229 ; S. 
26 

Fever cured, Ju. 199; Jly. 133: 
patron against. My. 106; .S. 
326 ; N. 163 : transfer of, F. 
102 

Fig-tree, F. 263; My. 186 

Figurehead, Jly. 649 

P'ilioque, Ju. 165 

Finchale, My. 330 

Finger of the Baptist, Ju. 359-60 : 
of S. Helena, Jly. 699 

Fire carried in the lap, Mch. 
164; My. 17; Ju. 337; N. 
192, 337 ; Appdx. 175 : column 
of, N. 302 : devil throws saint 
into, O. 417 : falls from heaven, 
Ju. 342 : martyrdom by, Jan. 
381 ; F. 7, 232, 316, 330, 348, 
411, 412, 444 ; Mch. io8, 207, 
222,468; Ap. 13,37; Ju. 411; 
Jly. 205, 207, 210, 278; S. 89, 
100, 185, 249, 273 ; O. 321, 
322, 569; N. 211,218, 335-45^. 
519: miraculous escape from, 
F. loi : miraculously lighted, 
Jan. 188 : power over. A]). 
28: predicted, N. 214 ; sacred, 
Mch. 71 ; saint invoked against, 
O. 561 : used against tempta- 



tion, Jan. 434 ; F. 23, 290 ; Ap. 
206 ; Ju. 364 : vision of, F. 

384 

Fireworks, O. 213 

Fish and book, Jan. 368 : and key, 
Jan. 161 ; Ju. 224 ; S. 188 ; O. 
434: and ring, Jan. 192; Ju. 
438 ; S. 7 : bone of, removed, 
O. 463 : carries a saint, S. 358, 
385: sent on Friday, S. 123: 
swallowed, O. 340 : tails. My. 

390 
Fisherman saint, F. 191 ; Ju. 

419 
Fishes created, Ap. 60 : sermon 

to, Ju. 188 
Flame, perpetual, F. 21 : saint 

rolls in, Ap. 206 ; vision of, F. 

355 
Flaying alive, Au. 257 ; N. 169 

Flea, Jly. il 

Flesh, subdual of, Jan. 31 

Fleur-de-lys, Ap. 352 

Flies cursed, Jly. 291 : torment 

saint, Mch. 511 
Flirtations, O. 360 
Floods, F. 119 
Fly, Ju. 249 : carries off Host, D. 

46 
Flowers for altar, Ju. 244 ; S. 182 : 

of Paradise, N. 229, 503 
Fontanelle founded, Jly. 517 
Fontenay founded, Ju. 132 
Fool's cap assumed by a saint, O. 

583 

P^oolprints in rocks, F. 354 ; My. 
385; Ju. 56, 75, 431 ; Jly. 37; 
S. 40 

Forest life of hermits, Jan. 325 ; 
Jly. 13, 14, 124, 490; N- 491 

Forests of (Jaul, Jly. 13 : of Ger- 
many, Jly. 359: of Pomerania, 

Jly- 59 

Forged decretals, N. 321 : docu- 
ments appealed to. My. 26 
Forgery of Acts. See Acts 
Forgiveness asked of the dead, 
N. 156 : of trespasses, Jan. 

352 
Ff)rk marks boundaries, O. 640 



->* 



386 



Index of Stibjeds. 



Formulary of cursing, Appdx. Ii8: 
of election, P'. 102 

Forty days' fast, Jan. 74 ; S. 254 : 
hours' exposition. Jan. 454 : mar- 
tyrs, Mch. 204 

Fossils, D. 21 

Foulques of Marseilles, Au. 47 

Foundlings, Jly. 473 

Fountain flows with oil, S. 378 : 
miraculously elicited, Mch. 47 ; 
Jly- 36, 37 ; S. 192, 260, 264, 
274; O. 179, 209, 418, 486, 
487; N. 66, 68, 70, 139, 15^, 
177. 179. 50S; Appdx. 174: 
sacred, D. 7 

Four Articles of Utraquists, O. 
592 

Fours, saint crawls on all-, F. 256 

Fowl follows saint, O. 617 

F"ox, Jan. 249 : choked by a 
duck, O. 670 

Frati Umiliati, N. 121 

Fraticelli, Jly. 339, 704 ; O. 589 

P'rauds, pious, F. 12,40; Mch. 
257 ; Ju. 298 ; O. 5, 12, 122 

Freedom, marvellous, Mch. 20 

F"ree-will, My. 268 ; Ju. 354 ; S. 

415 

Friday, Good, Mch. 451 ; O. 589: 

head-washing on, F. 359 
Friendships, Ap. 268; Ju. 354; 

Appdx. 162 
Fringe of hair, D. 61 
F'rivolity, Jan. 462 
Frogs, Jan. 369 ; Mch. 505 ; Ju. 

224, 246 
Frost, Jan. I15 : martyrs exposed 

to, Mch. 204 ; N. 228 
Frost-bites, My. 190; Jly. 52 
Furnace, Au. 18, 1 16 ; N. 218 
Fiissen founded, S. 95 
Future slate denied, O. 669 



Gadfly killed, Au. 32 
Galley-slaves, Jly. 461, 474 
Gallician Church, independence 
of, Ap. 144 



Gallows, destroyed, S. 424 : man 

cut down from, F. 184; Mch. 

363 : sight of, brutalises, S. 424; 

N. 550 
Gardener saint, Jan. 34 ; F. 263, 

374 ; S. 327 
"Garlic king," My. 380 
Garment sent from heaven, D. 27, 

116 
Geese follow saint, O. 229 
Generosity, Ju. So 
Gentleness, Jan. 288 ; F. 10, 198, 

205; Mch. 374 ; O. 341, 560 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, unreliabi- 
lity of, Jan. 7 
George of Alexandria, Ap. 306 ; 

My. 319 
Geraint of Cornwall, My. 350 ; 

Appdx. 260 
German bishops, generally bad, 

Ju. 63; S. 30, 283, 286, 288: 

jealousy of, Mch. 178, 180: 

their pomp, .S. 30 
Gheel, My. 210 
Ghosts, Jan. 152, 211 ; Mch. 151, 

194; S. 241,270 
Gifts offered to God, Jly. 5 
Gildas, Ju. 295 ; Appdx. 80 
Girdle determines a site, O. 711 : 

of continence, Mch. 125 : of 

saint, Mch. 125, 328 
Girl, young, martyr, O. 227 
Gladiatorial fights abolished, Jan. 

S : shows, Au. 145 ; O. 166 
Glass, Jan. 442: goblets, Jan. i. 

24, 25 : windows, Jly. 271 ; N. 

414 
Glastonbury founded, Jan. 5 
Gloria in Excelsis, O. 638 
Glove, symbol of, V. 51 
Gluttony, F. 379 ; Mch. 70, 516 ; 

Au. 342 ; D. 107 
Gnats, Jan. 31 : save Nisibis, Jly. 

354. 
Gnostics, Jan. 140 ; Ju. 408 
Goat and saint, N. 193 ; bleats 
after being eaten, Mch. 295 : 
venerated by Lombards, Mch. 

25 
Golden balls, D. 65 : Horde, N. 



-n 



512 : mouth, Jan. 403 : speaker, 

D. II 
Goldsmith, Jan. 106 : saint, Jan. 

95 ; Mch. 95, 343 
Good Friday, Mch. 451 ; O. 589, 

601 
Good works like gold chains,0.282 
Goose, Jan. 60, 62, 291 ; F. 181 ; 

Mch. 50, 396; Jly. 264; All. 

390: smell of roast, Jan. 291 ; 

Mch. 396 
Gospel liberty, S. 176 : of S. 

Peter, O. 718 : of the Hebrews, 

Jly- 511 

Gospels enthroned, Jan. 427 : sold 

for redemption of captives, Ju. 

236 : superstitious use of, D. 7 : 

volume of, Au. 116, 118, 222 
Goths, ravages of, D. 77 
Gouty saints, F. 442 ; Mch. 230 ; 

Au. 113; D. 48 
Gower, Au. 6 
Grail, the Holy, S. 147 
Granaries, subterranean, Jan. 365 
Grand Chartreuse founded, Jan. 9 
Granson, battle of, Mch. 42S 
Grapes, Jan. 29 

Grass sod, saint floats on, N. 27 
Grate, roasting on, F. 412 ; Mch. 

222; My. 418; Ju. 211; Au. 

no; S. 179; O. 133 
Gratzacham, Mch. 301 
Gravel, saint invoked against, My. 

187; Jly. 521 
Greediness in monk, Mch. 51A 
Greek language in Sicily, S. 54 
Green path of saint, O. 281 
Gregorian music, Mch. 236 ; O. 

303, 501 
Gridiron. See Grate 
Grimsby, Au. 216 
Guelf .and Ghibelline, My. 291 ; 

S. 57-64 _ 
Guerin et Giry, Ap. 223, 227, 304, 

359 ; My. 94 ; Ju. 79, 203, 207, 

464; Jly. 306, 617; (). 500 
Guilemites, Order of, F. 255 
Guiscard, Robert, Ap. 244; My. 

379 
Gulls, Au. 6, 119 

VOL. XVI. 



H 

Habit of S. Francis, 8, 297 : 

worn from vow, F. 1 1 3 
Hadrian IV., My. 119 
Hadrianople, battle of, D. 77 
Hair, cut off, S. 250 : turns white, 

Jly. 352 : used for ropes, F. 238 
Halbert, F. 395 ; My. 203 
Hall, Bishop, My. 240 
Hall converted into church, F. 311 
Hallucination, N. 323, 342 
Hamburg made archiepiscopal 

see, F. 63 
Hammer beats in head, O. 641 
Hand adheres to wall, N. 163 : 

amputated, Jan. 45; F. 9 ; Ju. 

258 ; S. 341 : emits light, Jan. 

127; Mch. 160; S. 378; O, 

714; D. 221 : golden. My. 140: 

held over fire, N. 413 : shaken 

off, S. 141 : silver, Jan. 45 
Hands and feet cut off, Jan. 45 ; 

O. 118 
Hanging, martyrdom by, O. 720 : 

recovery after, Mch. 365 ; Jly. 

23; O. 711: to Odin, Mch. 

363 
Hare, Jan. 147 ; Ap. 269 
Harlots ordered to be whipped, 

N. 120: reclaimed, Jan. 136, 

156; F. 371 ; Mch. 2, 276; 

Ap. 19; Ju. 130; Jly. 526; 

Au. 59; O. 167-77; N. 235: 

tempt saint, Jly. 598 : wealth 

of, Mch. 5 
Harp, Jan. 343, 365 : Kolian, My. 

278 
Harpers, Mch. 71 
Harsh judgment censured, Jly. 426 
Hat of saint exhibited, O. 5S5 
Hatfield, battle of, O. 246, 477 
Ilatto myth, My, 143 
Hautmont founded, Jly. 322 
Hawks will not peck out hawks' 

'een, F. 404 
Hayle, old name of, Mch. 438 
Head carried, Mch. 19 ; Ju. 75 ; 

Jly. 140, 281 ; O, 197, 248, 259, 

2 R 



*- 



-^.i 



*- 



* 



388 



Index of Subjects, 



472 ; N. 109 ; Appdx. 252, 258 : 
cut off to preclude coronation, 
N. 564 : luminous, O. 473 : put 
on again, Mch. 246; N. 71, 
168 : speaks after decapitation, 
Jan. 45 ; O. 472 ; N. 465 

Headache, saint suffers from, 
Appdx. 74 

Heart, blazing, F. 447; Ju. 215 : 
cut, O. 411, 413 : disease of, N. 
159 : plunged in that of Christ, 
0.466 

Heathen deity, saint inherits sym- 
bols of, F. 416 : governors, 
forbearance of, F. 430 : perse- 
cution of, Au. 137 

Heaven, many ways to, Jly. 6 

Hedgehog, O. 464 

Helebore, N. 245 

Heligoland, Mch. 478 ; N. 173 

Helios invoked by S. Patrick, 
Mch. 291 

Hell not considered, Jly. 141 : of 
Theodoric, Jly. 179 : vision of, 
Ju. 467; Jly. 316, S34; O. 374 

Henoticon of Zeno, Jly. 100, 420, 

449 
Henry IV., Emperor, Ju. 264-6 ; 

Jly. 46-51, 55 
Henry of Bavaria, Mch. 264 
Heraclian, revolt of, Ap. 93 
Hercules, club of, D. 8 
Hereford founded. My. 309 
Heresy of Eon de I'Etoile, F. 27 
Heretical baptism, Au. 16, 75 ; O. 

688-92 ; bishops burnt, F. 294 
Heretics persecuted, Jan. 421, 

476-8; O. 588, 590, 598; N. 

236. See also Persecution 
Heriot, O. 35 

Hermit elected pope, My. 292 
Hermits in the East, their customs, 

Jan. 29, 154, 203, 223-6; F. 

250, 266; Mch. 64; Ap. 17; 

Jly. 522; O. 474; D. 54: in 

the West, F. 388, 453 ; Ju. 

258; Au. 81 : number in desert, 

Jan. 224 
Hernia, saint invoked against, O. 

284 



Heroism of Christians, My. 342 
Hersfeld founded, O. 435 
Hide, martyr wrapped in, O. 625 
Hildebrand, My. 357 
Hildesheim, treasure of, N. 469 
Hind, Jan. 288 
Hive, Ap. 68 

Holy water, efficacy of, O. 373 : 
well, Mch. 438 ; O. 179, 180, 

183 
"Homo," term of reproach 
" Homoousios," Jly. 355 
Honesty, example of, D. 3, 5 
Honey, Jan. 350; Mch. 225, 291, 
471 ; Jly. 606 : martyr smeared 
with, F. 359 ; Mch. 494 
Horn of S. Hubert, N. 82 
Horren founded, N. 108 
Horse, blue, O. 669 : exchanged 
for a girl, F. 98 : flayed. My. 
112 : issues from cloud, S. 181 : 
killed by touching a tomb, S. 
183 : miraculously obtained, S 
loi: of S. Columba, Ju. 125: 
saint thrown by, N. 237: tamed, 
O. 353 : winged, F. 288 
Horse-boy made bishop, F. 24 
Horse-hair shirts and sheets, N. 

349-52 
Horse-shoes nailed to feet, Mch. 

273 
Horse-stealing, S. 123-5 

Horse's leg taken off, D. 9 
Horses, saint torn by wild, S. 80 
Hospital founded, Jan. 123; Ju. 

388 
Hospitality, Jan. 231 ; S. 68 
Host, carried on the heart, Jan. 
453 ; Mch. 7 : infant seen in, 
F. 311 ; Au. 30: saint adores, 
Au. 126 : sent to King of Abys- 
sinia, O. 663 : symbol of, Ju. 

Hot spring, saint cast into, D. 17 
Household regulation, S. 404 
Howling saint, O. 489 
Huguenot barbarities, Mch. 495 ; 

My. 243, 312 : destruction, D. 2 
Human love overcome {see also 

Natural affection), F, 100; Mch. 



*- 



-* 



*.- 



-* 



Index of Subjects. 



389 



377 : sacrifices, Mch. 43, 363, 

364, 410; N. 10 
Humility, Jan. 18, 63, 78 ; My. 

132, 194, 324, 389 ; Ju. 38, 288 ; 

Jly. 507; S. 78, 81, 173: gro- 
tesque, S. 28 ; O. 459 
Hungary, F. 205 ; S. 20 : crown 

of, S. 23 
Huns, Jan. 48, 107 ; Mch. 91, 261 ; 

My. 132, 194, 324; Ju. 400, 

404 ; Jly. 118 ; S. 156 ; O. 540, 

542 
Hunting, bishop's love of, My. 

288: passion for, O. 340 ; patron 

saint of, N. 72 
Hurons, Jly. 740 
Husband and wife, mutual love, 

s. 113,389, 403 

Husbandman saint, F. 246, 344 ; 

Mch. 114; N. 413; Appdx. 

209. See Labourer 
HyKna, Jan. 33 
Hydrophobia, N. 177 
Hymns, F. 12, 303, 368 ; D. 89 
Hypsistarians, D. 117 
Hyssop at the coronation, Jly. 100 
Hysteria, S. 253 ; N. 242, 537 



I 



Ice, martyrs exposed on, Mch. 

205 
Iceland colonised by Irish, My. 

218 : conversion of, Jly. 664 
Icelandic Church, N. 413 : saints, 

Ap. 313, My. 413, N. 413, D. 

262 
Icicles used as fuel, Au. 184 
Iconoclasm, Jan. 175 ; My. 98 ; 

Jly. 194; Au. 107; O. 138: in 

West, Mch. 235 
Iconoclastic heresy, F. 92-6, 275, 

293, 386, 41S-23; Mch. 216, 

249; Ap. 39; My. 98, 177, 

201, 420; N. 109, 271-8, 579 
Idiot saint, N. 40 
Idleness, evil of, Jly. 8 
Idol broken by prayer, F. 440; 

Mch, 48 ; Ju. 337 : falls before 



saint, N. 51, 491 : in Flanders, 

Ap. 5: in Gaul, N. 26: in 

Sicily, Ap. 33: spat on by 

saint, Jan. 5 
Idolatry, folly of. My. 190 
Idols broken by martyrs, Jan. 5, 

120, 163, 246; Ju. 387, 470, 

481 ; Jly. 58, 98, 499 ; S. 4, 98, 

179 
Ignorance encouraged, Au. 124, 

197, 207 ; O. 217 
lUuminati, Jly. 720 
Illumination in ecstasy, Jan. 147 ; 

Ju. 122; Jly. S24; N. 535 
Image kicks oft its shoe, O. 13 1 : 

of B. V. M., My. 423 ; Ju. 365 ; 

Jly. 275 ; O. 126, 131 ; N. 351, 

587: of Christ, Mch. 251 ; Ap. 

34, 43 ; My. 99, 177, 420 ; Jly. 

194; Au. 107; O. 126, 131; 

N. 273 
Images, Mch. 243, 250; My. 98, 

99; Ju. 170, 374, 470; Jly. 

186, 194; Au. 152 : S. 52, 165 ; 

O. 75; N. 538, 582; D. 95: 

dressing up of, Au. 324 ; N. 

537 : reverence to, N. 580, 585, 

605 : saint objects to. My. 167: 

saint tramples on, Au. 232 : use 

of, F. 93, 416-8 ; Mch. 235 ; 

Ap. 20; My. 178, 179; 0.453; 

N. 622 
Immaculate Conception, F. 3 1, 73 ; 

D. 108 
Immorality and mysticism, Ju. 62 
Impalement, F. 134 ; Ju. 255 
Impediment in speech, Jan. 417 
Imperial placet, N. 297 
Impious songs of Arius, D. 66 
Impurity, spirit of, Jan. 252 ; Au. 

337 

Incantation, Christian worship re- 
garded as, F. 298 

Incarnation, F. 46 

Incendiarism, Jan. 164 

Incense, Jan. 428 ; Mch. 242 ; Ap. 
118 ; Ju. 152 

Incontinence, clerical, Ap. 55 ; 
My. 223, 265 

Indecent pictures in churches, N. 



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*- 



-* 



390 



Index of Stibjects. 



123 : talk reproved, Ap. 5 ; My. 

310; O. 37; D. 61 
Independence of bishops, O. 691 ; 

of see of Rome, Ju. 415 
India, missions to, N. 610 ; D. 

228 
Indian cabin, Jly. 738 
Indians, N. American, Jly. 733-88 
Indulgences, Ju. 58, 142, 255; 

Jly. 34, 129, 309, 321, 406; 

N. 430 
Infant offered to monastery, My. 

263 : prodigy, D. 64 
Influenza cured, N. 492 
Ingratitude, N. 441 
Ingulfs Hist, of Croyland, Au. 19 
Innkeeper saint, My. 246 
Innocents, lieads of Holy, O. 563 
Inquisition, My. 83, 87 ; N. 429 : 

at Goa, N. 615, 629 : introduced 

into Aragon, Jan. 30S 
Inquisitor saint, F. 45 ; O. 5S6, 

587, 596;. N. 587 
Insanity, saint invoked against, 

My. 210 
Insensibility to abuse, Jan. 222 
Insight, spiritual, S. 299 
" Insinuations of Divine Piety," 

N. 343 
Intemperate speech, F. 258 
Intercession of saints, Jan. 314, 

400; F. 381 ; Ju. 152, 412, N. 

7-8 
Interdict, My. 1 13; S. 287 
Intermediate state, O. 198 
Intolerance, Mch. 61 ; My. 84 ; 

Jly. 572 ; Au. 104 ; D. 85, 92-5 
"Invention" of relics, Mch. 95; 

Jly. 560 ; S. 12 ; O. 62, 122 ; D. 

10 1. See Relics 
Investitures, Mch. 225; Ap. 123, 

276, 294, 311 ; My. 354, 361, 

405; Ju. 263; Jly. 49, 51-2, 

55-6; S. 729; N. 211-3,478 
lona founded, Ju. 100 
Ireland, conquest of, by Henry 

II., N. 330 : grant of, by Adrian 

IV., N. 330; Appdx. 61 
Irish colonists in Iceland, My. 

218 : girls, beauty of, N. 489 : 



missionaries, F. 192, 193 ; Mch. 
22, 91-3; Ap. 376; My. 1 14-6, 
137. 346; ju. 280, 373; Jly. 
38, 97, 1 87, 188, 261 ; N. 59, 
170, 489, 570; Appdx. 41-2: 
pilgrims, O. 326, 575 : recrimi- 
nation, A p. 203 

Iron band round body, Jan. 362 : 
boots, Jly. 277: works at 
Fiissen, S. 95 

Issue of blood, woman with, Jly. 
287 

Italians given English benefices, 
Jly. 341; O. 32: moral l)ack- 
wardness, N. 357, 367, 553 

Ithancester, Jan. 91 

Itinerary of S. Peter, N. 488 



James, S., leads army. My. 424 

Jansenism, Jly. 477 

Japanese missions, F. 141 ; N. 
640-50, 675 

Jaws broken. My. 428; Ju. 145, 
205, 307 

Jealousy among ascetics, Jan. 30 

Jersey, My. 15 ; O. 617 

Jerusalem, pilgrimage to, S. 153, 
155, 182: taken by Chosroes, 
F. 359 : Welsh visits to, Mch. 
11; Ju. 34; N. 188 

Jesuates founded, Jly. 707 ; O. 5S6 

Jesuits forge a Veda, N. 623 : 
founded, Jly. 729 ; N. 603 

"Jesus" on breast, Ap. 88 

Jew Pope, Ju. 64 

Jewel falls inlo chalice, S. 6 

Jews, accusations against, O. 596 ; 
N. 224 : charged with nmrtler- 
ing boys, Mch. 447, 461, 465 ; 
My. 204 ; O. 597 ; N. 21: 
insulting treatment of. My. 20 : 
persecuted, Mch. 462 ; Jly. 
592; O. 40, 586-8, 596, 664: 
practice usury, Au. 290 : riots 
made by, D. 234 : urge on per- 
secution, O. 567, 662 ; N. 516 



*- 



-+i4 



John the Baptist, disciples of, F. 
I ; Mch. 505 : relics destroyed, 
Mch. 495 
Jointures founded, Ju. 257 
Jordan, sacrifices to, Mch. 43 
Joseph of Ariniathsea, Jan. 5 
Journey, marvellous, Jan. 37, N. 

166 
Jovinian, S. 459 

Joy, death through excessive, S. 48 
Judges reluctant to sentence, Ju. 
232 : who communicate, D. 92 
Judgment on persecutors, F. 203: 
rash, to be avoided, Jan. 356 ; 
F. 192; Ju. 235; Jly.141, 142; 
S. 38 
Judith, Queen, Jly. 437-41 
Julian bathes in blood, Mch. 319 : 
martyrs under, Jan. 371 ; Mch. 
408; Ap. 131 ; Ju. 234, 309, 
369; Jly. 209, 210; Au. 225, 
279; S. 12, 96, 179, 321 : re- 
builds Temple, Mch. 319 
Julian of Eclona, Ap. 140 
Jumping saint, S. 295-8 
Jurisdiction, My. 128 



K 

Kaiserwerth founded, Mch. 18 
Kalends of January, Jan. 2 
Keuschberg, battle of, Mch. 262 
Key, Jan. 51 : of St. Peter, My. 

184; N. 75, 581 
Kief, Jly. 360, 367 
Kiln, Jly. 531 : martyrdom in, 

Au. 262 
King and bishop friends, S. 13- 
17 : excommunicated, S. 14 : 
repulsed from church door, S. 
15 : turns monk, O. 712 
King's Evil, My. 16; O. 346 
Kings, three, Jan. 83, 148, 151 
Kirkwall minster, Au. 218 
Kiss cures leper, N. 147 : ob- 
jected to, F. 329; S. 351, 439 
Kitchen scene, Ap. 36 
Knees, impression of, O. 154 : 



lumps on, O. 463 : torture of 

bent, N. 335 
Knife, F. 3S0 : floats, O. 433 
Knight saint, Jan. 81 ; Appdx. 249 
Knocking against coftin, F. 139 



Labarum, Au. 180, 225 

Labourer saint, Mch. 114; Ap. 
209 ; N. 413. See Husbandman 

Lac d'Oo, Ju. 75 

Ladder, F. 209, 210 

Lamb, Jan. 321 ; F. 108 ; O. 96 

Lammas, Au. i 

Lampreys, O. 38 

Lamps for churches, Jan. 239 ; 
F. 396 ; Ju. 384 : miraculously 
kindled, My. 105, 152; Ju. 384 

Lance, martyrdom by, Ju. 178, 
252 : sacred, Mch. 263, 267 ; 
S. 234 

Landes, Jly. 454 

Langensalza, battle of, Ju. 224 

Lantern miraculously lighted, Jan. 
51, 116, 288; My. 249. See 
Lamps 

Lapsed, case of, S. 209, 214, 217 ; 
N. 544 

Larbouste, Ju. 75 

Las Casas, O. 219 

Lastingham founded, Jan. 92-94 ; 
Mch. 24 

Latrocinium, F. 337 

Laura described, Jan. 306 ; Mch. 
64; Jly. 176; D. 56 

Laus perennis, S. 339 ; N. 492 ; 
D. 112 

Law, saint's love for, O. 35-42 : 
school at Berytus, Jan. 389 ; 
Ap. 12 

Lawyer saint. My. 301 ; S. 397 

Lay garb assumed by bishops, N. 
141 

Laymen compulsorily ordained, 
F. 12; Jly. 682; O. 614: in- 
vested with ecclesiastical dig- 
nities, Mch. 7 



*- 



*- 



-* 



192 



Index of Subjects. 



Laxity of bishops, N. 141 

Lazare, S., College founded, Jly. 
464 

Lead, molten, martyrdom by, Jan. 
3S; F. 317; Ju. 88; S. 12 

Leaded whips, S. 246 

Leaden shirt, N. 351 

Leaf, saint floats on, Mch. 438 

Lech, battle of, S. 19 

Leeds, battle near, F. 215 

Leeks, marvellous, S. 264 

Le Gras, Mme., Jly. 467 

Leg, hamstrung, S. 170 

Legal lying, N. 235 

Legates, rapacity of, N. 358 

Legend, growth of, Jan. 383 ; F. 
2 ; S. 399 ; N. 601 : transfer of, 
D. 76 

Leonine city, Jly. 430 

Lepanto, battle of. My. 60 

Leper saint, Ju. 147; O. 560; 
Appdx. 196 

Leprosy, F. 50, 87, 292, 454 ; Ap. 
253; Ju. 147; Aug. 136; U. 
617 ; N. 197, 424, 449 

Lerins, Au. 345 ; S. 41, 414 

Letter concealed in cave, Jan. 429 

Letters forged, S. 247 : of peace, 
S. 211: three, Jan. 176 

Lettres de cachet, Jly. 474 

Leuconay founded, Ap. 4 

Levity, Arian, 129-30 

Libellatics, S. 199 

Liberius, fall of Pope, Jly- 632 

Lichfield, Jan. 28 ; Mch. 29 

Licinius persecutes, Jly. 257; S. 185 

Liege, Ap. 78 ; N. 76 

Lies, " pious," Ju. 303 ; Jly. 522 

Life, value of, Au. 194 

Light above corpses, Jan. 86 ; F. 
-140, 311; Ju. 5, 15s; Jly. 31, 
699 ; S. 18 ; O. 278 : in ecstasy, 
Jan. 147 ; F. 382; Ju. 122 ; Jly. 
524 ; O. 314 ; N. 55, 62 : mira- 
culous, Appdx. 171 : not ex- 
tinguished by wind, Jan. 461 ; 
F. 361 

Lights at funerals, F. 283, 413; 
Mch. 305 : carried in proces- 
sion, F. 2S3 



Lightning, F. 414; Mch. 119: 
conversion through, N. 564 : 
saint invoked against, Ju. 485 ; 
D. 28 
Lily, Mch. 434 : grows from grave, 
My. 293 ; Jly. 303 ; N. 40 ; of 
Quito, My. 393 
Lime-kilns discovered, Jan. 29 
Lincoln founded, O. 242 
Lindisfarne devastated, My. 274 
Linen forbidden, O. 217 : hang- 
ings of, D. 68 : pattern, N. 449 : 
use of, abandoned, 0.445: white, 
at communion, F. 263. 
Lion and splinter, Mch. 64, 274 ; 
S. 462 : defends hermit. My. 
187 : saint rides on, S. 131 : 
spares a hermit, D. 55 : spares 
a virgin, D. 626 : symbol of, 
Mch. 66 ; Appdx. 25, 337 ; S. 
463 : tamed by Landgrave, N. 
428 
Lioness preaches, Ju. 282 : pro- 
tects saint, O. 534 
Lions dig a grave, Jan. 220, 383 : 

in Berkshire, O. 654 
Liquefaction of blood, S. 303 
Lismore founded. My. 19S 
Litanies used, F. 264, 409 ; Mch. 

230; Ju. 157 
Lithographic stones, D. 21 
Lithuanians, missions to, F. 

.304 
Little men, saints, Mch. 2S5, Jly. 

698 
Liturgy, vernacular, Jan. 154 
Livery, significance of, Au. 292 
Lives of saints, effect of reading, 

O. 359 
Living truth, Au. 342 
Llandaff founded, D. 15 
Llandewi's Brefi, Synod, Mch. 1 1; 

Appdx. 312 
Loaves, petrified, Jan. 61 : symbol 

of, Appdx. 24 
Lobe of ear, babe suckled from, 

F. 308 
Lobes founded, Ju. 212 
Log, man turned into a, Ju. 27 
Lombardy, Mch. 96 ; N^ 580 



*- 



-KH 



-^ 



Index j)f Subjects. 



393 



London attacked by Norsemen, 

Jly. 640 
Looking-glass, N. 421 
Lotharingia, O. 634 
Louis XL, King, Ap. 29 
Love above fear, Jly. 141: feasts. 

All. 365 
Lovers, patroness of, Appdx. 175 
Luke, S., pictures by, Y. 77 
Lumbago, Au. 350 : saint invoked 

against. My. 187 
Lumps on knees, S. 131 
Lunatics in monastery, Jan. 154 
Lure, My. 419 
Luther, Jly. 717 
Luxeuil, Mch. 498 ; Ap. 4 : 

founded, N. 491 
Luxury in bishops, N. 141 See 

Bishops 

M 

Macedonian heresy, F. 282 ; O. 

607 
Madeira, Jly. 384 
Madman's sermon, F. 20 
Madness, Jan. 154 ; Mch. 349 : in 

saint, F. 166 ; Ju. 417 ; Jly. 26, 

533 
Mafortium, F. 430 

Magic, S. 387 
Magician saint, S. 387 
Magyars, invasion of, S. 19, 423 
Mail coat, saint wears, Ju. 362 ; 

N. 587 
Malmesbury founded. My. 347 
Man, bishopric of, O. 498 
Manichees, Jan. 140 ; Mch. 75 ; 
Ap. 141 ; Au. 41, 145, 251-3, 
351 ; N. 437 : invade Europe, 
Au. 41 : persecuted, Au. 41 
Manna in tomb, S. 65 
Mantle divided with beggar, N. 
242, 261 : given to, N. 423 ; \). 
337 : miraculously sent, N. 71 : 
used as boat, Jan. 358 ; Appdx. 

32 
Marlile converted to crystal, N. 
338: pillar burns, Jly. 126 



Marcionite martyr, F. 7 

Marende, S. 40 

Marnion burnt, F. 440; S. 120 

Marriage, compulsory, S. 28 ; O. 
65 : continence in, Jan. 52, 60, 
122, 182; My. 12, 344; O. 

39-65- 305. 332, .441, .532; N. 
151, 161, 503 : dissuasion from, 
Jan. 182 : escape from, Jan. 
146, 376 ; Y. 261, 268 ; Mch. 
221, 275; My. 277, 321; Ju. 
213; Jly. 18, 262, 323; S. 78, 
141 ; 0.426,485,531,582; N. 
197, 203 ; D. 106 ; Appdx. 
298 : spiritual, Jan. 52, 60 ; F. 
295 ; Ap. 119; My. 344, 382; 
Au. 320 ;0. 395 ;N. 342, 351, 

537 

Marriages, spiritual relationship 
bars, N. 197 : to be celebrated 
in churches, N. 133 : within 
forbidden degrees, N. 90 

Married bishops, Jan. 44, 58, 182 ; 
F. 13, 81 ; Mch. 173,457 ; Ap. 
8, 38, 41, 140, 141, 318; My. 
125; Ju. 305, 337, 401, 420; 
Au. II, 12, 103, 139, 248, 414. 
416 ; S. 70, 376 ; O. 10, 290, 645, 
699; N. 346, 414; D. 117; 
Appdx. 35, 67 : clergy expelled 
the choir, N. 206 : deacons, F. 
288 : lector, Appdx. 55 : life, 
happiness of, S. 403 : love, My. 
344; priests, Jan. 3; F. 259, 
337, 344; Mch. 288, 468 ; Ap. 
8,41, 318, 363; My. 223, 271, 
281 ; Ju. 72, 221, 305, 383, 
389; Jly. 113, 267, 296; S. 
137, 170, 216; N. 360, 605; 
Appdx. 35, 67-8 

Martyrdom courted, S. loo, 1 13; 
N. 217, 335, 459 

Martyrs, a few multiplied into 
many, O. 604 ; apocryphal {see 
Acts, fabulous), do not suffer 
pain, O. 352, 644 ; N. 20 : 
show disrespect to judges, N. 
520 : title loosely applied, Jly. 
317; N. 413 

Martyrology of Ado, 536 : of 



*- 



-* 



*- 



;94 



Index of Subjects. 



Florus, O. 535 : of Hrabanus, 
O. 535: of Notker, Ap. .105; 
O. 536 : of Usuaidus, D. 536 : 
of Wandelbert, O. 536: of Whit- 
ford, S. 464 : of Wilson, S. 92, 
269, 464 : Roman, errors in, 
Au. 223, 234 
Mary, S., acts as midwife, O. 185 : 
adversaries of. My. 165: benefit 
of invoking, O. 359 : cakes 
offered to, My. 165 : portrait 
of, S. Ill : visits a saint, N. 

343 

Masqueraders torment a saint, N. 
249 

Mass and sermon, respective val- 
ues, Au. 303 : assistance at, F. 
262 : congregations attend part 
only, Jan. 353 : fasting before, 
N. 204 : repetition, Ap. 146 : 
said easily, O. 228 

Masses, three daily, Jly. 117 

Master thief. My. 252 

Maurice, S., in Valais, S. 333 

Maximilian of Mexico, My. 425 ; 
Au. 146 

Mazard apples, Ap. 192 

Meat and drink, evaporate, N. 
15 : kingdom of God not in, 

Jly- IS5 
Mecklenburg founded, Ju. 74 
Media vita in morte sumus, Ap. 

lOI 

Mediation of Christ, Jan. 451 
Medici family, N. ill 
Meditation, Jan. 343 
Meekness, examples of, F. 198, 

380 ; Jly. 477 ; Au. 288, 332, 

477 ; O. 55S ; N. 252 
Meleiian schism, Jan. 264 ; F. 

278-83 ; S. 455-7 ; N. 545 
Melifont founded, N. 94 
Memory, Jan. 35 
Men, virgin may not address, D. 

68 : nor look on, N. 252 
Mendicant orders, charges against, 

Jly- 380 

Menhir, idolatrous rite at, Jly. 608: 

story of, O. 618 
Merchant saint, Mch. 517 ; Au. 5 



Mercia, kingdom of, O. 244 

Mercy, in judging, Jly. 141-2: 
sought for captives, N. 253 

Mersebuig founded, Ju. 74 

Mesalliance, O. 351 

Metaphrastes, N. 575 

Mice as symbols, Mch. 308 ; Ju. 
340: earth drives away, Jly. 123: 
festival of, D. 7 : story of, My. 143 

Michael, S., apparition of. My. 
115; S. 435: churches dedi- 
caied to, N. 22 

Midland English, Jan. 91 

Mitlsunimer Eve, Ju. 333 

Milk from veins of saint, Ju. 453 ; 
Jly- 35 1 > 586: heals blindness, 
S. 274 : in Irish legends, F. 15 ; 
Mch. 160, 247 ; Ap. 332, 333 ; 
Ju. 27 ; Au. 136 : man's breast 
yields, D. 122 

Mill, Jan. 310, Mch. 214, Appdx. 
201 

Milliner saint, Au. 325 

Millstone round neck of saint, O. 
629 

Minims, Order of, Ap. 26 

Ministrales, Au. 193 

Minster in Sheppey, Jly. 159: in 
Thanet, Jly. 318 

Minstrelsy, My. 349 

Miracles, alleged, but false, N. 
626, 632 : curious, Jan. 25, 61, 
146; Mch. 50, 71 ; My. 112, 
205, 307 ; Ju. 27, 249 ; Jly. 10, 
II, 40, 120, 135, 281 ; Au. 39, 
150, 153, 160, 247; S. 49, 52, 
163, 187, 251, 278; O. 431 ; 
N. 240, 337, 33S: desire for, 
F. 72 ; O. 732 : doubtful, N. 
252 : explained, F. 2 ; My. 278 ; 
Ju. 32, 184, 246, 363; Jly. 302, 
365. 376, 3S1 ; Au. 12; S. 187, 
189 ; O. 324, 475, 581 ; N. 23, 
71, 72, 139, 169, 208 : magnifi- 
cation of, Jan. 117; Ju. 158, 
247 ; Jly. 376 : manufacture of, 
Jan. 351, 3S2; F. 2: test of, F. 
66 ; O. 130 

Missions, fruits of, N. 556, 559 : 
preaching, N. 553-60 



*- 



*- 



Index of Sudj'ecfs. 



195 



Mitre, deprivation of, N. 66 : 

papal, N. 94 
Mittens, Jan. Ii6 
Mixed motives, Au. 341 
Mob, violence of, S. 148 
Moderation in asceticism, Jan. 69: 

refusal of, N. 488: use of, Jan. 

69; N. no; D. 38 
Modesty, O. 37 : false, Ju. 292- 

293 ; D. 68 : martyrs to, D. 407 
Molten lead, martyrdom by. See 

Lead 
Monachism, Arian dislike of, Jan. 

404 
Monasteries, double, see Double : 

given to laymen, F. 65 ; My. 

279 ; Ju. 41 : great size of. My. 

143 

Monastic cruelty, Ap. 122; N. 
539 : decline, My. 268, 2S1 : 
friendships, O. 282 : habit, re- 
verence for, Jan. 391 : laxity, 
F. 197, 201, 428; S. 41 : life, 
attraction of, Jan. 11, 33 ; Ju. 
262, 378 ; Au. 227 : love, Jan. 
12, 150, 174; F. 250; Mch. 
245, 472 ; Ap. 267 ; N. 193 : 
violence, Jan. 419 ; F. 200, 253; 
S. 41 ; N. 210, 473 

Mongols, Au. 152 

Monks, customs in Egypt, Jan. 
29-30 ; F. 266 : desert their 
monasteries, Ju. 237 ; Jly. 23 : 
dissolute, Au. 282 ; O. 500 ; N. 
126: gluttonous, N. 204: jea- 
lous, N. 191, 210, 220, 337, 
347 : poison abbot, Jan. 87, 
337; Mch. 391, 414; S. 363: 
turned out by nuns, O. 558 : 
warlike, F. 30 

Monophysite heresy, Au. 272, 275 ; 
S. 152 

Monothelite heresy, Jan. 137 ; F. 
342; Mch. 215; My. 175 ; Ju. 
413; N. 293-6 

Montanist heresy, Ju. 1 5, 407 ; 
Au. 311 ; O. 351, 688, 717 

Montjoie, S. Denis, O. 197 

Montmorency family, O. 197 

Montserrat, Jly. 711 



Moorish martyrs, Au. 223, 226, 

234: persecution, Mch. 218-20, 

254 
Morat, battle of, Mch. 429 
Moravians, conversion of, Mch. 

180 
Morini, Mch. 288 
Mortar, cast into, My. 224 : mar- 
tyr brayed in, F. 410 
Morte d'Arthur, Mch. 37 
Moscowf, churches of, Au. 265 
Moss, saint overgrown with, 

Appdx. 183 
Mothers, good, F. 10; Ju. 136: 

prayers of, F. 106 
Mother ill-treated, O. 333 : of 

God, My. 129 : wheeled about, 

F. 221 
Motley's "Netherlands," Jly. 212 
Mount, S. Bernard, Ju. 214 
Mozarabic liturgy. My. 359 
Mule, Ju. 188 : restored to life, 

S. 121 
Miinster sacked, O. 57 
MUnsterbilsen founded, Jly. 192 
Mtinsterthal founded, F. 362 
Murder attempted by monks, F. 

197, 266 ; S. 362 ; N. 122 
Music, ecclesiastical, Ju. 223 : irj 

England, Au. 80 : love of, O. 

97 : miraculous instruction in, 

My. 285 : patroness of, N. 505 : 

school of, Jan. 171 
Mutilation of corpses, S. 164 : of 

males by Alexander III., Ap. 

II : of saint's body, O. 409-13 
Mystery, a vestment, O. 212 
Mysticism, Jly. 334 



N 

Naii, given by Christ, O. 397, 
414' 

Nails, found with relics, S. 331 ; 
D. 9, lOl : in feet of martyrs, 
Mch. 46, 273 ; Ju. 88, 251 ; 
S. 99; O. . 155 ; N. 228: in 
temples, N. 164 : of the Cross, 



*- 



-* 



*- 



-* 



596 



Index of Subjects. 



My. 6i ; N. 136: symbol of, 

S. 107 
Nails, splinters driven under, O. 

629 
Nain, widow's son of, Au. 255 
Naked saint, O. 488, Appdx. 183. 
Nakedness, virgin sentenced to, 

O. 698; N. 311; D. 27 
Name of Jesus, My. 31 1 
Names revealed in dream, N. 186 : 

used in witchcraft, S. 104 
Natural affection overcome, Jan. 

II, 78, 203; Mch. 425; Ju 

235, 487 ; Jly. 605 ; Au. 333 ; 

S- 79, 345 ; O. 531, 557, 699 ; 

N. 446, 489, Appdx. 250 ; lack 

of, N. 351 
Nature, love of, F. 195 
Neck of saint invulnerable, 0. 63 3 
Necromancy employed, O. 644 
Needlework, ecclesiastical, . My. 

278 
Negro saint, Ap. 59 ; Au. 348 
Nepotism, episcopal, Jly. 122 
Nero at burning of Rome, Ju. 

335 : reappearance predicted, 

N. 251 
Nervii, Mch. 107 
Nestorian heresy, Jan. 309, 422-31 ; 

•Au. 26, 27; S. 152, 321; O. 

607-12; N. 488 
Nets, introduced in Sussex, O. 

308 ; martyr enveloped in, Jan. 

182 
Netad, battle of, Jan. 107 
New year begins, F. 27, 305 
Newminster founded, Ju. 76 
Newport, Appdx. 203 
Nicknames, My. 274 ; Ju. 208 ; 

Jly- 327 

Nicodemus, crucifix by, F. 78 : 

gospel of, Mch. 266 
Niebelungen Lied, Jly. 202 
Nightmare, Mch. 291 
Nine at a birth. My. 333 ; Appdx. 

292 : maidens, Jly. 358 ; O. 

324 
Nitrian desert, Jan .29 
Nixes banished, O 420, 423 
Nizibis, siege of, Jly. 353 



Noetian heresy, O. 347 

Noise, dislike of, Jly. 491 : to be 

avoided, F. 379 
Nominalists and Realists, Ju. 261 
Non-residence, N. 116, 141 
Norman treatment, of Saxons, My. 

327 : of Welsh, Appdx. 56 
Norsemen, F. 57, 243 
Northumbria, conversion of, O. 240 
Nose comes off, Au. 49 : cut off, 

Ap. 253; Au. 284; S. 138, 

392 : miraculous bleeding of, 

0.496 
Notaries instituted, Jan. 38 
Noth-helfer, the Fourteen, S. 10 
Novatian heresy, Jan. 134, 166 ; 

Mch. 56, 172; S. 197-202, 205, 

214, 216 ; O. 606, 689 ; N. 317, 

545 

Nuns, demoralised, Mch. 69 ; Ap. 
55; My. 286; S. 142; N. 313, 
328, 353 ; D. 103 : directorship 
of, Ju. 39 ; Jly. 340 : dissolute, 
Au. 282 ; O. 500 ; N. 234 ; 
malice of. My. 10 : try to 
escape, D. 107 

Nurse, love for, Ju. 133 : martyr 
or saint, F. 286, 361 ; Ju. 208, 
221 ; O. 685 

Nursery tale. My. 333; Ju. 154, 
270 

Nut merchant, F. 298 

Nut-tree planted, O. 303 : pro- 
duces fruit miraculously, S. 378 : 
saint buried under, O. 572 



o 

Oak, used as oratory, Jly. 455 : 

worship of the, Jan. 81 
Oaths abrogated by Pope, Mch. 

415 
Obedience, instances of, Jan. 69, 

78, 467; Mch. 115, 244, 484; 

S. 275; O. 381 ; N. 221, 550: 

virtue of, P". 263 ; My. 155, 195 
Oblates founded, Mch. 198; N. 

129 



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->£< 



^ 



* 



Index of Subjects. 



197 



Obotrites, Ju. 73 
Obsequiousness, episcopal, My, 

175 
Observants, reform of, O. 589 
Octave observed, O. 202 
Odin, hanging to, Mch. 363 
Odoacer, Jan. 107 
Oil, at ordination, Ap. 53 : boil- 
ing, martyrdom in, Mch. 482 ; 
Ju. 412 : miracle wrought with, 
F. 256 ; Ju. 84 ; N. 253 ; D. 
67 : water changed to, O. 
702 
Olive, the, founded, F. 256 
Oppressive sanctity, Ap. 62 
Oracles cease, Jan. 361 
Orarium, Jan. 136 ; Mch. 44 
Orb, imperial, Mch. 53 
Ordeal by fire, Jly. 298; S. 65: 

curious, My. 153 
Order of Annunciation, F. in: 
Calatrava, F. 30 : Carmel, N. 
527 : Celestines, My. 296 : 
Charity, Mch. 167 : Chartreuse, 
O. 142, 146-9 : Guillemites, 
F. 255 : Mantellates, Ju. 268 : 
Our Lady of Mercy, Jan. 472 ; 
F. 229 : Passionists, O. 477 : 
Preachers, Au. 51 : Premontre, 
Ju. 61 : Theatines, Au. 90: 
Trinitarians, F. 228 : Vallum- 
biosa, Jly. 292 
Ordination, Celtic, peculiarity in, 
Appdx. 45, 254 : in prison, 
Jan. 4 
Organs, saint with, N. 505 
O Rex gentium, My. 285 
Origenism, Jan. 403 ; Mch. 208 ; 
My. 165-9; Au. 272; S. 413, 
461 
Orphanage, Jan. 124 ; My. 303 
Orthodoxy, Feast of, Ju. 206 
Otters lick saint's feet, Mch. 363 
Oven, saint enters, Jan. 37 ; F. 

214 ; O. 67 ; N. 347 ; D. 53 
Oweni cross, Mch. 24 
Owls, white, Ju. 363, 459 
Ox, symbol of, Jly. 261 ; O. 470 
Oxford, riots at, O. 34 ; N. 362 : 
uoder interdict, N. 363 



Paderborn, F. 159 

Padlock through eyes, Au. 402 

Pain benit, Au. 365 

Pain intolerable, Jan. 12 

Painter saint, F. 3S6 

Palatine Counts, My. 270 

Pall given, to Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, My. 387 ; O. 242 : to 
Archbishop of York, Ju. 84 : 
to Bishop of Bamberg, Jly. 52 : 
to S. Norbert, Ju. 66 

Pall, meaning of, Appdx. 257 : 
unconsumed, O. 130 

Palm-tree, Ju. 154 

Palmary Council, Jly. 524 

Pandarist, F. 116, 118 

Pange lingua. My. 151 

Pantheon converted, My. 345 ; 
N. 2 

Papal abdication. My. 298, 352 : 
claims. My. 359, 367, 377: 
degradation, My. 351, 353: 
election, contested, My. 120, 
191 ; Ju. 64, 271-2; Jly. 450; 
Au. 202: imperial control over, 
My. 200, 352 : encouragement 
of persecution, N. 430 : en- 
couragement to revolt, My. 120, 
122 ; Ju. 264, 265, 294 ; Jly. 438 ; 
N. 211, 241 ; D. 39 : exactions, 
Ap. 51 ; O. 32-4 : greed of gold, 

N. 352, 357, .361, 365, 367: 

interference with election, Ju. 

84 : pretensions resisted, Ju. 383, 

384. 392, 395 : in England, Jly. 

341 : sanction of abuses, N. 367 
Paralysed saints, Jan. 133, 147 ; 

Mch. 239 ; My. 427 ; Jly. 524 ; 

O. 282, 288 
Paralysis cured, Ju. 478 ; O. 520 ; 

N. 96; D. 81, 307 
Paris vaut bien une messe, N. 66 : 

treaty of, Mch. 127 : university 

of, Mch. 129 ; Ap. 50 
Parishes, Rome divided into, O. 

643 : England divided into, S. 

312 



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398 



Index of Subjects. 



Parrot story, Ap. 246 

Parliidge, roasted, restored, S. 163 

Parturition assisted by a dalmatic, 
N. 83 

Paschal controversy with Celtic 
Church, Jan. 93 ; F. 39 ; Mch. 
24. 342, 355; Ap. 225; My. 
379, 388 ; Ju. 4 ; S. 307, 359, 
379; O. 300; N. 304, 493; 
Appdx. 186 : controversy with 
East, Jan. 379; Ap. 219; My. 
349. 3S8; Ju. 408; Jly. 596; 
O. 701: fire, Mch. 71, 296 

Passionists founded, O. 477 

Passover, man in whose house 
celebrated, S. I 

Patavia, Ju. 460 

Paten recovered from sea, Mch. 
362 : sent from heaven, F. 237 

Patience, example of, My. 193 

Patricians, Roman, My. 353 ; Ju. 
416 

Patrick, reputed relations of, F. 
178; N. 321 : three of name, 
Mch. 304 

Patrimony of Apostles, N. 580 

Patripassians, Au. 312 

Patron, choice of, N. 431 

Patronage, how obtained, O. 643 

Paul, S., Albigensian doctrine 
concerning, Mch. 77 : disciples 
of, Jan. 359 ; F. 312, 339, 449 ; 
M. 406 ; Au. 24, 34, 84, 261 ; 
S. 87, 395; O. 61, 190, 195, 
258, 319. 724; N. 331-3, 486, 
501, 506, 578; D. 331-3: re- 
garded as apostate, F. 81 : 
relatives of, O. 257 : vision of, 
O. 665 

Paul III. and Charles V., D. 96 

Paul of Samosata, heresy of, Jly. 
93.;. O. 693-6 

Paulician heresy, Jan. 140 ; N. 
285, 431 

Pawnbrokers, nation of, D. 65 

Paximatium, F. 199 

Peasant saints. See Husbandman 
saints 

Pedlar saint, My. 326 : landgrave 
makes partner of, N. 427 



Pelagianism, Jan. 441 ; Mch. 11 ; 
Ap. 137; My. 33S ; Jly. 600, 
6.35, 683; Au. 372-4; S. 414, 
462 
Pen, symbol of, F. 449; Mch. 210 
Penance, severe, Ju. 39 : short, 
Jly. 141 : should be light, Au. 
22, 339 
Penitence, royal, S. 15 ; D. 402 
Penitent thief, Mch. 456 
Penitential of Tlieodore, S. 309 
Penitents, Jan. 136, 156, 433 ; F. 
371 ; Mch. 2, 276, 456; Ap. 
19; My. 191 ; Ju. 130; S. 172; 
O. 167-77 ; N. 221 
Pennies, three, F. 252 
Pens, martyrdom with, Jan. 370 ; 
Mch. 494; Au. 130: plunged 
in chalice to write excommuni- 
cation, N. 293 
Pentecost, Jan. 433 
Pepin assumes crown, Mch. 270 
Perfidy, episcopal, N. 542 
Perpetual fire, F. 22 ; Mch. 71, 78 
Persecution, by Arian Vandals, 
Mch.41 1-13, 440, 496 ; Jly. 310- 
16 ; Au. 159 ; S. 89 ; C). 2S7-90, 
416, 645; D. 69: by Arians, 
Jan. II, 12, 14, 1S3; F. 446; 
Mch. 174, 213, 371 ; My. 134, 
168, 182, 319, 395; J"- 70, 200, 
286, 496, 606, 721; N. 164: 
by Calvinists, Jly. 212-50: by 
Catholics, Jan. 446 ; F. 446 ; 
Ap. 147 : by heretics, O. 606 ; 
N. 42934; D. 78, 93: by 
Iconoclasts, Jan. 175 ; F. 92-7, 
275, 386; Mch. 217, 249, 311; 
Ap. 39 ; My. 177-80 ; Ju. 205 ; 
Jly. 194; N 584-6: by Mace- 
donians, O. 607 : by Moors, 
Mch. 219, 254; S. 251, 279; 
O- 575 ; N. 525 : by Novatians, 
O. 606 : by Quartodecimans, O. 
606 : by Saracens, Ju. 72 ; S. 
251, 279: disapproval of, Jly. 
305 ; O. 610 ; N. 255-7, 285, 
587; D. 51, 91 : exhortation to, 
D. 60 : of Arians, Jan. 421 ; 
My. 134, 168; N. 510: D. 60, 



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-* 



Index of Subjects. 



399 



93 : of Donatists, Au. 368, 371, 
374 : of heathen, Jly. 654 ; S. 
22 : of heretics, Jan. 419, 421 ; 
My. 134, 168, 312, 395 ; D. 58 : 
of Jews, Jan. 419 ; Jly. 462, 
592 : Au. 212 ; D. 59, 234 : of 
Manicheans, N. 487 : of Mon- 
tanists, D. 59 : of Samaritans, 
D. 59 : to be avoided, My. 131 

Perseverance, Jan. 69, 90 

Persia, martyrdoms in, N. 566-9 

Personalities in preaching, D. 62 

Pestilence of, 664 ; O. 282 : saint 
invoked against, Au. 157 

Peter, S., chains of, Mch. 514; 
Ap. 2: chair of, Jan. 275; F. 
365 : daughter of, My. 427 ; 
N. 105 : disciples of, Jan. 398, 
424, 439; F. 211; Mch. I, 407; 
Ap. 33, 358; S. I, 35, 230, 
396 ;0. 51, 152, 631-3 ;N. 66, 
506, 590 ; D. 220, 404 : gospel 
of, O. 718: key of, My. 184; 
N. 75, 581 : picture by, F. 77 

Petition to infant Jesus, F. 113 

Pets, singular, O. 709 

Phalic idol, Ap. 33 : worship, D. 8 

Phantom ship, Mch. 73; S. 1 16 

Philip, S., daughters of, S. 43 

Philo Judreus, ju. 425 

Physician saint, Jan. 465 ; Au. 
149 ; S. 399 : female, O. 257 

Physicians, judicious avoidance of, 
D. 117: papal inhibition of. 
My. 84 

Pictish saint, O. 721 ; N. 201 

Picts, conversion of, S. 262-4, 
379; D. 12 

Picture-book, Jan. 343 

Pictures in Anglo-Saxon churches, 
Jan. 170, 335; in churches, 
Jly. 423 ; O. 501 ; N. 414 = 
influence of, F. 378, 407 ; Mch. 
178, 235 : sweat, Au. 319 

Piety, precocious, D. 64 

I'igs, Mch. 225: restored to life, 

S. 36, 49 
Pigskin sent from heaven, .S. 174 
Pilgrim saint, Mch. 225 ; N. 62 : 

killed, O. 326 



Pilgrimage, Ju. 218, 313; N. 555: 
not always advisable, N. 538 

Pillar burns like candle, Jly. 126: 
of light, Jly. 428; "O. 179: 
straightened, F. 223 

Pincers, My. 288 

Piper saint, Mch. 156 

Pirate saint, Au. 219 

Pirates, My. 97 ; O. 518 

Plague, F. 449; Mch. 210; S. 
216 ; O. 282 : in Gaul, D. 62 : of 
Milan, N. 130-9 ; of Palermo, S. 

55 
Playing-cards burnt, O. 591 

Ploughboy bishop, Mch. 257 '■ 
saint. My. 147, 258; S. iSi 

Plough diverts river, Mch. 327 

Ploughing, miraculous. My. 14S ; 
S. 181 

Ploughshares, ordeal by, Mch. 
53 ; O. 338 

Pluralists, F. 445 ; Ap. 99, 100, 
240; My. 183; Au. 190; O. 
34; N. n6 

Poems, sensuous, N. 536 

Poet saint, O. 354 ; N. 536 : 
ecclesiastical, N. 2S6 

Poison rendered innocuous, N. 
548; D. 310; Appdx. 161 

Poisoning by a priest, Mch. 393 : 
by monks, Jan. 377 ; Jly. 604 

Polish missions, F. 203 

Pomerania, conquest of, Jly. 57 

Poor Clares, reform of, Mch. 98, 
loi, 182 

Pope absolves from oaths, Au. 
188: appointed by emperor, 
Ju. 274 : boy, Ap. 233 ; charged 
with adultery, Ju. 352 ; Jly. 450 : 
conciliatory, Jly. 449, 453: con- 
demned by saint. O. 690-2 : cor- 
rection of, N. 499 : cruelty of, 
S. 392 : deposed, My. 352, 367 : 
disobeyed by saint, Ju. 383-4 ; N. 
341 : encourages rel)ellious sons, 
Ju. 365; Jly. 46, 55, 438; N.211, 
341, 431 ; D. 39: heretical, Ju. 
414-15, 464: honours paid to. 
My. 121, 123: kingdoms given 
by, Au. 1 85; N. 330: murder 



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400 



Index of Subjects. 



of, by rival pope, Ju. 279 : muti- 
lation of, by rival pope, S. 393 ; 
N. 475 : poisoned. My. 353 ; 
S. 393 ; N. 483 : prayed to death, 
Jly- 379 '• reverses another's de- 
crees, F. 26-7 : simoniacal, Ju. 
274 : tried before emperor, f u. 
160 ; Jly. 450 

Popes issue conflicting judgments, 
F. 26-7; Ju. 272, 289, 415; 
Jly. 329 

Popular canonisation, Jly. 359 : 
veto on election, O. 646 

Populicians, Mch. 75 

Porpoises eaten, My. 338 

Porridge boils miraculously, S. 

Porringer, silver, Mch. 277 

Port of Gaza, O. 355 

Porter of heaven, O. 301 

Portrait of B. V. M., F. 79, 80 : 
of Christ, F. 73-9 : of saint 
taken in vision, S. 57 

Possession, healing of, O. 425, 
515, 632; of Apostolate, My. 
206 

Pot, child put into, Mch. 158 

Pottenstein, N. 442 

Poverty, evangelical, Ju. 236 ; 
Au. 123 

Practical jokes, Jan. 113, 145; 
Ap. 103 ; Jly. 374, 405 

Pragmatic sanction, Au. 305 

Prague, Mch. 182 ; O. 731 

Prayer, constancy in, F. 476 : for 
death of heretic, O. 476 : for 
the dead, Ju. 317; N. 46, 88; 
instruction in, Jan. 222 : saint 
dies in answer to, O. 258 

Prayers, numerous, N. 353 

Preachers, preparation of, O. 
221 

Preaching, attractive, N. 559 : by 
abbess, N. 343 : by deacons, 
Jan. 331 : effect of, Jan. 453 ; 
My. 159; O. loi, 584: neglect 
of, N. 435 : officeof bishop, Jan. 
290 ; Au. 41, 51, 364 : prepared, 
Ap. 87 ; Au. 249 : reading need- 
ful for, N. 552 : simplicity in. 



Au. 23 ; O. 172 : too frequent, 

N.415 
Prebend held by layman, Ap. 7, 

205 
Precedence, Jan. 18 
Precocious piety, O. 213 
Predestination, Ju. 254-8 ; S. 

415-17 

Pregnancy, assistance in, Jly. 123; 
S. 40 ; N. 83 

Pregnant nun, O. 500 

Preputium sacrosanctum, D. 8 

Pride humbled, Ap. 98 ; My. 194, 
196: spiritual, Jan. 150 

Priesthood compulsorily conferred, 
My. 127 

Priests hamstrung, Jan. 143 : mur- 
derers, Jan. 319 

Primacy of Canterbury, My. 387 

Prime instituted, Ju. 194 

Priscillianist heresy, Ap. 146 ; N. 
254-6 

Prisoners, patron of, N. 161 : re- 
lease of, Jan. 414 ; N. 160 

Processions, Jan. 362, 428, 440 ; 
F. 283, 361, 438; Mch. 230, 
280; My. loS, 187, 430; Ju. 

157 ; Jly-. 324 

Procrastination, episcopal, ATy. 

270 
ProLiirations, Jly. 266 ; N. 364 
Prophecy fails. My. 377 ; Ju. 252 : 

fulfilled, Jan. 16, 108 ; Ju. 134, 

239 : of S. Edward, O. 345 
Prophetess, O. 689, 717 
Prosper of Riez, My. 339 ; Ju. 

353. 35S; Jly-.6S5 
Prostitute reclaimed, Jan. 136, 

156; F. 371; Mch. 2-8; Ju. 

365. See Penitents 
Protestant intolerance, Jan. 446 ; 

Ap. 332 
Prufening founded, Jan. 87 
Psalms, sitting to sing, F. 390 
Psalter, Gallican, O. 296 : learned 

by heart, D. 53 : recited daily, 

Jan. 387; F. 388; Mch. 218; 

N. 350 
Pucelles, les deux, N. 591 
Pure love, S. 6 



*- 



Purgatory, Jan. 27 ; Mch. 106 ; 

Ap. 93 ; ju- 476 ; Jiy. 534 ; O. 

2i6, 220 
Purse, marvellous, F. 252 



QUARTODECIMANS, O. 30b, 606 ; 

N. 58 
Quatuor Coronati, N. 185 
Quentin Durward, F. 109 
Quern grinds marvellously, N. 165 
Question, F. 332 
Questions, idle, S. 390 
Quicklime, martyrdom in. My. 

224 : put in mouth, D. 727 
Quicunque vult, My. 340 
Quincy founded, S. 250 
Quito, lily of, My. 393 



R 

Rabbit, Au. 81 

Rabble, violence of, S. 60 ; D. 86, 

88,94 
Rack, use of, F. 8 
Radbod, Mch. 364 ; Ju. 155 
Radgast, Ju. 73 
Rain, protection from, Ju. 377 : 

sent miraculously, F. 438 ; My. 

17; S. 56, 116; O. 513 
Raisint; the dead, Jan. 109 ; F. 

252; Mch. 351, 398; Ap. 28; 

My. Ill 
Ram's horn, martyrdom by. My. 

420 
Ramsey, Au. 250 
Ran, human sacrifice to, Mch. 364 
Rash judgment, Jan. 357 ; S. 38 
Rats, martyrs devoured by, Jly. 

274 ; Au. 99, 100 
Ratzehurg founded, Ju. 74 
Ravens, Jan. 327, 334 ; Jly. 520 
Ray of light decides episcopal elec- 
tion, 0. 2: gloves, &c., hung on. 

See Sunbeam 



Real presence, belief in, Au. 309 
Realists and Nominalists, Ju. 261 
Rebaix founded, Au. 263 
Recluses, F. 32, 207 ; Mch. 97 ; 

Au. 28 
Redbreast restored to life, Jan. 

188 : brings ear of corn, Jly. 28 
Redemption of captives, Jan. 95, 

Red-hot iron, saint carries, N. 23, 
32 : walking on, Mch. 53 ; O. 

Reed, splintered, torture with, 

Mch. 491, 515; Au. 36, 99 
" Refutation of Heresies," Au. 

234, 312; 0.347, 350-2 
Regionary bishops, F. 183 ; S. 122 
Regular canons. My. 224 
Reichenau founded, N. 84 
Relapse and recovery, Jly. 141 
Relic, doubtful, objected to, Au. 
133 : worship opposed, Jan. 271 
Relics, abuse of, O. 59 : bleed, S. 
164; O. 63, 68, 116; N. 12: 
curious, My. 109 ; Jly. 585 ; 
Au. no; S. 231 ; O. 184, 413 ; 
N. 248, 310, 563, 565 ; D. 8, 1 16: 
disgusting, Au. 1 10, 250 ; O. 
68; N. 1 58; D. 8: doubtful, 
O. 321 ; D. 8, 9, 90, loi, 103: 
erroneously attributed, Jly. 309 : 
genuineness, how determined, 
O. 58 : greed for, S. 148 ; O. 
409-13, 464; N. 58; D. 72, 
116: invention of, F. 376, 433 ; 
Ju. 220 ; Jly. 128, i29,'2S5, 356, 
404; S. 12; O. 62, 321, 563 ; 
N. 169, 503, 628 ; D. 8, 90, loi, 
103 : jumping, O. 642, 729 : not 
separable, D. loi : saint witli 
three or more arms, Au. 259 ; 
S. 259, 324 ; O. 165, 3S9 : with 
three or more eyes, O. 31 : 
with two or more bodies, F. 
241 ; Ap. 2, 15, 23, 129, 130; 
My. 19, 159, 160; Ju. 177; 
Jly. 135, 136, 139, 140, 243, 
426, 487, 509, 530, 551 ; Au. 
114, 157, 159, 163, 258; S. 
118, 169, 259, 389, 401 ; 0.470. 



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402 



Index of Subjects. 



473, 627, 630, 656; N. 565, 
598 : with two or more heads, 
Ap. 130 ; My. 4, 160 : Ju. 142 ; 
Jly. 4S7, 520, 530, 551, 569 ; S. 
259, 389 ; O. 30 : spurious, 
My. 23S ; Ju. 220; Jly. 128, 
129, 285, 356, 405 ; S. 54, 463 ; 
O. 122, 224, 286, 357, 547-56, 
563, 572, 598, 623, 644, 703-7 ; 
N. 248 : substitution of, by 
forged acts, N. 565 : theft of, 
Ju- 359; Jly- 691 ; S. 164; O. 
323., 454, 521, 619; N. 339: 
traffic in, D. 116: worship of, 
Jan. 383 ; F. 5 ; S. 100 ; O. 52, 
21S, 275, 481, 570; N. 12 
Remi, S., consecrated, Ap. 239 
Remiremont founded, S. 194 ; D. 

Ill 
Repentance, sincere, Jan. 79 
Resignation, Jan. 391 : of see, 

My. 134 
Responsibilities cast off, N. 351 
Restraint of tears. My. 172 
Resurrection body, O. 372 
Revelation of S. John quoted, O. 

320 : preposterous, O. 551-6 
Revenge to be left to God, Jly. 143 
Reverence, exaggerated, Mch. 1 19 
Rhampsinitus, My. 252 
Jiheumatism, O. 648 ; D. 47 
Rictiovarus, Jan. 85 ; Ju. 146, 190 
Ridicule, saint objects to, N. 209 
Right of way, F. 18 
Rights, tenacity in clinging to, N. 

207 

Ring, F. 225, 295 ; Mch. 44 : and 

bishop, Jan. 294, 298 : betrothal 

to B. V. M., N. 351 : betrothal 

to Christ with, Mch. 163 ; N. 

342 : carried off by raven, N. 

99 : carried up to clouds, Mch. 

44 : wedding, Au. 304 

Ripping open of martyr, Mch. 495 

Roasting, martyrdom by, Ju. 146; 

Jly. 510. See (irate 
Robber, conversion of, Au. 348 ; 
N. 244 : saint murdered by, Jan. 
329 ; O. 248 : revered as saint, 
N. 248 



Robe falls from heaven, Jly. 530 ; 

N. 71 
Robin redbreast brings corn, Jly. 

24 
Robur or Lignum, S. 290 
Rock opens to receive saint, D. 
27 : removed by saint, Mch. 
306 ; S. 13 : sacred, desecrated, 
S. 187 
Rod, broken, F. 201 : of Jesus, 

Mch, 306 
Rogations, My. 151 ; Jly. 21 
Roman martyrology, absurdities 
in, Jly. 351, 407, 408: errors 
in. My. 253, 307 ; Ju. i, 79, 
129, 299 ; Jly. 3, 4, 5, 27, 135, 
137, 170, 282, 285, 321; Au. 
176, 223, 234; S. 100, 385; O 
125, 192, 352, 416, 464, 471. 
500, 698, 703-7; N. 53, 224, 
307, 562-4, 578 ; D. 129: obe- 
dience, Celtic Church reduced 
to, Jan. 44; F. 217 ; Mch. 342 ; 
Appdx. 44-55 : usages, Jan. 
93-4 ; O. 29S-9 
Romans, early Christian, Jan. 70, 
121, 317, 3S9; F. 88, 176 
Mch. 2 ;Ap. 15, 34, 301 ; My 
58, 66; Ju. 207, 270; Jly. 185 
203,433, 527, 553> 613; Au. 77 
109, 113, 129, 267 ; S. 16S, 173 
176, 184, 258, 386, 437 ; O. 347 
352, 621-7, 643, 698; N. 149^ 
150, 502, 540, 541 ; D. 10, 413 
Rome, appeals to, O. 293 ; N. 
207 : beauty of, Jan. 13 : bribery 
in, N. 207 : burning of, Ju. 334: 
Church in, corrupt, Au. 89 : 
city of mystery, O. 684 : early 
Church in, N. 506 : judged by 
her works, N. 196 : mission of 
Lucius to, D. 13 : pillaged by 
Attila, Jly. 600 : pillaged by 
Charles V., Au. 92 : pillaged 
by Genseric, Mch. 412 ; Ap. 
161 : visited in dream, Appdx. 
196 
Romney, battle of, Jly. 644 
Rooks regarded as devils, N. 350 
Rosary, festival of. My. 90 : in- 



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► *- 



->< 



Index of Subjects. 



403 



stitution of, Au. 50 : introduced, 
Au. 50 ; O. 420 : of S. Rosalia, 
S. 56 : symbol of, Ju. 406 

Rose, festival of, Ju. 80 

Rose and apples from Paradise, F. 
177 : bread changed to {see 
Bread) : of S. Francis, Mch. 
391 : shaken from sleeves, Mch. 
414 

Rosina (S. David's) founded, Mch. 
II ; N. 154 

Roskilde founded, N, 39 

Royal encroachments. My. 266 : 
preserves, Jly. 266 : race, saints 
of, Jan. 34, 53, 118, 134, 138, 
187; Ju. 71,90, 249; Jly. 278: 
Appdx. 35 ;supremacy, My. 271; 
Ju. 163 

Riigii, Jan. 104 

\lule of S. Benedict, Au. 15:8. 
Bridget, O. 188: S. Bruno, O. 
149: S. Csesarea, Jan. 167 : S. 
Cffisarius, O. 67 : S. Colum- 
banus, N. 492 ; D. 107 : S. 
Comgall, My. 142 : S. Fintan, 
F. 374 : S. Francis, O. 105 : 
S. Molua, Au. 38: S. Pacho- 
mius, Jan. 30 ; My. 192 : .S. 
Romanus, F. 453 : hermits of 
Fontevellentino, F, 388 : life, 
Jan. 96 : monks in Egypt, Jan. 
29 : Saxon monasteries, Jan. 92 

Ruptured saint, Ap. 218 

Rush-mat weaving, F. 263 

Russia, conversion of, Jly. 361-9 

Russian saints, Jly. 360; S. 122, 
381; N. 511 



Sabas, S., monastery of, Mch. 366 
Sabbatarianism, Jly. 653 
Sabbath, observation of, Jan. 29 ; 

Ju. 152; D. 54 
.Sabellian heresy, Jly. 355, 402 ; O. 

347 
Saccudion monastery, Ap. 70 
.Sack, martyrdom in, Mch. 8 ; Ap. 

38 ; S. 38s : of sand, Ju. 235 

VOL. XVI 



Sackcloth worn, D. 68 

Sacred Heart, feast of the, O. 466 

Sacrifice, human, Mch. 43, 364 : 
the ascetic life is, Mch. 115 

Sacrilege avenged, F. 64 

Sacristan saint, S. 182 

Saddle, N. 205 

Sailmaker saint, F. lo 

Sailor saint, My. 326 

Saints, disreputable, F. 331 ; My. 
201, 398; Ju. 154, 367, 389, 
406; Jly. 8, 90, 125, 128, 264- 
274, 501 : O. 499 ; N. 37, 288, 
467-84 : doubtful, Ju. 304, 417 ; 
Jly- 165, 533; Au. 4, 107, 
214; O. 312-14, 413; N. 300-4: 
heretical, O. 496-3 : manufac- 
ture of, F. 376; O. 703-7: 
popular canonization of, N. 24S 

Saintship, hereditary, Appdx. 
35-6 

Salency, festival at, F. 80 

Salisbury cathedral built, D. 48 : 
Plain, massacre on, Ju. 203 

Salt, boatload of, F. 289 

Samaria, woman of, Mch. 336 

Samasks, F. 1x6 

Sanctuary, emperor not allowed 
in, D. 94 

Sand bag, F. 192 : pit, martyrdom 
in. O. 627 

Sandy beach, obtained by prayer, 
Mch. 224 

Sangreal, myth of, Mch. 37 ; Jly. 
166; O. 9, 633 

Sapor, persecution by, Ap. 260, 
298 ; Jly. 352 ; Au. 36 

Saracens, Au. 119, 125, 420; S. 

42; O. 510, 531-5; N. 166 
Sarcophagi, My. 209; Jly. 129, 

192, 285 
Sarcophagus used by saint, Mch. 

497 ; O- 447 
Satan, compact with, F. 89 
Sauve-Majeure founded, Ap. 75 
Saxons, arrival of, Appdx. 1 3 : 
bishops deposed, Jan. 292 : sub- 
jugation of, Mch. 477-8 ; N. 199 
Scab miraculously cured, Ap. 117 
Scandal, Au. 338 

2 C 



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404 



Index of Subjects. 



Scapular, origin of, My. 226 ; Jly. 

407-8 
Scete, desert of, Jan. 29, 71 
Schafifhausen founded, Ap. 1 14 
Schism, vision of, F. 21 ; N. 

547 
Schismatic ordinations. My. 131, 

167, 170 
Scholastic theology forbidden, N. 

342 
Schoolmaster saint, Au. 130; N. 

187 
Schools kept by hermits, Ju. 242 
Sclaves, conversion of, Mch. 176- 

182 
Sclavonic translation of Scriptures, 

Mch. 177 
Scolding, forbearance better than, 

Jly- 142 

Scots (Irish), Jly. 28; N. 302; 

cannibals, S. 452 
Scottish Church refused to submit 

to York, Ap. 1 1 
Scourging, martyrdom by, Ju. 305 ; 

Jly- 355 

Scratching, abstention from, O. 
560 

Scriptures carried on back, F. 256 : 
conversion through reading, O. 
320, 621 : destroyed, O. 566-7, 
571,601-4: Latin version, Jan. 
88 ; Mch. 322 ; S. 457 : learned 
by heart, O. 510 : reverence for, 
Ju. 2, 46; Au. 117; S. 37: 
study of, Jan. 95 ; F. 380 ; Mch. 
621 : the voice of the Church, 
0.566 

Scrofula healed, O. 346 

Scrofulous boy, kindness to, N. 
448 : saints, F. 330 ; Mch. 513 ; 
Ju. 216, 369 ; S. 292 ; O. 465 

Scrupulosity, grotesque, Au. 32, 
81 ; S. 250 

Sculptor saint, Ju. 78 

Scurrility to be avoided, D. 61 

Sea cow, Jan. 468 : divided, N. 
303 : horses, Ap. 204 : monster, 
Jan. 468 ; Appdx. 161 : sick- 
ness, Jly. 456 

Sebaste, forty martyrs of, S. 132 



Second-sight, Jan. 263, 267 ; O. 

279 
Self conceit rebuked, Au. 340 : 

contemplation, danger of, Au. 

342 : denial, example of, Jan. 

29 : no escape from, S. 173 : 

torture extraordinary, Au. 318, 

327 ; Appdx. 66 : will, Jan. 

309; F. 3S1 ; Au. 341 
Selfishness corrected, F. 3S0 ; Au. 

38 ; monastic, Au. 334 
Semi-Arians, Mch. 492 ; My. 124. 

See Eusebians 
Semi-Pelagians, My. 339 ; Ju. 

354-6 
Sempringham, Order of, Y. 101-5 
Sensual thoughts, My. 382 ; Jly. 

305 
Sequences composed, Ap. loi 
Serapium destroyed, Mch. 284 
Sergius Paulus, Mch. 406 
Sermons, written, Ap. 320 
Serpents expelled, N.84; gigantic, 
O. 517 : kept as pets, N. 230: 
killed by saint, Mch. ']■}> ; O. 
417; N. 25, 26, 600: power 
over, F. 120; Mch. 63, 73; 
My. 108, 137, 215, 323; Jly. 
204 : protects bodies, O. 649 : 
symbol of, F. 335 ; Mch. 305 ; 
Ju. 221 ; N. 25 : turned to stone, 
O. 179; unearth corpse, N. 25: 
worship of, Y. 318, 342 ; My. 2 
Servant-maid became abbess, O. 
283: saint, Jan. 394; F. 31; 
Mch. 457 ; Ap. 354 ; My. 10, 
332; Ju. 10, 68; Au. 136; S. 
17, 240, 272 ; O. 117 
Servants, troublesome, Ap. 135 
Server, Christ acts as, D. 72 
Servia, saints of, N. 287-9 
Service of others, Ap. 118: on 

board ship, N. 612 
Seven deacons, Jan. 133 : sleepers, 

Jly. 172, 197 
Sex, change of, O. 655 
Shade, miraculous, F. 50 
Shaftesbury founded, My. 255 
Shamrock, Mch. 297, 306 
Shaving extraordinary, Mch. 435 



Index of Siidjects. 



405 



Sheep bleats after eaten, Jly. 11 
" Shepherd" of Hermas, iMy. 124 
Shepherd saint, Jan. 20, 72 ; F. 

220; Mch. 165, 337; Ap. 3, 

59, 218 ; Ju. 455 ; S. 98; N. 

292 
Shepherdess saint, Jan. 47 ; My. 

145 ; Ju. 216; S. 98, loi ; O. 

416 
Sherborne, Jan. 119 
Shield painted, Jly. 272 
Shift of saint assists delivery, Ju. 

321 
Ship of Isis, O. 545 : scuttled, 

martyrdom in, D. 278 : symbol 

of, 8. 74 
Shoe cast off by image, O. 131: 

cures hysteria, N. 129: devil 

threatened with, Ju. 253 : given 

in marriage, Jan. 279 : one off, 

Appdx. 290 
Shoemaker saint, F. 438 ; O. 628 
Short cuts, F. 19 
Shroud, luminous, O. 282 : sacred, 

see Sudarium : weeps, O. 729 
Shuttle, F. 14 
Sickingen founded, Mch. 92 
Sickle in sky, S. 242, 245 
Sieve, water carried in, Jly. 264 
Sight interferes with meditation, 

F. 20 
Sign of Cross, Jan. 286 
Silence, advantage of, .-\u. 340 
Silk sent to bishop, N. 230 : trade, 

O. 665 
Silver cradle, N. 416: cup, Ju. 

254 : hand, Jan. 45 : plate, Jan. 

255; S. 193; D. Ill: statue, 

Jan. 163, 408 
Silversmith saint, O. 198 
Simon Magus, Ju. 4258 
Simony, Jan. 87 ; F. 206 ; Ap. 8, 

235. 279; ^ly- 354, 359; Ju- 
157, 223, 275, 392-9; Jly- 294- 
301 ; iJ- 35 

Sin, none without consent of will, 

Ap. 37 
Sindon, Jly. 166 

Singing attracts boy. My. 189, 197 
Sinucssa, council of, Ap. 345 



Sister-in-law, marriage with, O. 
119 

Sisters of Charity, Jly. 408 

.Sithieu founded, S. 72 

Sitting for psalms, F. 390 

Skewer through ears, S. 172 

Skewers. See Spits 

Skiff of Isis, O. 545 : of S. Ursula, 

O. 544 
Skin stained, Jan. 147 
Skull, F. 272 : drunk from, Mch. 

41: of S. Teilo, Appdx. 181 
Slander, saint suffers from, Jan. 

48 ; S. 5 ; O. 702 
Slate from heaven, Au. 182 
Slave becomes priest, Jan. 166 : 

girl saint, My. 332 ; Ju. 10, 68 ; 

O. 117: saint sells himself as, 

F. 258 ; Au. 402 
Slavery in France, Jan. 396 
Slaves kept by clergy, N. 257 : 

redemption of. My. 216 
Sleep, curtailment of, N. 587 : 

miraculous, O. 622 : necessity 

for, S. 420: talking in, Jan. 23 
Sleepiness, saint suffers from, N. 

143 

Sleepless ones, Jan. 232 ; F, 92 ; 

S. 321 

Sleepey, Ju. 132 

Slippers worshipped, O. 412 

Sloe wine, Au. 39 

Slow fire, martyrdom over, Ju. 

349. See also Grate 
Slowness at Mass, Ju. 174 
Sluggard kings, N. 73, 77-8 
Smuggling of balsam, Jly. 178 
Snakes and S. Godrian, My. 323 : 

of Verdiana, F. 23 
Sneezing not ominous, D. 6 
Snow balls, F. 309 ; Mch. 297 : 
burns, F. 309 : falls over virgin 
martyr, F. 277; O. 133: mira- 
culous fall of, My. 142 : shaken 
off as testimony, Ap. 5 : tithe 
of, Jan. 243 
Soldier saints, F. 190; Au. 129, 
177, 221, 225,315, 329; S. 132, 
329-37, 441; O. 480; N. 216-18, 
239, 242 



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4o6 



Index of Subjects, 



Soldiers, Roman, merits of, N 

241 
Solignac founded, S. 91; D. 5 
Solitude, love of, O. 522-5, 617 
Solstices observed, D. 7 
Somasque founded, Jly. 49 
Song schools, Ap. 96-7 
Sorrel, F. 30S 
Spade symbol, Ju. 485 
Spanish hagiologists, Mch. 44 
Sparrows cursed, Ju. 360 
Spear, F. 287, 363, 395 ; S. 277 ; 

D. 234 
Spider, Jan. 200 ; Au. 30'; N. 

548 ; symbol of, N. 54S 
Spike, saint rests her head against, 

O. 488 
Spirit of impurity, Jan. 252 
Spiritual marriage, F. 295 ; Ap. 

163 {see Iilarriage) : pride, Jan. 

150: relationships, N. 197; D. 

18 : sisters, Jan. 402 
Spiritualists, party of, Jly. 338 ; 

O. 589-90 
Spiritualities given to laymen. My. 

256 
Spits, symbol of, O. 728 ; N. 66 : 

through ears, S. 173, O. 727 : 

through heart, N. 66 
Spittle changed to gold. My. 145 : 

cures leprosy. My. 142 : splits 

a rock. My. 145 
Sponge for purifying water, O. 474 
Sponsors, O. 173 
Spoons, Au. 55 
Spring miraculously elicited, Jan. 

45, AI4; My. 152 ; Jly. 260, 

264; S. 192, 274; O. 53, 179, 

284 ; N. 66, 68, 70, 189, 192 ; 

D. 158; Appdx. 165, 174, 214, 

252, 295, 299 
Staff becomes a tree, F. 193 ; S. 

181; O. 181, 264, 444, 619: 

bishop's, embedded in tomb- 
stone, Jan. 295 : brought from 

Paradise, Ap. 195 : buds, Jan. 

442 ; F. 192 ; Mch. 284, 439 ; 

Ju. 247 ; Jly. 30, 477, 555 ; O. 

708 : elicits spring, Jan. 45, 

414; My. 152; S. 192,274; O. 



53; N 66,68, 154 (J^£ Spring): 
of Jesus, N. 92 : of S. Columba 
Jan. 192 : of S. Cuthbert, Mch 
352 : of S. Lambert, S. 278 
N. 75 ; of S. Patrick, Mch 
300 ; of S. Peter, S. 230 : of S 
Vincent, Mch. 209 

Stag protected by saint, Jan. 287; 
Mch. 35 ; N. 154 : tramples on 
serpent, Mch. 14 : used in place 
of horse, Jan. 2, 19 ; F. 238 ; 
Jly. 24; N. 155: with cross 
between horns, S. 319; O. 129: 
with luminous horns, N. 104 

Stag-beetle, Appdx. 171 

Stags, Jan. 365 ; S. 319, 368-9 ; 
N. 73 ; Appdx 177, 200 

Stamping iron for wafers, Ju. 134 

Standard of Bretwalda, O. 244 

Stanz, Mch. 430 

Star, miraculous. My. 145 ; S. 

164 : symbol of. My. 236 ; S. 

165 . 

Starvation, martyrdom by, F. 262; 
Mch. 268 ; S. 46 

Station, a fast, Jan. 313 

Statue thrown down, Jan. 120, 
163 ; My. 300 

Statues at Constantinople, D. 82 : 
at Rome, D. 85 : sermon on, 
Jan. 401 

Steps, fifteen to Temple, N. 487 

Stigmata, F. 295 ; O. 112 

Stockings miraculously dried, Jly. 
120 

Stocks miraculously broken, D. 
625 

Stole binds dragon, O. 558 ; N. 
25 ; carried to heaven, 5lch. 44 : 
of S. Oswald, F. 456 : pulled 
off deacon, O. 68 : sent from 
heaven. N. 75, 81 : used for 
hydrophobia, N. 81 

Stone, executioner turned to, S. 
260; feet impressed in, O. 649: 
feet soldered into, N. 15 : hands 
impressed in, Appdx. 189 : im- 
pressed by knees, Appdx. 190: 
impressed by person of saint, 
Au. 3S4 : moved by prayer, S. 13 



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•3^- 



-*^ 



Index of Subjects. 



407 



Stone, miraculous cure of, O. 59 : 

operation for, Ju. 172 : saint 

suffers from, Ju. 173 
Stones, saint pelted with, Ju. 175: 

saint sails on, Ju. 21 1: symbol 

of, Ju. 143 ; D. 299 
Stoning to death, Ap. 34 ; Ju. 

141, 172 ; Jly. 136 ; D. 297 
Stork, Ju. 105 ; Jly. 59 : pecks 

out eye, Mch. 160; D. 222 
Storm, circular, N. 654 : miracu- 
lous, Ju. 172 
Strangulation, martyrdom by, Ju. 

70; S. 131, 266 ; N. 289 
Strathclyde, Jan. 189 
Strense, Jan. 2 
Stripes administered in dream, 

Y. 40 
Sturgeon bears saint, Jly. 263 
Styles, or iron pens, Jan. 371 ; 

Mch. 494 
Stylites, Jan. 71 ; My. 410; Jly. 173 
Subjugation of flesh, Jan. 31 
Submerged cities, O. 618 
Submergence of Gwaleod, Appdx. 

IS9 

Sudarium sanctum, F. 78 ; N. 139 
Suevi, conversion of, D. 8 
Suffocation, martyrdom by, Jan. 

175 j Ju- 177' ^«^ Strangulation 
Suicide, martyrdom by, Ju. 89 
Summons before God's throne, 

N. 488 
Sun does not set, S. 378 : shines 

on S. Eskiel, Ju. 172 : shines on 

S. Gregory, My. 133 
Sunbeam, clothes hung upon, Jan. 

19 ; F. 19, 223, 284 ; Mch. 37 ; 

Jly. 155; S. 195: decides elec- 
tion, O. 2 
Sunday celebration, F. 259, 260 ; 

O. 200 ; Appdx. 76 : hunting, 

Jly. 200 : rest, Jly. 65 
Superstition, book against, N. 84 : 

sermon on, D. 6 
Surgery, barbarous, Jan. 459 ; 

Ap. 74 
Swallow, devil in, O. 504 
Swan, symbol of, Ju. 487 
Swearing, habit of, Au. 354 

VOL. XVI. 



Sweden, missions to, F. 61, 310 
Swineherd, Jan. 280 ; My. 196 ; 

Jly. 455 : "saint, F. 192, 387 ; 

0.561 
Synod of Victory, Mch. 12 
Syracuse plundered, Mch. 511 
Syrian deserts, N. 54 



Tabenna founded, Jan. 150; 

My. 192 
Taborites, O. 594 
Tailed men, ]\Iy. 390 
Taille. La, N. 81 
Talkativeness among nuns, Jan. 

3S8 : excessive, Mch. 507 ; N. 

549, 552 
Tall brothers, Jan. 405 ; My. 168 ; 

Jly- 5 

Tangermiinde, battle of, Ju. 73 
Tankelin, heresy of, Ju. 62 
Tannhaiiser myth, O. 708 
Tapers, F. 214 
Tapestry miraculously preserved, 

O. 398. 

Taurobolia, Mch. 319 

Tax-gatherers, S. 323 

Tears, gift of, Ju. 320 ; S. 80 . 
symbol of, Jan. 142 

Te Deum composed, Au. 361 

Teeth extracted, Ju. 349 ; Jly. 412; 
O. 118 

Temper overcome, F. 10 

Tempest allayed, Mch. 442 

Temple converted to church. My. 
345; N. 2,218; D. 54 

Temples destroyed, F. 438, 440; 
Mch. 284, 298, 345, 475, 494, 
515; Ap. 131 ; Au. 137-9; S. 
96, 120, 187 ; N. 166, 248 

Temptation, how escaped, N. 221 : 
how met, Au. 337, 341 : how 
not to be escaped, S. 173: of 
hermits, N. 249 : overcome by 
fire, Jan. 434 ; F. 23, 290 ; Ap. 
206 ; Ju. 364 

Tenderness for souls, Au, 335, 338 

Tentmaker saint, Ju. 432 

2 C 2 



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4o8 



Index of Subjects. 



Testamentary disposal of see,S.i58 
Theatines founded, Au. 91 
Theatrical representation forbid- 
den, F. 424 ; N. 123 : represen- 
tation of baptism, F. 443 
Theban Legion, Jan. 235 ; F. 341, 
454; Au. 61, "315 ; S. 2, 331, 
441 ; O. 224, 357 ; D. 46 
Theoderic the Goth, Jan. 13 ; 

My. 395 ; Jly- .179 
Theodosius, baptism of, ^^y. 131 
Theologic rancour, IMy. 3S9 . 
Theophilus of Alexandria, My. 168 
Theophorus, F. i 
Theotocos, My. 129 ; O. 609 
Thessalonica, massacre at, D. 96 
Third Order of S. Francis, O. 104 
Thorn in foot, O. 258 : myth 

about, Jly. 10 
Thorns, crown of, N. 560 
Thoughts read, Mch. 486 
Thrasimund, My. 14 
Three Chapters, lieresy of, Au. 

272-9 ; N. 498 
Three pence, F. 252 
Thrones cast down, Jan. 138: 

prepared in heaven, O. 169 
Thum bpreserved from decay, S. 270 
Thunderclap, saint dreads, O. 462 : 

utilised by preacher, N. 559 
Tides at S. Malo, N. 336 
Tilbury, Jan. 91 
Tile kills a saint, Ju. 287 
Time, a year passes as a day, 

My. 212 
Timidity, martyr suffers from, Au. 18 
Timothy the Weasel, Jly. 99 
Tithes, My. 274, 415 ; Ju. 36: 

martyr for exacting, N. 548 
Titles or parishes, O. 643 
Toads, My. 289 
Toe nails worshipped, F. 301 : of 

S. Zita, Ap. 356 
Tolbiac, first battle of, F. 179 ; 

Ju. 24 : second battle of, S. 90 ; 

N. 498 
Toleration, My. 395 ; D. 78 : 

protest against, D. 78, 8S-9 
Tomb of S. Martin discovered, N. 

259-61: saint born in, F. 349 



" Tome " of S. Leo, F. 335 ; Mch. 

149. 151-5; Jly- 421 ; Au. 78 ; 
S. 15S : of S. Proclus, F. 331 ; 
O. 611-13 

Tomtit, Ju. 238 

Tongue bitten off, S. 176 : cut out, 
F. 320; Jly. 98; S. 273, 392: 
incorrupt. My. 236 ; S. 463 : 
pinched, V . 258 

Tonsure, Celtic, S. 305, 307, 359. 
379; Appdx. 183: controversy 
over, O. 300 : Eastern, Jan. 129 

Tooth, F. 233 : of Bud<lha, N. 563 

Toothache cured, F. 206, 233 

Torch lit by wayside, D. 7 : sym- 
bol of, N. 218 

Torture abolished, S. 424 

Toucliing the garment, Appdx. 
161, 188 

Toulouse cursed, N. 590 

Tournai cathedral wrecked, Jly. 
219 

Tours, monastery of, N. 258-60 

Tower, symbol of, Jly. 531 ; D. 
28, 67 : virgin inclosed in. D. 25 

Transfer of land, symbol of, F. 5 1 

Transformation, marvellous, S. 

44°. 
Transitus Marise, Jly. 175 

Translation by angels, Jly. 13S; 
D. 132-5 : miraculous, Jly. 192 

Transport in ecstasy, N. 166 

Transylvania conquered, S. 26 

Travels in the East, Jan. 211 

Treasure trove, F. 369 

Tree blooms in winter, Jan. 117 ; 
Mch. 47 : diverted in falling, 
F. 207 ; N. 248 : hanging on, 
My. 13 : restored miraculously, 
O. 2S4 : worship, Jan. 81 ; F. 
342 ; Ju. 45 ; Jly! 412, 681 ; 
N. 66, 248 

Treves, Ju. 69 

Tribur, Diet of. My. 372 

Trinitarians founded, N. 485 

Triptych, N. 352 

Trisagion, O. 616 

Troitska monastery, S. 3S2 

Trough, stone, used as boat, D. 
123 



*- 



»i»- 



■* 



Index of Subjects. 



409 



Trumpet, symbol of, Ap. 88 ; 

My. 311 
Tiui,t in God, My. 261 ; Au. 95 
Truth, inditference to, Ju. 30 j ; 

Jly. 522 
Truthfulness, example of, O. 503 
Tunic of mail worn, F. 356 
Turks, war against, preached, .O. 

598 
Tusculum, Counts of, Ap. 233 
Twelve weepers, N. 306 
Twins, F. 250 
"Type" of Constans, N. 293-6, 

298, 300 
Tyrol, martyrs in, My. 418; Ju. 

370 

u 

Ulcers sucked, N. 606 
Umbrellas, Jan. 13 
Umiliati dissolved, N. 121-3 
Uncumber, S., Jly. 487 
Universal bishop, F. 421 ; Mch. 

232 : pope, S. 191 
University of Paris, Mch. 129 ; 

Jly- 327-33 

Unstrut, battle of, Au. 131 
Urochs worshipped, D. 17 
Ursula and her virgins, S. 52» 

257 ; O. 285, 495, 571-3 
Ursulines, My. 430 
Uses, abolished, N. 90: local, N. 

87 
Usury contracts annulled, N. 123 
Utraquist schism, O. 592-6 



Vain knowledge reproved S. 390 
Valcnlinian heresy, S. 173 
Vandalism, Christian, Au. 138-40 
Vandals, Jan. 10, 14 ; My. 334 ; 

Au. 378 
Vanity, mortification of, Au. 21: 
of worldly pomps, F. 107 : re- 
buked, My. 194 : saintly, O. 
60 
Varallo sacro monte, N. 194 
Vedas, N. 623 



Veil, angel gives, O. 53 : miracu- 
lously restored, O. 129 : of S. 
Agatha, Jly. 172 : of S. Vero- 
nica, F. 75 

"Venator animorum," Au. 95 

Venatores, Mch. iii 

" Veni Creator " composed, Ap. lOl 

Venus of Quiniply, N. 26 

Vernacular hymns, D. 56 : liturgy, 
Jan. 154; Mch. 179; O. 592 

Vessels of altars of gold and silver, 
O. 566: sold in famine, Jan. 23, 
407; Mch. 315, 412; Au. 15 : 
sold to redeem captives, F. 98 

Vestal virgins, O. 623 

Vestment at baptism, Mch. 315 : 
at communion, F. 263 : eucha- 
ristic, Jan. 15, 135, 138, 248; 
Ju. 170; Appdx. 73 

Vesture, holy, N. 181 

Vesuvius, eruption of, N. 588 

"Vexilla regis," when first used, 
Au. 134 

Victor, Pope, Au. 311- 12 

Victory, altar of, D. 82-5, 95, 99 

Vigilantius, heresy of, S. 459, 460 

Vigilius, Pope, Ju. 272-9 ; Au. 
291-8 

Vine poles, martyrdom by, Ju. 129 

Vinegar and salt for wounds, Mch. 
222 

Vines in Gaul, Jly. 15: intro- 
duced, Jan. 322 

Violence of Catholic mob, D. 86, 
88, 94 : of martyrs, Mch. 409, 
410 

Violets, Mch. 240 

Viper, F. 343, 368 ; Ju. 450 

Virgil, l)Ook of, Jan. 368 

Virgin Mary, B., acts as midwife, 
0. 185: annunciation, Mch. 450: 
assumption, Au. 141 : beauty of, 
O. 195 : devotion to, Jan. 341 ; 
F. 90, 106 : immaculate concep- 
tion of, D. 108 : nativity of, S. 
no: purification, F. 34 

Virgin, consecration of, Jan. 48 : 
disguises herself as monk, F 
26S; Ap. 254-9; Jly. 424-6, 
S. 167, 320, 351; O. 200-2: 



-* 



given up to insult, Jan. 120; 
My. 206, 246 : of questionable 
repute, O. 258, 499 : suckles a 
saint, S. 274 : title loosely ap- 
plied to, O. 500 

V^irginity, form of dedication of, 
F. 261, 267 : of B. V. M. main- 
tained, D. n6 

Virgins consecrated among Teu- 
tons, Ju. 343 

Visions, Jan. 5, 36, 123, 144,197 ; 
F. 196, 381, 396, 397, 401, 435; 
Mch. 88, 98, 104, 106-9, 206, 
230, 292, 424, 509 ; Ap. 61, 78, 
80, 115, 117, 118, 120, 372; 
My. 104, 286, 289, 381 ; Ju 51, 
253> 269, 33S, 401; Jly. 30, 52, 
95, 126, 143, 197, 269, 401, 
412, 489; Au. 30, 52, 95, III, 
150, 180, 197, 269, 322; S. 57, 
90, 102, 117, 159, 161-3, 174, 
253, 280, 287, 319; O. 58, III, 
171, 185, 198, 216, 282, 287, 
310, 366, 369-74, 394, 408, 466, 
483, 509, 579, 583. 605, 648; 
N. 13, 201, 242, 250, 302, 312, 
316, 317, 323, 342,441,554-6; 
D. 41, 47, 48, 62, 72, 116, 231, 
297 : of heaven, S. 159 : of hell, 
360 : of S. Gregory, F. 240 : 
pronounced to be hallucinations, 
N. 251, 312 : to be discouraged, 

S. 454 
Visitations, episcopal, My. 270 
"Vitae Patrum," F. 264 
Vituperation, saintly, Au. 108 ; 

O. 274, 594 
Vogt, Ju. 310 
Voice from heaven, O. 474 : lost 

for whipping a chorister, N. 24 : 

sweet, S. 5 
Voluntary martyrdom, F. 277, 402 ; 

Mch. 444 
Votive legs and arms, Jly. 19 
Vow, curious form of, F. 225 ; 

evasion of, O. 667-9 '■ made in 

fear, F. 9 : of child to mona- 

chism, F. 215 
Vows, popes release from, O. 458 
Vulgate made, S. 412, 458 



w 

Wafers, stamping iron for, Ju. 

134. 
Waiblingen founded, N. 96 
Waist, burial to, N. 502 
Walcheren, idol worshipped in, 

N. 173 
Waldenses, Jan. 358 ; F. 45 
Wandering Jew, Mch. 507 
Warwick, church at, N. 328 
Washerwomen, a warning to, Jly. 

.352 

Wasps, martyrdom through stings 
of, Jly. 166, 598 

Watchbox, saint lives in, N. 328 

Water brought from rock, Mch. 
256 {see Spring) : drops hollow 
a stone, Ap. 65 : flows from 
relics, N. 139: gives up what 
fell into it, F. 202 : saint stands 
in, Mch. 218, 340 ; O. 715 ; N. 
67 ; Appdx. 66, 204 : turned to 
blood, Jly. 135 : turned to oil, 
N. 24 : turned to wine, Mch. 
220 ; N. 23 : used for wine at 
Mass, O. 730 = walking on, Jan. 
234, 350 ; Mch. 161, 364, 393 ; 
Ju. 57 ; O. 654 

Wax candles, ends of, used, F. 
422 : saint beaten with, Mch. 
325 

Ways to truth, D. 83 

Wearmouth founded, Jan. 169 ; S. 

379 
Weasel, Ju. 407 
Weaver bishop, F. 12 
Weaving of work of life, Mch. 201 
Wednesday fast, Jan. 313 
Weeding out vices, Ap. 105, 215 
Weight of saint burdened with 

visions, D. 47 
Well, Jan. 462 : child raised from, 

0. 475 : holy, Jan. 45, 51 ; Mch. 

439 ; My. 240, 321 ; Ju. 297 ; 

Jly. 324; S. 268; O. 179: N. 

155, 189, 194, 202; D. 122; 

Appdx. 165, 174, 181, 189, 206, 

252, 258, 266, 268, 295. 299 : 

saints heads thrown into, N. 21 



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hidex of Subjects. 



411 



Welsh Church, independence of, 
F. 240 ; Appdx. 46-8 

Wends, Jly. 268 

Weregeld, O 439 

Werewolf, Appdx. 166 

Westminster founded, O. 343 

Whale, Jly. 381 

Wheel, symbol of, N. 471, 542: 
torture of, Ap. 11 1 ; My. 205 ; 
N. 541 

Wheelwright's son bishop, N. 450 

Whipcord round head, torture by, 
Mch. 258, 496 

Whipping as penance, O. 41 : of 
abbess, Mch. 280: of monk, 
Mch. 516 : of novices, O. 217: 
of saint, O 714 

Whitby, Jan. 94 ; F. 219 

White garments, Jan. 413; F. 109, 
263 ; O. 202 

Wife, desertion of, Au. 25 ; S. 46 ; 
N. 252, 290, 349 ; Appdx. 250 : 
encourages her husband, S. I14 : 
hermit regrets his, N. 252 : 
heroic, S. 113: ill-treatment of, 
O. 336 : love of, O. 699 

Will of God, submission to. My. 382 

Willow produces apples, F. 308 

Wills proved, O. 46 

Winding-sheet, holy, F. 78 ; N. 

139 
Window, martyr thrown from, N. 

326 
Windpipe torn, My. 420 
Wine diluted by taverner, Mch. 

253 : fountain spouts, My. lOi : 

miraculously increased, N. I77> 

179 : water turned into, 460 
Wings, symbol of, Ap. 88 
Witchcraft, priest burnt for,N. 142 
Withern founded, S. 263 
Wolf, Jan. 377,468; F. 19, 106, 

108, i8i, 308; Mch. 71; Ju. 

35. 57, 246, 363; Jly. 132, 



199 ; S. 180 ; Appdx. 177, 17S : 
brings head to saint, N. 202 : 
carries off child, O. 576 : carries 
sticks, N. 33S : killed by ass, D. 
21: ploughs for saint, N. 202: 
protects head of saint, N. 465 : 
spares saint, N. 491 : suckles 
saint, S. 180: symbol of, S. 40 

Wolves in England, My. 329 ; S. 
139 : saint devoured by, Au. 136 

Woman barren, S. 40 : direction 
of, N. 656-8 : disguised as monk, 
Jan. 71 ; Jly. 424 ; S. 167, 172, 
320 {see Virgin) : her vocation, 
D. 68 : not seen for forty years, 
O. 640 : reforming influence of, 
Au. 354 

Wood buds miraculously, F. 17 
[see Tree) : petrified, F. 41 

Wooden churches, F. 326 

Woolcombers, patron of, F. 48 

Work, blessedness of, Mch. 392 

Worldly goods, D. 1 1 1 

Worm extracted and hung up in 
church, O. 433 

Worship, meaning of, F. 422 

Wounds healed, O. 270; N. 15 

Wren, Jly. 15 

Wrists, suspension by, S. 132, 146; 
D. 69, 199 

Wtirzburg, Jly. 189 



YiiLLOW death, Appdx. 182 
York, first church in, O. 241 



Zagreus, rites of, Mch. 409 
Zeal, intemperate, D. 66 : kindles 

coals, N. 337 
Zealots, sect of, O. 672 



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